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KINETIC THEORY

Unit 7
Chemistry
Langley
*Corresponds to Chapter 13 (pgs. 384-409) in Prentice Hall Chemistry
textbook

KINETIC THEORY
Kinetic Theory states that the tiny
particles in all forms of matter are in
constant motion.
Kinetic refers to motion
Helps you understand the behavior of solid,
liquid, and gas atoms/molecules as well as
the physical properties
Provides a model behavior based off three
principals

KINETIC THEORY

3 Principles of Kinetic Theory

All matter is made of tiny particles (atoms)


These particles are in constant motion
When particles collide with each other or
the container, the collisions are perfectly
elastic (no energy is lost)

STATES OF MATTER
5 States of Matter

Solid
Liquid
Gas
Plasma
Bose-Einstein
Condensates

http://www.plasmas.org/E-4phases2.jpg

SOLIDS
Particles are tightly packed and close together
Particles do move but not very much
Definite shape and definite volume (because
particles are packed closely and do not move)
Most solids are crystals
Crystals are made of unit cells (repeating
patterns)
The shape of a crystal reflects the arrangement of
the particles within the solid

SOLIDS
Unit cells put together make a crystal
lattice (skeleton for the crystal)
Crystals are classified into seven crystal
systems: cubic, tetragonal,
orthorhombic, monoclinic, triclinic,
hexagonal, rhombohedral
Unit cell crystal lattice solid

SOLIDS
Amorphous Solid:
A solid with no defined shape (not a crystal)
A solid that lacks an ordered internal structure
Examples: Clay, PlayDoh, Rubber, Glass, Plastic,
Asphalt
Allotropes:
Solids that appear in more than one form
2 or more different molecular forms of the same
element in the same physical state (have different
properties)
Example: Carbon
Powder = Graphite
Pencil lead = graphite
Hard solid = diamond

SOLIDS

www.ohsu.edu/research/sbh/resultsimages/crystalvsglass.gif

SOLIDS
Allotropes of
Carbon: a)
diamond, b)
graphite, c)
lonsdaleite,
d)buckminsterfull
erene (buckyball),
e) C540, f) C70, g)
amorphous
carbon, and h)
single-walled
(buckytube)

www.wikipedia.org

LIQUIDS
Particles are spread apart
Particles move slowly through a container
No definite shape but do have a definite
volume
Flow from one container to another
Viscosity resistance of a liquid to flowing
Honey high viscosity
Water low viscosity
chemed.chem.purdue.edu/.../graphics

GASES
Particles are very far apart
Particles move very fast
No definite shape and No definite volume

http://www.phy.cuhk.edu.hk/contextual/heat/tep/
trans/kinetic_theory.gif

PLASMA

Particles are extremely far apart


Particles move extremely fast
Only exists above 3000 degrees Celsius
Basically, plasma is a hot gas
When particles collide, they break apart
into protons, neutrons, and electrons
Occurs naturally on the sun and stars

BOSE-EINSTEIN CONDENSATE
Particles extremely close together
Particles barely move
Only found at extremely cold
temperatures
Basically Bose-Einstein is a cold solid
Lowest energy of the 5 states/phases of
matter

GASES AND PRESSURE


Gas pressure is the force exerted by a gas per unit
surface area of an object
Force and number of collisions
When there are no particles present, no collisions = no
pressure = vacuum
Atmospheric Pressure is caused by a mixuture of gases
(i.e. the air)
Results from gravity holding air molecules downward in/on
the Earths atmosphere; atmospheric pressure decreases
with altitude, increases with depth
Barometers are devices used to measure atmospheric
pressure (contains mercury)

Standard Pressure is average normal pressure at sea


level
As you go ABOVE sea level, pressure is less
As you go BELOW sea level, pressure is greater

GASES AND PRESSURE


Standard Pressure Values
At sea level the pressure can be recorded as:

14.7 psi (pounds per square inch)


29.9 inHg (inches of Mercury)
760 mmHg (millimeters of Mercury)
760 torr
1 atm (atmosphere)
101.325 kPa (kilopascals)

All of these values are EQUAL to each other:

29.9 inHg = 101.325 kPa


760 torr = 760 mmHg
1 atm = 14.7 psi
and so on.

Say hello to Factor Label Method!!!!!!!!!!!!

GASES AND PRESSURE


STP
Standard Temperature and Pressure
Standard Pressure values are the values listed on
the previous slides
Standard Temperature is 0C or 273 K
If temperature is given to you in Farenheit, must convert
first!
F = (9/5)C + 32
C = (5(F-32)) / 9
Remember order of operation rules
K = 273 + C
C = K 273

GASES AND PRESSURE


Pressure Conversions
Example 1: 421 torr = ? Atm
Step 1: Write what you know
Step 2: Draw the fence and place the given in
the top left
Step 3: Arrange what you know from step 1 such
that the nondesired units canceling out so that
you are only left with the units you want (i.e. atm)
Step 4: Solve
Step 5: Report final answer taking into account
the appropriate significant figures

GASES AND PRESSURE


Pressure Conversions
Example 2: 32.0 psi = ? torr

TEMPERATURE
Temperature is the measure of the average
kinetic energy of the particles.
3 Units for Temperature:
Celsius
Farenheit
Kelvin
Has an absolute zero
Absolute lowest possible temperature
All particles would completely stop moving

Temperature Conversions:
Example 1: Convert 35C to F
Example 2: Convert 300 Kelvin to C

MEASURING PRESSURE
Manometers:
Measure pressure
2 kinds: open and closed

Open Manometers:
Compare gas pressure to air pressure
Example: tire gauge

Closed Manometer:
Directly measure the pressure (no
comparison)
Example: barometer

KINETIC ENERGY AND


TEMPERATURE

Energy of motion
Energy of a moving object
Matter is made of particles in motion
Particles have kinetic energy
KE = (mv2)/2
OR
KE = (ma)/2
Kinetic Energy is measured in Joules
1 J = 1kgm2/s2

The mass must be in kg


The velocity must be in m/s OR acceleration must be in
m2/s2

KINETIC ENERGY AND


TEMPERATURE
Calculate the KE of a car with a mass of
1500 kg and a speed of 50 m/s

KINETIC ENERGY AND


TEMPERATURE
Calculate the KE of a car with a mass of
6780 grams and a speed of 36 km/h

KINETIC ENERGY AND


TEMPERATURE
Temperature-measure of the average kinetic
energy of the particles
Kelvin Scale:
Has an absolute zero (0K)
Absolute lowest possible temperature
In theory, all particles would completely stop moving

Speed of Gases:
If two gases have the same temperature (particles
moving at the same speed) how can you tell which
gas has a greater speed?
The only difference is mass!
To find mass, use the periodic table

KINETIC ENERGY AND


TEMPERATURE
Speed of Gases
Example 1: If CH4 and NH3 are both at 284
K, which gas has a greater speed?
Step One: Add up the mass of each gas using
the periodic table.
Step Two: The lighter gas moves faster (think
about a race between a 100-pound man and a
700-pound man, the lighter man would move
faster)

Example 2: Which gas has a faster speed


between Br2 and CO2 if both are at 32F?

TERMINOLOGY for PHASE


CHANGES
Melting-commonly used to indicate changing
from solid to liquid
Normal melting point-The temperature at which the
vapor pressure of the solid and the vapor pressure
of the liquid are equal

Freezing-Changing from a liquid to a solid


Melting and freezing occur at the same
temperature
Liquifaction-Turning a gas to a liquid
Only happens in low temperature and high pressure
situations

TERMINOLOGY for PHASE


CHANGES
Difference in Gas and Vapor
Gas-state of matter that exists at normal room
temperature
Vaport-produced by particles escaping from a state
of matter that is normally liquid or solid at room
temperature

Boiling-used to indicate changing from a liquid


to a gas/vapor
Normal boiling point - temperature at which the
vapor pressure of the liquid is equal to standard
atmospheric pressure, which is 101.325 kPa
Boiling point is a function of pressure.
At lower pressures, the boiling point is lower

TERMINOLOGY for PHASE


CHANGES
2 types of boiling: boiling and
evaporation
Evaporation takes place only at the surface of a
liquid or solid while boiling takes place
throughout the body of a liquid
Particles have high kinetic energy
Particles escape and become vapor

Condensation-used to indicate changing


from a vapor to a liquid

TERMINOLOGY for PHASE


CHANGES
Sublimation - when a substance changes directly from
a solid to a vapor
The best known example is "dry ice", solid CO2

Deposition-when a substance changes directly from a


vapor to a solid (opposite of sublimation)
Example-formation of frost

Dynamic equilibrium - when a vapor is in equilibrium


with its liquid as one molecule leaves the liquid to
become a vapor, another molecule leaves the vapor to
become a liquid. An equal number of molecules will be
found moving in both directions
Equilibrium - When there is no net change in a system

TERMINOLOGY for PHASE


CHANGES
Points to Know:
Melting Point-Temperature when solid turns to a
liquid
Freezing Point-Temperature when liquid turns to a
solid
Boling Point-Temperature when a liquid turns to a
vapor
Doesnt boil unitl vapor pressure coming off liquid is equal
to the air pressure around it
Since air pressure changes with height, water does not
always boil at 100C

Condensing Point-Tempeature when vapor turns to


liquid

ENTROPY
A measure of the disorder of a system
Systems tend to go from a state of order (low
entropy) to a state of maximum disorder (high
entropy)
Entropy of a gas is greater than that of a liquid;
entropy of a liquid is greater than that of a solid
Solids=low entropy; plasma=high entropy

Entropy tends to increase when temperature


increases
As substances change from one state to another,
entropy may increase or decrease

Le CHATELIERS PRINCIPLE
Anytime stress is placed on a system, the
sytem will readjust to accommodate that stress
If a chemical system at equilibrium experiences
a change in concentration, temperature,
volume, or total pressure, then the equilibrium
shifts to partially counteract the imposed
change
Can be used to predict the effect of a change
in conditions on a chemical equilibrium
Is used by chemists in order to manipulate the
outcomes of reversible reactions, often to
increase the yield of reactions

Le CHATELIERS PRINCIPLE
When liquids are heated (stress) they
produce vapor particles (adjust)
When liquids are cooled (stress) the
particles inside tighten to form a solid
(adjust)

Le CHATELIERS PRINCIPLE
Le Chateliers Principle explaining boiling and
condensation using covered beaker partially filled with
water
At a given temperature the covered beaker constitutes a
system in which the liquid water is in equilibrium with the water
vapor that forms above the surface of the liquid.
While some molecules of liquid are absorbing heat and
evaporating to become vapor, an equal number of vapor
molecules are giving up heat and condensing to become
liquid.
If stress is put on the system by raising the temperature, then
according to Le Chtelier's principle the rate of evaporation will
exceed the rate of condensation until a new equilibrium is
established

PHASE DIAGRAMS
A diagram showing the conditions at
which substance exists as a solid, liquid,
or vapor
Shows the temperature and pressure
required for the 3 states of matter to exist
Conditions of pressure and temperature
at which two phases exist in equilibrium
are indicated on a phase diagram by a
line separating the phases
Draw the phase diagram for water

PHASE DIAGRAM-WATER

PHASE DIAGRAM-WATER
Explanation of Phase Diagram:

X axis-Temperature (C)
Y axis- Pressure (kPa)
Line AB line of sublimation
Line BD boiling point line
Line BC melting point line
Point B triple point (all 3 states of matter
exist at the same time)
Tm melting point at standard pressure
Tb boiling point at standard pressure

HEAT in CHANGES of
STATE
Energy Diagrams (also referred to as
Heating Curves)
Graphically describes the enthalpy (the heat
content of a system at sonstant pressure)
changes that take place during phase
changes
X axis is Energy (Heat supplied)
Y axis is Temperature

HEAT in CHANGES of
STATE
Constructing Energy Diagrams
Step 1: Determine/Identify the melting and boiling
points for the specified substance
Step 2: Draw x and y axis (energy vs temp)
Step 3: Calculations

First diagonal line: Q = mcDT


First horizontal line: Q = mHf
Second diagonal line: Q = mcDT
Second horizontal line: Q = mHv
Third horizontal line: Q = mcDT
Add up all values!!!

Draw the energy diagram for 10 grams of water


as it goes from 25C to 140C