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Indonesian Women

:
Between Rights and Roles,
Between Myths and Reality

Arlinah I.R
Asian Women Institute
Pittsburgh
April 12’ 2002

Is Indonesia a Moslem Country?   Indonesian Constitution ( UUD 1945) Indonesian Five Principle ( Pancasila) Freedom for people to practice their own religion respect for one another .

Minangkabau : Islam Bali : Balinese. Hinduism Eastern Indonesia : mostly Christian Chinese : Buddhism. Christian . Hinduism.000 ethnic groups : 300 Some ethnic groups      Javanese : Kejawen. Islam Sumatra : Batak : Christianity.Indonesia     Population : 270 million ( > 50 % women) islands : 17.

Cultural System Mostly Patriarchal  Some are Matrilineal  .

employment. listens and submit to husbands. activities ( in the cities) still let husbands make decision . no place outside the home brighter world nowadays in education.Javanese women        Patriarchal System Suwarga nunut. nirwana katut konco-wingking a good woman: loyal. high position at home.

decision making for developing the community. hardworking and artistry working is self actualization and devotion to God double roles is a virtue ( inside and outside homes) not enough rights ( polygamy. family-oriented.Balinese women      Patriarchal System Spiritual. politics ) .

Batak women      Patriachal System No rights for marriage. family decision making respected in the family No education until 1930 the inheritance rights is lower than men’s .

Minangkabau Women      Matrilineal System Property. titles. family names handed down through women sides women’s family proposes for the marriage the husband moves to the home of the wife the husband takes care of his sisters’ family .

30) Indonesian Five Principle ( Pancasila) Indonesian Legislation referring to United Nation Convention (UU No 7 /1984) Equality for men and women .The myths ( formal)    Indonesian Constitution ( UUD 1945 pasal 27.

family benefit) victims of unjust treatments and violence .The reality       more roles for women except in politics ( 2 ministers) education plays an important roles in the increase of roles not enough opportunities for education especially in the rural areas limited rights in employment especially for low-paid workers and women living in the rural areas discrimination in private sectors ( salary. promotion. recruiting.

1 % 731 9 % .4 % 9 18.2 % 455 9 % 40 14.8 % 7 0 % 43 4.5 %        Men Percentage 177 9.Indonesian Women in politics  Government Institution Women Executive 18 Legislature 45 Supreme Court 7 State Accounting Board 0 Supreme Advisory Council 2 General Elections Commission 2 total 74  Governor 0 30 0 %  Regent 5 331 1.

Cut Meuthia (Aceh) Politics : Marwah Daud Ibrahim (Sulawesi) Education : R. (Jakarta). Marga T. Pratiwi ( Java) .A. Dewi Sartika. Dr. Gultom. Helvy Tiana Rosa (Aceh-Chinese). Mien R. Kartini . Sri Mulyani ( Java) Scientist : Dewi Fortuna Anwar (Sumatera). Anita Lie ( Java) . Uno . NH Dini ( Java) Arts : Christin Hakim (Sumatera). Astrid Wiratna (Bandung) Literature : Ayu Utami (Bogor). Rini Suwandi.Some Indonesian women eminent figures        Freedom Fighters : Cut Nyak Dien. Titik Puspa (kalimantan ) Economics : Miranda S.