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CCNA Routing and Switching

Chapter 2: Ethernet Networking and Data Encapsulation

Instructor & Todd Lammle

Ethernet Networking

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Ethernet Networking
• A connection media access method that
allows all hosts on a network to share the
same bandwidth
(Uses Data Link & Physical Layer
specifications)
• CSMA/CD
• Half Duplex
• Full Duplex

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legacy network that’s a single collision domain where only one host can transmit at a time.Ethernet Networking This figure shows an old. 4 .

5 .A typical network you’d see today This figure shows a typical network design still used today and see if it’s any better.

This figure shows how a router would create a broadcast domain boundary. .A router creates broadcast domain boundaries.

7 . and with it. into an existing network infrastructure. such as Fast Ethernet and Gigabit Ethernet. • It’s also relatively simple to implement in the first place. troubleshooting is reasonably straightforward. • Ethernet is popular because it’s readily scalable.Ethernet Networking • Ethernet is a contention media access method that allows all hosts on a network to share the same bandwidth of a link. meaning that it’s comparatively easy to integrate new technologies.

Ethernet Collision Detection CSMA/CD 8 .

The PCs sense the collision by being unable to deliver the entire frame (coming soon) onto the network. . . . a collision occurs and is detected. the PCs random interval is doubled. 9 .Ethernet Collision Detection CSMA/CD .Using either a priority or random backoff scheme.If two PCs detect a neutral signal and access the shared media at the exact same time.If no transmission is sensed.Listens to the network’s shared media to see if any other users on ―on the line‖ by trying to sense a neutral electrical signal or carrier. a jamming signal is sent out by the first PC to detect the collision.CSMA/CD (Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection) . then multiple access allows anyone onto the media without any further permission required. the PCs wait certain amount of time before retransmitting. .If collisions continue to occur. lessening the chances of a collision. . .When a collision occurs.

Ethernet Collision Detection • Jam Signal and Random Backoff CSMA/CD • Collision Detection –When a device is in listening mode. •This backoff algorithm causes all devices to stop transmitting for a random amount of time. which would cause the whole process to repeat. 10 . a third device may transmit before either of the two involved in the collision have a chance to re-transmit. –When collision is detected. so that they invoke a backoff algorithm. –The jamming signal notifies the other devices of a collision. it can detect when a collision occurs on the media. –because devices can detect an increase in amplitude of the signal above the normal level. the transmitting devices send out a jamming signal. •A random backoff period ensures that the devices in the collision do not try to send traffic again at the same time. which allows the collision signals to subside. •During the backoff period.

Half and Full Duplex 802.3 Half duplex (CSMA/CD)  Unidirectional data flow  Higher potential for collision  Hubs connectivity  One wire pair  Shared collision domain  Lower Effective Throughput Full duplex  Point-to-point only  Attached to dedicated switched port  Requires full-duplex support on both ends  Collision free  Collision detect circuit disabled  Two wire pair 11 .

•Unicast transmission is the predominant form of transmission on LANs and within the Internet. •Examples of unicast transmissions include HTTP. SMTP. there is just one sender. FTP. 12 . •Broadcast transmission is essential when sending the same message to all devices on the LAN. and Telnet. •Multicast transmission clients must be members of a logical multicast group to receive the information. •An example of a broadcast transmission is the ARP sends to all computers on a LAN. –Broadcast: •In this case. there is just one sender and one receiver.• Communications in a switched LAN network occur in three ways –Unicast: •In unicast transmission. –Multicast: •Communication in which a frame is sent to a specific group of devices or clients. but the information is sent to all connected receivers. collaborative business meeting. •An example of multicast transmission is the video and voice transmissions associated with a network-based.

13 . address is a 48-bit (6-byte) address written in a hexadecimal format.Ethernet Addressing The MAC. or hardware.

but other logical address may be imitated at any time. –U/L = 0 •Universally administered address: the adapter uses its burned-in MAC address. 14 . –U/L = 1 •Locally administered address: the adapter uses a logical address (assigned by network administrator).Ethernet Addressing • The first 2 bits of a MAC address are used as I/G bit and U/L bit. –I/G = 1 •Group address: the destination is a group of LAN nodes (multicast or broadcast address). U/L=1 may result in a hex code of 0x02 in the first byte. it is impossible to imitate a burned-in address. The U/L bit is always set when a logical address is assigned (even if the assigned address doesn't follow this convention). Therefore. • I/G bit and U/L bit • The first two bits of a destination address convey certain information: –I/G = 0 •Individual address: the destination is a singe node.

Ethernet at the Physical Layer 15 .

16 .Ethernet Cabling Ethernet cabling is an important discussion. Three types of Ethernet cables are available: • Straight-through cable • Crossover cable • Rolled cable We will look at each in the following sections. especially if you are planning on taking the Cisco exams.

Straight Through The straight-through cable is used to connect • Host to switch or hub • Router to switch or hub 17 .

UTP Gigabit crossover Ethernet cable For a straight-through cable it’s still 1 to 1. and so on up to pin 8. 2 to 2. but you would add 4 to 7 and 5 to 8—pretty straightforward! 18 . And in creating the gigabit crossover cable. you’d still cross 1 to 3 and 2 to 6.

Crossover Cable The crossover cable can be used to connect • Switch to switch • Hub to hub • Host to host • Hub to switch • Router direct to host 19 .

Fiber Optic The cable allows for very fast transmission of data. 20 . Fiber optics has been used to go very long distances. as in intercontinental connections. it’s immune to interference like cross-talk. is very thin. unlike UTP. is made of glass (or even plastic!). but it is becoming more and more popular in Ethernet LAN networks due to the fast speeds available and because. and works as a waveguide to transmit light between two ends of the fiber.

What type of cable is used? 21 .

What type of cable is used for each connection? 22 .

23 .Data Encapsulation When a host transmits data across a network to another device. • Each layer communicates only with its peer layer on the receiving device. the data goes through encapsulation: • It is wrapped with protocol information at each layer of the OSI model.

PDU 24 .

Port Numbers The Transport layer uses port numbers to define both the virtual circuit and the upper-layer process. 25 .

Cisco’s Three-Layer Model The following are the three layers and their typical functions: • The core layer: backbone • The distribution layer: routing • The access layer: switching 26 .

2-Each layer provides specific functions that define its role within the overall network.Cisco’s Three-Layer Model Hierarchical design model is used. the network design becomes modular. which facilitates scalability and performance. 3-By separating the various functions that exist on a network. 1=Hierarchical network design involves dividing the network into discrete layers. 27 .

Cisco’s Three-Layer Model The Core Layer 28 .

Cisco’s Three-Layer Model The Distribution Layer 29 .

Cisco’s Three-Layer Model The Access Layer 30 .

Switch Features – Hierarchical Network • Access Layer Switch Features: Port Security Link Aggregation VLANs PoE FastEthernet/Gigabit Quality of Service (QoS) 31 .

Switch Features – Hierarchical Network • Distribution Layer Switch Features: Layer 3 Support Link Aggregation High Forwarding Rate Redundant Components Gigabit/10 Gigabit Quality of Service (QoS) Security Policies 32 .

Switch Features – Hierarchical Network • Core Layer Switch Features: Layer 3 Support Link Aggregation Very High Forwarding Rate Gigabit/10 Gigabit Redundant Components Quality of Service (QoS) 33 .

Switches – Small and Medium Business Summary Access Bandwidth (Link) Aggregation u FastEthernet/Gigabit Ethernet u Distribution Core u u Gigabit Ethernet/10 Gigabit Ethernet u u High Forwarding Rate u u u u u u u u Layer 3 Support Port Security Power Over Ethernet (PoE) Quality of Service (QoS) u u u Redundant Components Security Policies/Access Control Lists u Very High Forwarding Rate VLANs u 34 .

Review Question Switch Hub Hub Switch Hub Hub Hub Hub How many collision domains 35 are shown? .

Which of the hosts can transmit simultaneously without causing collisions? Switch Hub A B C D E F How many collision and broadcast domains are show? 36 .

– Review the answers in class. 37 .Written Labs and Review Questions – Open your books and go through all the written labs and the review questions.