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IGNITION SYSTEM

ECU

115VAC

Aircraft Electrical
System

Starting/Ignition
SystemControl

ENGINE
Input Circuit

Storage
Circuit

Ignition
Exciter
Box

Discharge
Circuit

Combustio
n Chamber

15-20KV

2 Igniter
Plugs

ENGINE STARTING SYSTEM

Aircraft
Pneumatic System

Air Source
(APU, Ground Cart, Running Engine)

Starting/Ignition
SystemControl

Start
Valve

ECU

IGB

Igniter Plug
High Pressure Rotor
(HPC/HPT)
Air
Starter
Motor

AGB

TGB

THRUST REVERSER SYSTEM

Thrust reverser supply the aircraft with
reverser thrust, on the ground, to
decrease the distance necessary to
safely stop the aircraft.

TYPES OF THRUST
REVERSERS
Translating Cowl Type

TYPES OF THRUST
REVERSERS
Clam Shell Type

TYPES OF THRUST
REVERSERS
Turboprop Reverse Pitch

FEEDBACK SYSTEM

Gas Turbine Engine

Nomenclature
Cold section = forward of the combustor
Hot section = from the combustor aft
Bleed air = air tapped from the compressor
for various users
De Laval nozzle = a turbojet nozzle design
that produces higher exit velocity
Diffuser = located between compressor
outlet and combustor inlet. Its function is to
reduce velocity and increase pressure

Gas Turbine Engine

Nomenclature
Engine Pressure Ratio (EPR) = ratio of
turbine discharge total pressure to
compressor inlet total pressure
Exhaust Gas Temperature (EGT) =
temperature of exhaust gases at the
turbine exhaust case
Creep = elongation of turbine rotor blades
due to high torsion and heat stresses

Problem Solving
Isentropic Condition
P2/P1 = (V1/V2)k = (T2/T1)k/k-1
Isobaric Condition
V2/V1 = T2/T1

Problem Solving
Newtons 2nd Law of Motion
F = m x a =Force
m = mass
a = acceleration
TB = (Ve Vo) = Basic Jet Thrust
= mass flow rate
Ve = exit velocity
Vo = inlet velocity

Problem Solving
Due to added fuel flow MF within the system
TF = MF x Ve
Due to difference between exit pressure Pe
and the atmospheric pressure Po
TP = Ae (Pe - Po)
MF = mass of fuel
Ae = cross sectional area of exit section

Problem Solving
Total Jet Thrust, T = TB + TF + TP
= Ma [ Ve (1 + F) Vo ] + Ae (Pe Po)
F = MF/Ma = fuel-air ratio
Mg = Ma + MF = Ma (1+F) = mass of gas

Problem Solving
Thp = T Vo / C = Thrust power
C = constant to convert unit to horsepower
TSFC = WF/T = Thrust specific fuel
consumption
WF = weight of fuel
BSFC = WF/Thp = Brake specific fuel
consumption

Problem Solving
1. The three basic components of the core
engine
a. Inlet, compressor and turbine
b. Turbine, combustor and fan
c. Turbine, compressor and combustor

Problem Solving
2. The law of motion that states that for
every action theres a reaction equal in
magnitude but opposite in direction
a. First law of motion
b. Second law of motion
c. Third law of motion

Problem Solving
3. The thermodynamic processes that occur
in the proper sequence in Brayton cycle
which explains the operation of a gas
turbine engine are the following:
a. Isentropic, isochoric, isentropic, then
isochoric
b. Isobaric, isentropic, isobaric, then
isentropic
c. Isentropic, isobaric, isentropic, then
isobaric

Problem Solving
4. Type of jet engine that can be used in
outer space
a. Ramjets
b. Gas turbine engines
c. Rockets

Problem Solving
5. Which of the following parameters could
increase thrust production?
a. Increase air inlet velocity
b. Decrease air exhaust velocity
c. Decrease air temperature

Problem Solving
6. Which statement is true with regards to
compressors?
a. Centrifugal type of compressors has a
higher total pressure ratio
b. Axial flow type of compressors has a
higher pressure rise per stage
c. Centrifugal type of compressors has a
larger frontal area

Problem Solving
7. The rotating part of the centrifugal flow
compressor
a. Stator
b. Rotor
c. Impeller

Problem Solving
8. Which statement is true with regards to
axial flow compressors?
a. The pressure increases only when it
passes through the rotors
b. One compressor stage means air passes
through one stator and one rotor
c. The velocity is kept constant as it passes
through a compressor stage

Problem Solving
9. Which statement is true with regards to
combustors?
a. Each can in a can type combustor has an
igniter plug
b. All air coming from the compressor is
mixed with the fuel to provide continuous
combustion
c. The velocity of the air coming from the
compressor is reduced to provide
continuous combustion

Problem Solving
10. Which statement is true with regards to
heat exchangers?
a. Air is used to cool the oil
b. Fuel heats up while the oil cools down
c. Oil heats up while the fuel cools down

Problem Solving
11. The intake of the compressor of an airstandard Brayton Cycle is 40,000 cfm at
15 psia and 90F. The compression ratio, rk
= 5 and the temperature at the turbine inlet
is 15 psia. Determine the net work,
thermal efficiency and the mean effective
pressure.

Problem Solving
12. There are required 2238kW net from a
gas turbine unit for pumping of crude oil
from the North Alaskan Slope. Air enters
the compressor section at 99.975 kPa,
278 K, the pressure ratio rp = 10. The
turbine section receives the hot gases at
1111K. Assume the closed Brayton cycle
and find a) the required airflow and b) the
thermal efficiency.

Problem Solving
13. The turbine section of a Brayton cycle
gas turbine receives the hot compressed
air at 150 psia, 2100R, expand it to 15
psia and develops a gross output of
15,000 hp. Air enters the compressor
section at 15 psia, 500R. Determine a)
mass of air required, lb/s, b) compressor
power required, c) net power output, and,
d) cycle efficiency

Problem Solving
14. A turbojet-powered airplane is at level
flight at sea level with a speed of 300 mph.
Air enters the engine air intake at the rate
of 75 lbs per second. Burned gas leaves
the engine nozzle exit at 700 mph at
atmospheric pressure. Fuel-air ratio is
1:20. The engine net thrust in Newtons
is.

Problem Solving
15. The mass flow rate of the air flowing
inside a gas turbine engine is 100 pounds
per second. If the engine is capable of
producing 10,000 pounds of thrust and the
airplane is flying at a speed of 75 mph,
what is the velocity of the gas at the exit
considering the mass of fuel as negligible.

THE END