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- Undrained and Drained Shear Strength
- Shear Strength of Soil
- Triaxial Test
- Shear Strength of Soil
- 151567785 01 Tunnel Boring Machine Tbm Specifications
- Triaxial Test Report
- Soil Mechanics
- Triaxial Shear Test
- Vane Shear Test
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- Direct Shear Test
- UU Triaxial Test
- Direct Shear Test
- Mohrs Circle
- 300-Solved-Problems
- NS26-1footings
- Compaction-Sivakugan
- 71.Theoretical Soil Mechanics (Karl Terzaghi)
- TRIAXIAL TEST: CONSOLIDATED UNDRAINED
- Black Cotton Soil

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of Soils

N. Sivakugan 1

Shear failure

Soils generally fail in shear

embankment

strip footing

resistance

surface reaches the shear strength.

Shear failure

failure

surface

The soil grains slide

over each other along

the failure surface.

No crushing of

individual grains.

3

SIVA Copyright©2001

Shear failure

τ

σ

surface (τ ) reaches the shear strength

(τ f). 4

SIVA Copyright©2001

Mohr-Coulomb Failure Criterion

τ f = c + σ tan φ

e lo p e φ

re env

failu

friction

cohesio

n τ f

angle

c

σ

σ

τ f is the maximum shear stress the soil can take

without failure, under normal stress of σ . 5

SIVA Copyright©2001

Mohr-Coulomb Failure Criterion

Shear strength consists of two components:

cohesive and frictional.

τ

τ

τ f = c + σ f tan φ

f σ f tan frictional

φ

φ sive nt

compone

c e nt

c h

co pone

com

σ σ

f

6

SIVA Copyright©2001

c and φ are measures of shear

strength.

Higher the values, higher the shear

strength.

Mohr Circles & Failure Envelope

Y

X X

Y Soil elements at

σ

different locations

X ~ failure

Y ~ stable

Mohr Circles & Failure Envelope

The soil element does not fail if

the Mohr circle is contained

within the envelope

GL

∆

σσ

Yc σ

c σ σ c+∆

∆

Initially, Mohr circle is a point c σ

σ

Mohr Circles & Failure Envelope

As loading progresses, Mohr

circle becomes larger…

GL

∆

σσ

Yc σ

c σ

c

when Mohr circle touches the

envelope

Orientation of Failure Plane

Failure plane

Y oriented at 45 +

φ /2 to horizontal

45 + φ /2

GL

45 +

φ /2

∆

σσ φ

Yc σ 90+

φ

c σ σ c+∆

c σ

Mohr circles in terms of σ & σ ’

σ σ v’ u

v

σ σ

= +

X X h

X u

h ’

effective stresses

total stresses

σ h σ v’ σ σ

’ h

u v

Envelopes in terms of σ & σ ’

Identical specimens

initially subjected to

different isotropic

∆

stresses (σ c) and then

σ σσc f

loaded axially to failure c

σ σ c

c

uf

Initially… Failure

c,

φ

in terms of σ

At failure,

σ 3 = σ c; σ =

1

c’, φ ’

σ c+∆ σ f

in terms of

σ 3’ = σ 3 – u f ; σ 1’ = σ 1 σ ’

- uf

Triaxial Test Apparatus

piston (to apply deviatoric stress)

failure plane

O-ring

impervious

membrane

soil sample at

failure

porous

stone

perspex cell

water

cell pressure

pore pressure or

back pressure

pedestal volume change

14

SIVA Copyright©2001

Types of Triaxial Tests

deviatoric stress

(∆ σ )

cell pressure σ c

yes no yes no

sample sample loading loading

15

SIVA Copyright©2001

Types of Triaxial Tests

Depending on whether drainage is

allowed or not during

initial isotropic cell pressure

application,

shearing, and

there are three special types of triaxial

tests that have practical significances.

They are:

Consolidated Undrained (CU) test

Unconsolidated Undrained (UU) test

16

SIVA Copyright©2001

For unconsolidated

undrained test, in

terms of total

stresses, φ u = 0

no cohesion. clays, c’ = 0 & c = 0.

c = 0 & c’= 0

CD, CU and UU Triaxial Tests

Consolidated Drained (CD) Test

no excess pore pressure throughout

the test

very slow shearing to avoid build-up of

pore pressure

Can be days!

∴ not desirable

gives c’ and φ ’

situations (e.g., long term stability,

very slow loading)

18

SIVA Copyright©2001

CD, CU and UU Triaxial Tests

Consolidated Undrained (CU) Test

pore pressure develops during shear

Measure

σ’

gives c’ and φ ’

and φ ’)

19

SIVA Copyright©2001

CD, CU and UU Triaxial Tests

Unconsolidated Undrained (UU) Test

pore pressure develops during shear

Not measured = 0; i.e., failure envelope

∴σ ’ is horizontal

unknown

analyse in terms of σ gives cu

and φ u

very quick test

situations (e.g., short term stability,

quick loading)

20

SIVA Copyright©2001

σ 1- σ 3 Relation at Failure

σ 1

X σ 3

σ σ

3 1

2

σ 3 = σ 1 tan ( 45 − φ / 2) − 2c tan( 45 − φ / 2)

2

σ Stress Point

v

σ X

h

τ t stress point

stress point

(σ v-

σ h)/2

σ σ σ s

v

(σ vh+σ h)

/2 σv −σh

t=

2

σv +σh

s=

2 22

SIVA Copyright©2001

Stress Path

During loading…

Stress path

is the locus

τ t of stress

points

Stress path

σ s

progress in loading with respect to failure envelope.

23

SIVA Copyright©2001

Failure Envelopes

τ t failur

e

φ tan-1 (sin φ )

σ s

24

SIVA Copyright©2001

Pore Pressure Parameters

pressure change in undrained

loading, in terms of total stress

changes ~ after Skempton (1954)

∆

σ 1

∆u = B[ ∆σ 3 + A( ∆σ 1 − ∆σ 3 )]

Y ∆

σ 3

∆u Skempton’s pore pressure

=? parameters A and B

Pore Pressure Parameters

B-parameter

B = f (saturation,..)

For saturated soils, B ≈ 1.

Af = f(OCR)

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