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Learning Objectives 5A

Solid Bulk Cargo

Define solid bulk cargo


Describe the hazards associated with the carriage of
solid bulk cargo
Define : Angle of Repose, Moisture Content, Flow
Moisture Point, Transportable Moisture Limit,
Moisture Migration
Describe the preparations of holds prior to the carriage
of solid bulk cargoes
State the precautions prior to the carriage of solid bulk
cargoes
Describe the methods used for loading and discharging
solid bulk cargoes

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Slide 1

Solid Bulk Cargo

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Slide 2

Introduction
Carriage of solid bulk cargoes is
governed by International Maritime
Solid Bulk Cargoes Code (IMSBC
Code) and supplement (2013 edition,
amdt 02-13)
Code published by International
Maritime Organisation (IMO).
Apply to carriage of dry and
wet bulk cargo and do not apply
to carriage of Grain in Bulk, which
have separate regulations.
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Slide 3

Definitions
Angle of Repose is the angle between the horizontal
and the slope of the cargo obtained when that cargo is
poured onto the horizontal. The greater the angle-it is
less likely to shift.

Angle of Repose

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Slide 4

Definitions-Continue..
Flow Moisture Point is the percentage moisture content (on a
wet basis) at which a flow state develops.
Vessels built specially for the carriage of bulk cargoes and
sufficiently sub-divided are not so highly restricted in their loading
procedures with concentrates as cargo vessels would be.

Flow State is the state that occurs when a mass of granular


material is saturated with liquid to an extent that under the
influence of prevailing external forces such as vibration, impaction,
or the ships motion, it loses its internal shear strength and behaves
like a liquid.

Moisture Content is the portion of a representative sample of a


material which consists of water, ice, or other liquid expressed as a
percentage of the total wet weight of that sample.
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Definitions-Continue..
Moisture Migration is the movement of moisture contained in a
bulk cargo by settling and consolidation of the cargo due to
vibration and ships motion. Water is progressively displaced which
may result in some portions or all of the bulk cargo developing a
flow state.

Transportable Moisture Limit (TML) is the transportable


moisture limit of a cargo which may liquefy represents the
maximum moisture content of that cargo which is considered safe
for carriage in ships which are not specifically fitted or constructed
for cargoes for excessive moisture content. It is expressed as a
percentage of the flow moisture point. The TML is 90% of the Flow
Moisture Point.

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Slide 6

General precautions with


bulk cargoes
1.

Bulk cargo must be properly distributed throughout the ship in


order that the structure will never be over stressed.
A stability booklet provided giving relevant information pertaining
to loading, precautions and any necessary data should be provided
to the Master. Prior to sailing, the Master should calculate the
stability for the anticipated worst conditions during the voyage as
well as that on departure and ensure they are satisfactory.

2.

An excessively stiff ship may roll very violently, resulting in


damage to the ship. However, a vessel with a relatively large GM is
better able to resist the tendency to list, if a shift of cargo should
occur.

3.

When loading a high density bulk cargo with a S.F. of about


20ft3/ton (0.56m3/tonne) or lower, the loaded condition are different
from normal and particular attention should be paid to the
distribution of weights to avoid excessive stresses.

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Slide 7

General precautions with


bulk cargoes

a)
b)
c)

A general cargo vessel is normally constructed to carry cargoes of


about 50 - 60ft3/ton (1.39 to 1.67m3/tonne) when loaded to full bale
and deadweight capacity. In such cases, the ship master should be
provided with comprehensive loading information so that the ship
may not be over stressed.
Where above information is not available, the following
precautions should be observed :
The general fore and aft distribution of weight should not differ
appreciably from that found satisfactory for general cargo.
The maximum number of tonnes of cargo loaded in any space should
not exceed :
0.9 x L x B x D (tonnes)
If cargo is untrimmed, the height of the cargo pile above the floor (in
Metres) should not exceed :
1.1 x D x Stowage Factor (m)
where L=L of hold(m), B=Av breadth of hold(m), D=Summer Load
Draft(m), stowage factor in m3/tonne.

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Slide 8

General precautions with


bulk cargoes (continue..)
d)

e)

If the cargo is trimmed, entire level, the maximum load in the lower
hold may be increased by 20% subject in compliance with (a) in the
preceding page.
In holds with a shaft tunnel, lower holds may be loaded to 10% in
excess of the trimmed or untrimmed values subject to compliance with
(a). A shaft tunnel has an extra stiffening effect.

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Slide 9

Hazards associated with the


carriage of Solid Bulk Cargoes
1

Improper weight distribution resulting in structural damage


a) Excessive concentration on deck or inner bottom
b) Improper distribution of weights between holds

2.

Improper stability or reduction in stability


a) Excessive stability (stiff ship) resulting in violent rolling and
possible cargo shift and structural damage.
b) Reduction of stability as a result of :
i) A transverse shift of the cargo surface as in the case of DRY
cargoes and cargoes which do not become fluid when wet.
ii) A transverse shift of WET cargoes which become fluid and give
rise to free surface effect.

3.

Spontaneous heating may occur in some cargoes eg. Fine copper


ore, metal turnings and borings are subject to spontaneous heating.

4.

Chemical reaction. Some categories of bulk cargo may be liable


to chemical reaction, eg coal cargo emits toxic or explosive gas and
have the effect of causing corrosion to steel structure.

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Slide 10

Assessing the acceptability of


consignment

Before loading commences, the Master should be provided with


appropriate information concerning the characteristics and
properties of the cargo. Such information should contain as a
minimum :
Chemical Hazards
Flow Moisture Point
Stowage Factor
Moisture Content
Angle of Repose

The Master should be given certificates which include :


A certificate which states the Transportable Moisture Limit
A certificate of moisture content
A statement to indicate the actual moisture content of cargo at the
time the certificate is given to the Master
Certificate listing the material with chemical hazards if carried.
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Trimming Procedures

Preferably bulk cargoes should be trimmed to entire level. Where a


peak arises, following two categories should be considered:

Cargoes with angle of repose LESS THAN OR EQUAL


TO 35 DEGRESS (non-cohesive).

Cargoes with angle or repose GREATER THAN 35


DEGRESS (non -cohesive).

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Non-cohesive bulk cargoes having an


angle of repose LESS THAN OR
EQUAL TO 35 DEGREES

1.
2.

More dangerous category, subject to liquefaction process


Usually small granules shift easily when ship moves
Granules liable to absorb moisture, may form sludge
affecting ships stability
Code recommends:
Cargo be trimmed reasonable level, filing up all spacesno excessive cargo weight in one location
If cargo flow like grain, stowage procedures for grain to
be considered

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Slide 13

Non-cohesive Bulk Cargoes with angle


of repose GREATER THAN 35
DEGREES

1.
2.

Consists of lumps interlocking quite stable


Can become heaped up to produce excessive pile
peak
Major hazard if cargo shift, unable to return to
original position may cause a permanent list
Not usually subjected to liquefaction
Code recommends:
If loading in Lower Holds only, trim to cover all
tanktop to shipside, reduce pile peak
Equalise distribution of weight

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Slide 14

GENERAL PRECAUTIONS PRIOR


TO LOADING BULK CARGO

Safety precautions for crew and others working onboard must


be taken and to ensure minimum contact with moving
machinery used in loading.
Holds inspected in proper state for reception of cargo, paying
particular attention to ;

Bilge wells and lines, Sounding pipes & other service units with
Protective coverings- checked & strengthened
Bilge wells & strainers plates- facilitates drainage

Prevent dust coming into contact with moving parts of deck


machinery
Accommodation vents- screened or shut down
Cargo hold lighting, fire detection & flooding system piping
covered
Sound bilges at completion of loading
Establish communication with terminal

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METHOD OF LOADING /
DISCHARGING BULK CARGO

Heavy duty conveyor belt systems used in most form of solid


bulk cargo loading
Some forms of ore transported in slurry for piping used for
handling
Conveyor belt system led to ship loader equipped with vertical
telescopic chutes
Control of dust is essential for loading fine powder bulk cargocomplying to local regn and avoid loss of cargo
Dust extraction equipment is fitted to ships loader conveyor
transfer point
Loading controlled by one operator from elevated visibility
clear cabin- speed and rate adjusted to meet loading pattern
required by ship
Ship loader is mobile travel on tracks along wharf
Automatic arrangement provided for measuring & recording of
quantity of cargo loaded

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METHOD OF LOADING /
DISCHARGING BULK CARGO

Discharging of bulk cargo is mainly done using


Grabs with ships/shore gears
Conveyor equipment may be installed directly from
berth to stockpile/terminal
Conveyor equipment connects bucket unloader
which by reason of arm extension digs into the ship
bulk in the hold.
Elevator transports the bulk to stockpiles, terminal
or shore transportation
This system is applicable to ore & coal commodities

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Slide 17

Solid Bulk Cargo

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