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Heat of reaction = amount of heat that must be
added or removed during a chemical reaction.

Enthalpy = amount of heat content used or released
in a system at constant pressure.

Enthalpy is expressed as the change in enthalpy.

The change in enthalpy is related to a change in
internal energy (U) and a change in the volume (V),
which is multiplied by the constant pressure of the

Heat of reaction can be calculated from heat of
formation data.
 ΔHr = (Σ ΔHf of products) – (Σ ΔHf of reactants)

ΔH and ΔHºrxn

Δ = represents the change in the enthalpy;
(ΔHproducts -ΔHreactants)
› a positive value indicates the products have
greater enthalpy, or that it is an endothermic
reaction (heat is required)
› a negative value indicates the reactants have
greater enthalpy, or that it is an exothermic
reaction (heat is produced)

Internal energy of reaction,∆U ̊r

Internal energy occur when the reaction takes place
in a closed reactor at constant volume.

∆U ̊r = ∆H ̊r – RT( ∑gas product│vi │- ∑ gas reactnt │vi │)

There are two ways to calculate ∆ H (enthalpy) :
 By experimentally(using calorimeter)
 By numerically
ΔHº= ∑∆vp∆ HfӨ(products) - ∑∆ vr∆ HfӨ(reactants)
 Vp = stoichiometric coefficient of the product from
the balanced reaction
 Vr = stoichiometric coefficient of the reactant from
the balanced reaction
 ∆ Hof = standard enthalpy of formation for the
reactants or the products

Calculate the value of ∆Ho for the reaction:
2 S (g) + 2 OF2 (g)
SO2 (g) + SF4 (g)
OF2 (g) + H2O(l)
O2 (g) + 2HF(g) ∆Ho = -277 kJ
SF4 (g) + 2 H2O (l)
SO2(g) + 4HF(g) ∆Ho = -828 kJ
S(g) + O2 (g)
SO2 (g)
∆Ho = -297 kJ

( OF2 (g) + H2O (l)
(SF4 (g) + 2 H2O(l)
( S(g) + O2 (g )

2 OF2 (g) +2H2O (l)
SO2 (g) + 4HF (g)
2 S (g) + 2 O2 (g)
2 S (g) + 2 OF2

O2 (g) + 2HF(g) ∆Ho = -277 kJ ) x 2
SO2 (g) + 4HF(g) ∆Ho = -828 kJ ) FLIP
SO2 (g)
∆Ho = -297 kJ ) x 2

2 O2 (g) + 4 HF (g)
SF4 (g) + 2 H2O (l)
2 SO2 (g)
SO2 (g) + SF4 (g)

∆Ho = -277 kJ x 2
= -554 kJ
∆Ho = -828 kJ
+ 828 kJ
∆Ho = -297 kJ x 2 = -594 kJ
∆Ho = -320 kJ

Formation reactions are chemical reactions that form
one mole of substance from its constituent elements
in their standard states.

Heat formation = the measure of energy released or
consumed when one mole of substance in standard
state ( 1atm and 298.15 K ) is formed from its pure
elements under the same conditions

ΔH° = Σ(ν × ΔHf°) (products) - Σ(ν × ΔHf°) (reactants)

Draw and label
a flowchart

Two methods are
commonly used to
choose reference states
for enthalphy
calculations and to
calculate specific
enthalpies and ∆H.

Use material
balances and phase
relationship such
as Roult's Law to
determine as many
stream component
amounts as flow
rate as possible

reference states
for specific
calculations and
prepare and fill
in an inlet-outlet
enthalphy table

Calculate ∆H,
subtitute the
calculated value
in the appropriate
form of the
energy balances
question and
complete the

Standard heat of combustion of a subtance ΔH°c is
the heat of combustion of that subtance with oxygen
to yield specified products at standard condition(25̊C
and 1 atm )

ΔH°C = Ƹ[ΔH°c (reactants) ] –

The standard heat of reaction
C2H4(g) + 2 CI2(g)
C2HCI3(l)+H2(g)+HCI(g) is

∆H ̊r = -420.8kJ/mol. Calculate ∆U r̊ for this