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Cement which is an important building material was first of all introduced in 1824 by Joseph Aspedin, a brick layer of Leeds, England. He called it Portland cement because, after hardening it resembled in colour the stone quarried near Portland in England. Cement manufacturing was first introduced in Germany.
Definition : Portland cement is obtained by mixing a definite proportion of lime, stone and clay, thereafter burning it at a high temp (to drive off carbonic acid gas). The colour of Portland cement is Greenish Grey.
Definition : Cement in a general sense are adhesive and cohesive materials which are capable of bonding together particles of solid matter into a compact durable mass. -For civil engg works , the y are restricted to calcareous cements containing compounds of lime as their chief constituent, its primary function being to bind the fine (sand) and coarse ( grits) aggregate particles together. -HYDRAULIC: SETS AND HARDEN IN WATER AND GIVE A PRODUCT WHICH IS STABLE -NON-HYDRAULIC: DOES NOT SET AND HARDEN IN WATER SUCH AS NON HYDRAULIC LIME OR WHICH ARE UNSTABLE IN WATER e.g. PLASTER OF PARIS
Chemical composition of Cement
S.No 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Chemical Composition Lime (CaO) Silica (SiO2) Alumina (Al2O3) Iron Oxide (Fe2O3) Magnesium Oxide (MgO) Sulphur trioxide (SO3) Insoluble residue Total Percentage 60-65 17-25 3-8 0.5-6 0.5-4 1-2 0.7-1.9 100.0 %
Functions of Cement Ingredients Function of raw materials needed for the cement manufacture are as follows: (1) Lime (CaO) : It is the chief material for cement manufacture. It sets and harden on hydration. If present in excess, makes the cement unsound.Its defi reduces strength & setting time. (2) (3) Silica (SiO2) : It forms di and tricalcium silicates of calcium, which imparts strength to cement.Excess causes slow setting. Alumina (Al2O3) : It forms tricalcium aluminate which has the property of imparting quick setting quality to cement. If present in excess, causes greater volume change after shrinking and weakens the cement.It lowers the strength. (4) Magnesia (MgO) : It helps in giving colour to cement. When in excess quantity, it causes unsoundness to cement, causes cracks.
SO3: Makes cement sound.
(6)Iron Oxide (SiO2) : It forms the mineral tricalcium alumino-ferrite which has the property of imparting strength and colour to cement.Helps in fusion of different elements. (7)Residues: Na2o
+ K2O , TiO2 , P2O5 :These residues if
in excess cause efflorescence and cracking.
The chemical reaction between cement and water is called ‘hydration of cement’. The reaction takes place between the components of cement and water. During hydration new compounds of hydrated calcium aluminate, hydrated calcium silicate and calcium hydroxide are formed. C3S + H2O C2S + H2O C3A + H2O Hydrated calcium silicate + Ca(OH)2 Hydrated calcium silicate + Ca(OH)2 Hydrated calcium aluminate + Ca(OH)2
Manufacturing of cement
Wet Process : The wet process is mostly used for manufacturing as the quality of cement obtained in this process is much better and the various ingredients are thoroughly mixed.
Manufacturing of Portland Cement
calcareous mtrl (cement rock, lime stone , chalk ,marine shell) argillaceous mtrl ( silicates of alumina in the form of clay , shale and blast furnace slag) Flow diagram of Cement Manufacture
Calcareous Material Crushing Elevators
Argillaceous Material Washmills Clay Storage
Proportioning Wet grinding Ball and Tube mill Raw slurry Slurry Blending Soil [Lime slurry, Clay slurry]
Slurry Blending Soil Corrected slurry storage Rotary kiln Clinker Clinker storage Clinker Grinding (Ball and Tube mill) Elevator, Cement silos Weighing, packing and Dispatch Gypsum Powdered coal
(i) Collection of raw material • • From the nearby quarry, calcareous material is quarried by blasting.
Generally lime stone, marl, chalk, or shells are used as calcareous materials.
Clayey materials include clay, shale and blasting furnace slag. These materials are transported to the site by means of dumping or wire rope ways. trucks
(ii) Crushing grinding and mixing • In case the raw materials are not found in a finely divided form these are
crushed to pebble size separately. • • Crushed calcareous material is stored in large bins, by means of elevators. Clayey material is taken to “wash mills”, which are thick steel cylinders, nearly
3 meters in diameter and 10 meters in height. • Clay is mixed with 30 to 50% of water in mills, where it disintegrates to form a stored in
thin fluid known as “Clay Slurry”. By means of pump, this slurry is vessels known as Clay slurry storage basin. •
Lime stone, broken to the size of pebbles, is mixed with clay slurry
according to the proportion required, in the proportioning equipment.
After proportioning wet mixture containing calcareous and argillaceous material, it is passed through Ball and Tube mills respectively, to form thin paste of uniform consistency. • This is known as “cement slurry” and is stored in big tanks known as silos or basins. • In these basins slurry is tested by an experienced chemist, and if needed, more calcareous or argillaceous material is mixed in the form of slurry to correct its chemical composition. • These basin are also known as “correcting Silos”, and from these silos corrected cement slurry is taken to storage basins, where it is constantly stirred.
•From the storage basins slurry is pumped into the upper end of rotary kiln in a regulated stream through a kiln feeder. •The rotary kiln consists of a cylinder made from steel plates 2 to 4 cms thick. •It is 60 to 90 metres in length, 3 to 4 metres in diameter and is given an inclination of 1 in 20 along its length. •Inner surface of the kiln is lined with fire bricks and it is mounted on roller bearings which are supported by masonry, concrete or steel columns. •The kiln is rotated at a speed of about one revolution per minute. •Through the upper end of the kiln slurry is fed at a uniform rate and through the lower end powdered coal is injected by the blast of air. • Due to the burning of coal, temperature near the lower end is higher while near the upper end it is lower. •As the slurry reaches inside the kiln, where temperature is neary 2500C, moisture gets evaporated and slurry changes into flakes.
Due to gravity these flakes reach next zone known as calcination zone. Here temperature is about 700-12000C and carbondioxide from the calcareous material gets eliminated. • As the particles pass down further and reach nearer to lower end where temperature is nearly 16000C, calcareous and argillaceous materials combine together to form silicates, aluminates and ferrites of calcium. • • • In this zone, known as clinkering zone, these compounds come out in the form of vitrified glassy nodules, called clinker. To cool the so formed clinker it is passed through small rotating cylinders known as cooler. Cooled clinker is stored in storage bins by means of elevators.
(iv) Grinding of Clinker
•The final step in the production of portland cement is to grind the clinder, to a very fine powder in Ball and Tube mills. •Measured quantity of gypsum (CaSO4), nearly 3 per cent is also added during the grinding of clinker, to regulate the setting of the finished product. •In case of air-entraining portland cement, a small amount of a suitable air-entraining agents (resins) are also added at this stage of the process. •Clinker is grinded in Ball mills first which consist of a steel cylinder, containing iron balls 5 to 10 cm in diameter. •Cylinder is kept I horizontal position and is rotated at the rate of 60 to 80 revolution per minute.
Grinded material, obtained from ball mills is further grinded in tube mill to a very fine powder. Tube mill consists of a horizontal rotating cylinder 2 to 2.5 metre in diameter and 8 to 10 metre in length, containing smaller steel balls 2 to 3 cm in size. • • • Fine product so obtained is cement and is stored in cylindrical bins known as cement silos. From these silos cement is taken out and automatically weighed and packed in bags.
Each bag contains 50 kgs of cement and is dispatched. Portland cement is shipped in bulk also.
MANUFACTURING OF CEMENT BY DRY PROCESS •
• • In dry process the raw mtrl (calcareous, argillaceous) are crushed and are then dried in the rotary driers. The dried raw materials are again regrinded to a fine powder in the ball and tube mills. The final grinded mtrl is separated by means of air separators and is stored in Silos, where it’s chemical composition is checked and if needed, correction is done by adding calcareous or argillaceous material in the required proportion. • • The materials from the silos is fed into the rotary kilns through the rotary feeder. The remaining procedure carried out for burning on the rotary kiln and grinding is the same as the wet process.
Testing Portland Cement
To check the suitability of ordinary portland cement which is commonly used, is tested. As per IS : 269-1967 the following tests are performed: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Fineness Test Consistency Test Soundness Test Compression Strength Test Test for Tensile Strength Test for Setting Time
Testing Portland Cement
To check the suitability of ordinary portland cement which is commonly used, is tested. As per IS : 269-1967 the following tests are performed: 1. Fineness Test : The object of this test is to check the proper grinding of cement.
If grinding is not uniform and fine, large quantity of water will be needed for mixing and the chemical reactions set up during setting, will be delayed. Moreover, “bleeding” will occur even before concrete begins to set, as water will come to the top due to settlement of solids. Finer the cement, more surface area of the aggregates will be covered by it. (a) Sieve test : 100 gms of cement is continuously sifted for a period of 15
minutes on I.S. test sieve No. 9 and the residue by be greater than 10%.
weight retained on sieve shall not
(b) Surface Area test : It is also known as Specific Surface test and is generally adopted. Specific surface is defined as the total surface area of all the particles in one gram of cement, the particles being considered as spheres. It can be determined by Air Permeability method or by Wagner’s Turbidimeter. Specific surface of a cement should not be less than 2250sq cm/gm of cement if found by Air permeability method or 1600 sq cm/gm of cement as per Turbidimeter method.
Testing Portland Cement
2. Consistency Test : The object of this test is to determine the percentage of water required for obtaining the cement paste of normal consistency, used in other tests. Following procedure is adopted for determining the same. About 300 gm of cement is weighed and nearly 30% of water (90 gm) is added to it and mixed thoroughly on a non-porous surface.
Cement paste is filled in the mould of vicat apparatus. “Time of gauging” (i.e., the interval from the moment of adding water to dry cement, till the mould is filled with paste) should obtain less than 3 minutes and not greater than 5 minutes. Plunger (needle 10 mm in diameter) is brought to the surface of the paste and released. If the settlement of plunger is between 33 to 35 mm from the top surface of the mould water added is correct. If not, the process is repeated by making cement pastes with different percentages of water till the settlement is 33 to 35 mm from the top surface of the mould. Let W = weight of cement taken. w = weight of water added when the plunger has a penetration of 33 to 35 mm from the top of the mould. Percentage of water Pw. = w/W x 100 Percentage of water for normal consistency Pn = Pw. So the percentage of water required for the cement paste of normal consistency (C.P.N.C.) should be such as to give a paste which will permit the settlement of vicat needle (10mm in dia.) by 33 to 35 mm.
3. Soundness test : The object of this test is to determine the presence of uncombined lime. It uncombined lime is present in cement, during the setting action it might slake causing increase in volume and will cause the development of cracks. In structure these cracks are objectionable as they deteriorate the structure. Cement which undergoes large changes in volume is known to be unsound, soundness of a cement is judged by “Lachateliers” apparatus. It consist of a small split cylinder of brass 0.5 mm thick, 30 mm internal diameter and 30 mm in height. On either side of the split are attached two indicators with pointed ends. Lengths of these indicators upto the centre of the cylinder is 165 mm. A cement paste made by adding 0.78 Pn percentage of water is prepared with 100 gm of cement. Lechatelier’s apparatus is placed on a glass plate and the cement paste is filled upto the top. It is covered with another glass plate placed at top and the whole combination is immediately immersed in water for 24 hours, to avoid shrinkage during setting. It is then taken out and the distance between the tips is measured. The cylinder is immersed in water,water is brought to boiling point in 30 minutes and kept boiling for 1 hour.
Cylinder is removed and allowed to cool. Again the distance between the tips, is measured, which should not exceed 10 mm. For cements in which the slaking of free lime takes place by aerating the cement for 7 days at a humidity of 50 to 80 percent the expansion should not be greater than 5 mm.
4. Setting Time :
The object of test is to distinguish between quick setting and normal setting cements and to check the initial setting time which should be sufficient for the various operations.
• For example, mixing transporting, placing and compaction of cement concrete. Cement is to be checked for Initial and final setting time, the test is performed by means of Vicat Apparatus.
To perform the test, 300 gm of cement are taken and clean water times Pn is added to form a paste.
The paste is filled in the mould of vicat apparatus placed on a glass
plate. Needle of 1 mm x 1 mm in cross section is attached to the rod of vicat apparatus is released gently so as to pierce into the paste. • this Needle is taken out and same process is repeated after every minute, ceases to pierce fully, but remains 5 mm above the glass plate. At stage note the time, known as initial setting time. Initial setting not be less than 30 minutes.
• Final setting time of cement is found by changing the
needle. It has a sharp point projecting in the centre with an annular attachment. •This needle is released gently on the paste as prepared before. •A stage will reach when the needle makes an impression, but not the attachment. Time is noted, which gives the final setting time. Final setting time of ordinary cement should not be greater than 10 hours.
Compression Test :
• This test is performed to determine suitability of cement for developing the required compressive strength of concrete and mortar. • Cement and standard sand in the ratio of 1:3 are used.
• Six cubes of sides 70.6mm are prepared for this test. The materials are mixed each time and cubes made separately. • Moulds containing cement mortar are placed in damp place for 24hrs. Cubes are then taken out and kept immersed in water. • Cubes are then tested with 03 cubes at the end of 3 days and 03 cubes at the end of 7 days. • Rate of loading during test should be at the rate of 350 kg/cm2.
• As per IS specifications, Compressive strength should not be less than 115 kg/cm2 and 175 kg/cm2 after 3 and 7 days respectively.
5. • • paste. • • • •
Test for Tensile Strength :
This test is performed by mixing water to the mixture of cement and sand in the ratio of 1:3, to form a paste. Six moulds are made in the form of standard briquettes form this
When mould is wet, it is beaten with standard spatula till water just appears on the surface. This is done to avoid air voids. These six moulds are kept in moist atmosphere (80-90% humidity) at a temp of 27+/- 20 C for 24 hrs. These are then immersed in water at a temp of 27+/- 40C till testing is done by Briquette Tensile Testing machine. Average strength of briquettes at the end of 3 and 7 days should not be less than 20 kg/cm2 and 25 kg/cm2 respectively.
Setting Time : The object of this test is to distinguish between quick setting and
normal setting cements and to check the initial setting time which should be sufficient for the various operations viz mixing, transporting etc. • Cement is to be checked for Initial and final setting time, the test
is performed by means of Vicat Apparatus. • To perform the test, 300 gm of cement are taken and clean water
0.85 times Pn is added to form a paste. • The paste is filled in the mould of vicat apparatus placed on a
glass plate. Needle of 1 mm x 1 mm cross section attached to the rod of vicat apparatus is released gently, so as to pierce into the paste.
Needle is taken out and same process is repeated after every
minute, till it ceases to pierce fully, but remains 5 mm above the glass plate. At this stage note the time. This is known as initial setting time and should not be less than 30 minutes. • • • Final setting time of cement is found by changing the needle. It has a sharp point projecting in the centre with an annular attachment. This needle is released gently on the paste as prepared before.
A stage will reach when the needle makes an impression, but not the attachment. Time is noted, which gives the final setting time. Final setting time of ordinary cement should not be greater than 10 hours
TYPES OF CEMENT 1. Portland Cement (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g) 2. (a) (b) (c) Ordinary Portland Cement Rapid Hardening Cement Low Heat Cement Blast Furnace Slag Cement Sulphate Resistant Cement Air Entraining Cement White and Coloured Cement High Alumina Cement Pozzolanic Cement Oil Well Cement
Other varieties of Cement
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