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# CURRENT AND

VOLTAGE
TRANSFORMERS

.Limits well defined. .  Protection VT’s.Operation over wide range of voltages.Voltage transformers: The function of voltage transformers is grouped as:  Measurement VT’s . They have different characteristics.

 The primary of VT is connected directly to power circuit between phase and ground depending upon rated voltage and application.Voltage transformers: They may be single phase or three phases.  The volt. VT’s are necessary for voltage. and distance protection.  .ampere rating of voltage transformer is lesser as compared with that of power transformers. directional.

.Voltage transformers: There are two types of constructions:  Electromagnetic potential transformer in which primary and secondary are wound on magnetic core. in which the primary voltage is applied to to series capacitor group.  Capacitor potential transformer.

Limits of dimensions. power frequency and impulse voltage withstand.Specifications for VT’s:         Rated primary voltage Rated secondary voltage Rated burden Supply frequency Number of phases Class of accuracy Insulation level. types of construction.… .

There are several values of standard primary voltages.  Rated secondary voltage: It is the value of secondary voltage marked on name plate. 400 kV)  Rated transformation ratio: The ratio of rated primary voltage to rated secondary voltage. 132 kV. 33 kV.Rated characteristics: Rated voltage. The voltage marked on the rating plate of the VT. For example: 110/√3 V  . (11 kV.

e Vres = Vrn + Vyn +Vbn Phase error: The phase angle between primary voltage vector and the reversed secondary voltage vector (measured in minutes). . i.Rated characteristics:   Residual voltage: Vector sum of three lines to earth voltages.

.T performs with specified accuracy.Vp)/ Vp Where Kn = normal ratio Vs = secondary voltage Vp= primary voltage  Rated burden: The burden assigned by manufacturer at which the V.Rated characteristics:  Ratio error: Percentage ratio error = 100(KnVs .

Site testing of VT’s Ratio test  Insulation test  Resistance test  On load test  .

Sample of low voltage VT .

Operation over wide range of currents. . They have different characteristics.Limits well defined. .  Protection CT’s.Current transformers: The function of current transformers is grouped as:  Measurement CT’s .

5A).Current transformers: The current transformers (CT) step down AC current to a low value (1 A. .ampere rating of current transformer is lesser as compared with that of power transformers. The volt.

Limits of dimensions.… .Specification for CT’s:         Rated primary current Rated secondary current Rated burden Supply frequency Number of phases Class of accuracy Insulation level. power frequency and impulse voltage withstand. types of construction.

.c component which the CT can carry for rated time without damage due to thermal or electrodynamics stresses. Rated secondary current: It is the value of secondary current marked on name plate.Rated characteristics:    Rated primary current.m. The value of primary current on which the performance of the current transformer is specified by the manufacturer.s value of a. (rms value) Rated short time current (Primary) It is defined as r.

Ratio error: Percentage ratio error = 100(KnIs .Ip)/ Ip Where Kn = normal ratio Is = secondary current Ip = primary current Rated burden: The burden assigned by manufacturer at which the C. .Rated characteristics:    Phase error: The phase angle between primary current vector and the reversed secondary current vector (measured in minutes).T performs with specified accuracy.

m. . (5P20) Rated exciting current The r.Rated characteristics:   Accuracy class The class assigned to the current transformer with the specified limits of ratio error and phase angle error.s value of current taken by the secondary-winding of a C.T.

Site testing of CT’s Ratio test  Insulation test  Resistance test  Magnetizing current test  Polarity test  On load test  .

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Sample of low voltage CT .