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H I S T O R Y O F A R C H IT E C T U R E 3

Prepared by:

Archt. Clarissa L. Avendaño
UST College of Architecture
1st Sem AY 2008-2009

The greater Indus region was home to the largest of the four
ancient urban civilizations

• Located in the Northern Hemisphere
• World’s 7th largest country
• World's 2nd largest population


• Ancient


• Once


Bounded along its
S –
Bounded by:
W – Pakistan
E – Bay
of Bengal
NE – China,
E – Bangladesh,


S – Sri Lanka

Well defined geographical regions: • Mountain zone of the Himalayas.geographia. GEOGRAPHY . • Southern peninsula of the Deccan Plateau. • Indo-Gangetic plain (formed by the basins of three great rivers Indus. Ganges and Brahmaputra).

Main River Systems: • Himalayan rivers Ganges and Brahmaputra that are snow-fed • Peninsular rivers Godavari. Krishna and Mahanadi • Coastal rivers GEOGRAPHY .

• Fine red and cream sandstone in Agra used mainly as facing for rubble walling • Stone of carpentry works using white marble of Rajasthan in the north GEOLOGY .

org/wiki/Potstone GEOLOGY .metamorphic rock of talc schist) of Halebid.• Granite of Deccan and volcanic potstone (soapstone .wikipedia. India http://en. center and southern part Soapstone sculpture Hoysala Temple. Belur.

• Lack of building stone and the availability of timber along the Indus and Ganges valley Timber: • Teakwood . Uttar Pradesh and Punjab GEOLOGY .Northern mountain ranges • Shisham (Indian Rosewood) the river valleys of the north • .Burma • Softwood deodar .hardwood found in Bricks and Terra Cotta .Bengal.

Ajanta and Elephanta in the Western Ghats (mountain ranges) Ajanta Caves. homasgard/Bobby/ GEOLOGY • Rhats (rock-cut temples) were hewn out of amygdaloidal trap formation in Mamallapuram and Ellora .k12. 2nd c.• Horizontal rock strata which rise in perpendicular cliffs made possible the rock – cut sanctuaries of Karli.

• The western and northeastern coasts hit by monsoons get considerable rain. is hot and dry. has seasonal temperatures with cool winters.Climate depends not only on the time of year. especially in the Himalayas. particularly inland. Temperatures can reach as high as 48 degrees Celsius. • Most of southern India. CLIMATE . • Monsoons during June through September produce severe storms with rain. but also the location: • Northern India.

Religion plays an important role in the everyday life than in the West • Very basis of social structure • Bound up with human behavior and conduct of public affairs. Hinduism 3. Buddhism 4. Jainism RELIGION . Vedism and Brahmanism 2. 1.

by invading Aryan tribes who gradually conquered the earlier Indus Civilization (already in its decline). RELIGION . positive faith appropriate to battleloving tribes whose chieftains and gods/goddesses and heroes resemble divinities and characters. • Life and earth-affirming.E.C.C.VEDISM AND BRAHMANISM • Polytheistic religion brought around 1500 B. • The Veda (knowledge) .scripture with a collection of hymns composed between 1500 and 900 B.E.

Service replaced sacrifice.consisted of a libation of soma (liquor made of vegetable matter). RELIGION . • Vedism stressed hope for an afterlife in heaven and lacked the concepts of karma and reincarnation which would come to dominate Hinduism.VEDISM AND BRAHMANISM • Central object was sacrifice . • Worship of trees. stones and water • Out of Vedism developed the philosophical concepts of atman and Brahman.

his soul enters the body of a newborn child or even the body of an animal. RELIGION . • Ritualistic and includes extreme self denial and self punishment.HINDUISM • Evolved from the Vedic religion. where when a person dies. • Belief in the transmigration of souls (reincarnation). • Emphasizes the necessity of escaping from material life and of extinguishing desire.

• They are vegetarians. RELIGION . lest by eating meat they become cannibals. • Cows are considered sacred as are rivers.HINDUISM • 85 percent of the population is classified as Hindu.

com/india-caste-system.html RELIGION/SOCIAL .indhistory.HINDUISM • Caste system originated from the Aryans in order to maintain the purity of their blood and to maintain white supremacy. http://www.

http://www.htm CASTE SYSTEM RELIGION/SOCIAL .edu/~cheinz/syllabi/asst001/spring98/india.csuchico.

"outcastes. 3.a • Gandhi's Harijans ("children of ("downtrodden") .preferred names God") or Dalits • Traditional professions: 1. and manufacturing leather goods. RELIGION/SOCIAL ." without a varn. Dealing with the bodies of dead animals (sacred cattle that wander Indian villages) or unclaimed dead humans. 2. from such dead animals. Tanning leather. Cleaning up the human and animal waste.CASTE SYSTEM • Untouchables .

three of which (representing their Trinity) can be seen from any point of view the omnipresent one who is father of the Brahman Trinity.htm RELIGION .friesian.HINDUISM • Brahma is the chief god. • Has four heads.

• One of major religions in the world. and emphasizes meditation and observance of moral precepts.BUDDHISM • Religion and philosophy founded in NE India in the 5th c. BCE based on the teachings of Siddhartha Gautama. called the Buddha (Enlightened One). RELIGION Flicker . • To escape from suffering and the cycle of rebirth and the attainment of nirvana.

but also rejected many of its doctrines and all of its gods. • Main teachings are summarized in the Four Noble Truths. notably the doctrine of karma. • He adopted some ideas from the Hinduism of his time. of which the fourth is the Eightfold Path. RELIGION . during his lifetime he established the Buddhist monastic order (sangha).BUDDHISM • Buddha's teachings were transmitted orally by his disciples.

(273 . who created the first pan-Indian empire. Mahayana and Theravada. BCE. RELIGION . but it declined in succeeding centuries and was nearly extinct by the 13th c.232 BCE) promoted Buddhism during the 3rd c.BUDDHISM • Buddhism's two major branches. have each developed distinctive practices • Emperor Ashoka 3rd and most powerful Mauryan emperor.

org/resources/Spread.BUDDHISM • Spread south and flourished in Sri Lanka and S.html RELIGION . Asia. Korea. and Japan. as well as moving through Central Asia and Tibet to China.thebuddhistsociety. http://www.E.

BUDDHISM • Buddhist religious buildings became concentrated in monasteries and in shrines where relics of those whom had achieved salvation (nirvana) were deposited. processional paths. gateways. • These shrines took the form of Stupas or domical mounds which. RELIGION international . and crowning umbrella came to be regarded as symbols of the universe. • The monasteries became places of pilgrimage and dissemination of learning. grouped with their rails.

who was called Mahavira “the Great Hero” or Jina.JAINISM • Established in the 6th c. • Don’t believe in a creator god. • Sacred text . • Jainism's core belief is ahimsa. • Founded as a reaction against the Vedic religion. the “Victorious One”. or noninjury to all living things.Agamas RELIGION . though there are a number of lesser deities for various aspects of life. BCE by Vardhamana. which required animal sacrifices.

or liberation. • Living as an ascetic. and attaining moksha.JAINISM • Eternal and hold that it was revealed in stages by a number of Conquerors. Mahavira preached the need for rigorous penance and self-denial as the means of perfecting human nature. • View karma as an invisible material substance that interferes with liberation and can only be dissolved through asceticism. escaping the cycle of rebirth. RELIGION . of whom Mahavira was the 24th.

RELIGION .JAINISM • The ultimate goal of Jain is salvation through successive rebirths. • Jains are known for their charitable works. including building shelters for animals. the ideal being rigid asceticism and the avoidance of injury to every living creature. • Jain preaches universal tolerance.

their monks wear simple white robes. The laity are permitted to wear clothes of any color.philadelphiaproject.JAINISM Two groups of Jains: • Digambaras (literally "sky clad" or naked) their monks carry asceticism to the point of rejecting even clothing (even when they appear in public). • Shvetambaras (literally "white clad") .co. RELIGION .

a period of renunciation RELIGION .JAINISM Jains are recommended to pass through four stages during their lifetime: 1. Vanaprasth-ashrama: family and social services 4. Brahmacharya-ashrama: the life of a student 2. Gruhasth-ashrama: family life 3. Sanyast-ashrama: life as a monk.

both heavens and hells. The upper world: 30 heavens where celestial beings live. 4.JAINISM The universe exists as a series of layers. It had no beginning and will have no ending. Middle world: earth and the rest of the universe. It consists of: 1. 3. The supreme abode: located at the top of the universe and is where Siddha. 2. the liberated souls live. Nether world: 7 hells with various levels of misery and punishments RELIGION .

or base: where the lowest forms of life reside 6. It consists of: 5. Universe space: layers of clouds which surround the upper world 7. The Nigoda. RELIGION . matter. both heavens and hells. time. It had no beginning and will have no ending. medium of motion or medium of rest. Space beyond: an infinite volume without soul.JAINISM The universe exists as a series of layers.

but are distinguished by the extraordinary richness and complexity of their sculptural ornament. RELIGION .JAINISM • Jain temples differ little in essentials from Hindu temples.



Punjab – elevated citadel (urban center) 2. • Two principal cities planned systematically: 1. Mohenjo-Daro. INDUS VALLEY Civilization (around 2500 BC) • Civilization began to develop around the Indus River in what is now Pakistan and western India.I. Sindh town proper consisting of houses and market palaces HISTORY . Harappa.

universal and ritualistic HISTORY . built drainage systems that ran into brick-lined sewers and dug canals to irrigate their farms were developed systems • Civilization developed by the Dravidians equaled and possibly surpassed in splendor the civilizations of ancient Mesopotamia and Egypt.I. • Civilization is founded upon three basic concepts: the sacred. Indus Valley Civilization (around 2500 BC) • Writing and counting.

Central Asia and peninsular India. public and private wells. . • Material culture and the skeletons from the Harappa cemetery and other sites testify to a continual intermingling of communities from both the west and the east.I. One of its most well-known structures is the Great Bath of Mohenjo Daro. • There were other highly developed cultures in adjacent regions of Baluchistan. drains. bathing platforms and reservoirs. Indus Valley Civilization (around 2500 BC) • The Harappans used the same size bricks and standardized weights as were used in other Indus cities such as Mohenjo Daro and Dholavira. • These cities were well planned with wide streets.

Reconstruction of Gateway at Harappa .


MOHENJO DARO • Mound of the Dead • Ancient Indus Valley Civilization city flourished between 2600 and 1900 BCE. • One of the first world • Lies in Pakistan's Sindh province • Discovered in the 1920s • Probably the best known Indus site that .

Mohenjodaro .Bison Seal.

Mohenjo Daro Citadel Mound. Sindh .

Mohenjo Daro. Larkana District. Pakistan . Sindh.

• The drying up of the ancient Saraswati or Ghaggar-Hakra River. There are numerous Indus sites along that river bed. . may also have affected the civilization.• Indus culture gradually spread from west to east. with sites towards central and southern India flourishing after HARAPPA and MOHENJO DARO had declined. east of and parallel to the Indus.

DHOLAVIRA • Located on Khadir Beyt. and an elaborate system of drains to collect water from the city walls and house tops to fill these water tanks. • Excavated since 1990. . • As large as Harappa and Mohenjo Daro. an island in the Great Rann of Kutch in Gujarat State. India. it has some of the best preserved stone architecture. • Appears to have had several large reservoirs.


near the Sabarmati River and the Arabian Sea. . A bead factory and Persian Gulf seal have been found here suggesting that like many sites on the Gulf of Khambat. India.LOTHAL An artistic conception of ancient Lothal Archaeological Survey of India • • On the top of the Gulf of Khambat in Gujarat. it was deeply into trading. It is the most extensively researched Harappan coastal site.

• Over 80 hectares and is almost as large as Mohenjo Daro. • Discovered by Sir Aurel Stein and surveyed by Dr. GANWERIWALA • Located in Punjab. India. Pakistan near the Indian border.RAKHIGARHI • Recently discovered city in Haryana. Mohenjo Daro and Ganweriwala. . M. yet. R. • Partial excavations have revealed that it is as large as Harappa. and has not been excavated. Mughal in the 1970s. • Near a dry bed of the former Ghaggar or Sarasvati River. • Equidistant between Harappa and Mohenjo Daro • May have been a fifth major urban center.

India. excavated from 1996 to 2004 2. Discovered in 1958.Smaller Settlements Other important indus sites flourished for various periods between 3500 and 1700 BCE. Others are probably buried under modern towns. 1. Gola Dhoro • Also known as Bagasara) is a site in Gujarat. it is a controversial site. Daimabad • In Maharashtra near Bombay. . Some must have been lost or destroyed by shifting river paths.

• Would have been on the trade route from Lothal in Gujarat to Mesopotamia and was probably heavily involved in the fishing trade similar to that which exists today in the coast along Baluchistan. . as well as defensive walls 30 feet wide. Sutkagen Dor • in Baluchistan is the westernmost known Harappan site located on the Pakistani border with Iran.Smaller Settlements 3. • Usual citadel and town are present. • Thought to have once been on a navigable inlet of the Arabian Sea.