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GSM UL-DL Unbalance & Solutions

---- Special Subject Training

V2.1

Suitable for staff with junior P&O skill certificates (lower than certificate III)
Issued by GSM Network Planning & Optimization Dept.

Internal Use Only

Version introduction
Version

Date

Writer

Assessor

Amendment records

V1.0

2009-01-24

Chen Chun

Zheng Hao
Fei Aiping

None

V2.0

2009-03-27

Fei Aiping

Yang Jiazhi

1.

2.
3.

4.

Simplified judgment criteria,


making them only relevant
to product and frequency
band;
Added V2 counter;
Added 8PSK modulation
method and decision
conditions;
Added explanations of
influence from TA and
coverage enhancement
technique.

Internal Use Only

Training goals
To know definition of link balance
To master calculation process of link
balance
To understand the factors influencing
link balance and the checking process
of link balance

Contents
Definition of link balance
Theoretical calculation of link balance
Test method of link balance
Analysis and elimination of link unbalance
Practical cases

Internal Use Only

Definition of link balance

What is link balance?

In radio communications, UL
and DL, they each have their
own transmitting power,
equipment loss, pathloss and
receiving sensitivity. Strictly
speaking, link balance means
that the UL-DL radio pathloss
difference is 0.

For each network, link balance


is one of the key factors to
setting up network and
ensuring network performance.

UL-DL unbalance may result in


network problems, such as
failure in starting a call,
handover failure and silent call,
etc..

Internal Use Only

Deviation range of link balance

link balance judgment actually refers to judging the


deviation range. In UL-DL calculation, a deviation
within 10dB is allowed.
If this range is exceeded, we can say that the link is
in unbalanced status, hence some network
optimizations or engineering checking procedures
should be considered so as to solve the problem.

Internal Use Only

Explanations on engineering margin

Origin of the engineering margin10dB:

UL/DL power control

Since we set it according to the more conservative


threshold, the cell marginal power control wont take
effect. So we dont need to consider it here.

BTS UL measurement calibration deviation --3dB


Difference in carrier output power --1dB
Measurement difference value under DTX --0.5dB
Difference in combiner loss --0.5dB

Internal Use Only

Explanations on engineering margin

The difference between MS actual power and the reported


power class--2dB;
As for power control process, the difference between MS actual
power and power control class can reach to 5db.;
Take these factors into consideration, we set the MS actual
power deviation range to be 3dB .

Power class
1
2
3
4
5

GSM900 Nominal DCS1800 Nominal


Maximum output Maximum output
power
power

8 W (39 dBm)
5 W (37 dBm)
2 W (33 dBm)
0.8 W (29 dBm)

1 W (30 dBm)
0.25 W (24 dBm)
4 W (36 dBm)

Tolerance (dB) for


conditions
normal
2
2
2
2
2

extreme
2.5
2.5
2.5
2.5
2.5

Internal Use Only

Explanations on engineering margin

Influence from radio environment-2 dB


In practice, call quality is
affected by environment and
many other factors, such as
fluctuation in signal level, which
can be very big sometimes, so
we accept a deviation of 2dB
in engineering.

Contents
Definition of link balance
Theoretical calculation of link balance
Test method of link balance
Analysis and elimination of link unbalance
Practical cases

Internal Use Only

Calculation formula of link balance

PB(link balance value)RxLevDL-RxLevUL=BtsTxPwrMax-MsTxPwrMax

RxLevDLDL level of MS receiving BTS signal


RxLevDL=BtsTxPwrMax-RadioPathLossDL
RxLevULUL level of BTS receiving MS signal
RxLevUL=MsTxPwrMax-RadioPathLossUL

BtsTxPwrMaxrack-top output power


RadioPathLossradio pathloss, UL and
DL are the same

Internal Use Only

Equipment parameters Transmitting power

Product
transmitting power

Product series

GMSK modulation

8PSK modulation

BTS V3_DTRU
BTS V2_ETRM

60W

47.8 dBm

40W

46 dBm

BTS V2_TRM

40W

46 dBm

--

--

GSM 900 Nominal


Maximum output
power

DCS 1800 Nominal


Maximum output
power

PCS 1900 Nominal


Maximum output
power

------

1 W (30 dBm)

1 W (30 dBm)

8 W (39 dBm)

0.25 W (24 dBm)

0.25 W (24 dBm)

5 W (37 dBm)

4 W (36 dBm)

2 W (33 dBm)

2 W (33 dBm)

0.8 W (29 dBm)

Power
class

Terminal
transmitting
power

Max transmitting power

Internal Use Only

Equipment parameterstypical values for combiner


loss

Combiner loss

Module

Condition

Combining loss (dB)(typical value)

Jump combiner

0.8

2 in 1

4.2

2 in 1

3.4

3 in 1

5.5

CENG

6 in 1

5.3

CDUD

Jump combiner

0.8

2 in 1

4.4

2 in 1

3.6

3 in 1

5.5

CEND

6 in 1

5.5

CDUP

Jump combiner

0.8

2 in 1

4.4

2 in 1

3.6

3 in 1

5.5

CDUG

CEUG

CEUD

CEUP

Internal Use Only

Standard value for link balance

Adopt BTS V3 product series


8PSK modulation method
BTS static power class=0
common BTS type (PA output port is directly connected with CDU
combiner input port)
common antenna system (excl. TA, repeater and indoor distribution
system)
Exclude various kinds of coverage enhancement techniques

Frequency band

PB standard

900M

46-4.4-339dB

1800M

46-4.2-3012dB

Internal Use Only

Normal deviation range of link balance

Taking into consideration the engineer margin of 10dB, the


normal deviation range of link balance should be:

Frequency band

Normal PB deviation range

900M

-1~19dB

1800M

2~22dB

Contents
Definition of link balance
Theoretical calculation of link balance
Test method of link balance
Analysis and elimination of link unbalance
Practical cases

Internal Use Only

Measurement method of link balancemeasurement


task at OMCR
Counter name

BTS_V2

BTS_V3

Total value of uplink signal


strength of wireless channels

C10710

C901120010

Number of received uplink


signal strength samples of
wireless channels

C10707

C901120007

Total value of downlink signal


strength of wireless channels

C10714

C901120014

Number of received downlink


signal strength samples of
wireless channels

C10711

C901120011

UL level statistical average

C10710/ C10707

C901120010/ C901120007

DL level statistical average

C10714/ C10711

C901120014/ C901120011

UL/DL power control is counted into the statistics at


OMCR; the statistics gathered are about cells but not
carriers.

Internal Use Only

PB calculation formula

Influence from dynamic power control


10dB shall be deducted in the PB calculation formula for
900M cells
Influence from UL channel grain
BTS V2_TRM shall deduct UL channel gain of 14dB

Frequency
band

Product series
BTS V3(dB)/ BTS V2_ETRM(dB)

900M

1800M

BTS V2_TRM(dB)

DL level statistical average (UL level


statistical average -10 )

DL level statistical average (UL level statistical


average -10 -14)

DL level statistical average UL level


statistical average

DL level statistical average (UL level statistical


average -14)

Internal Use Only

Influencing factors in link-balance calculation

In order to obtain precise PB value, the following factors shall


be taken into consideration in calculation:
Influencing factors

Explanations

Frequency band of existing


network

There is a difference of 3dB in judgment criteria due


to different frequency bands;

Model of BTS products used


& modulation method
adopted

Judgment criteria for different BTS products are


different for the BtsTxPwrMax is different.

Combining method adopted

Combiner level 1 is adopted in the judgment criteria.


CduLoss difference caused by other combining
methods shall be eliminated.

If external TA installed?

In the judgment criteria, default is NO TA; if external


TA is installed, its influence on UL-DL shall be
eliminated.

If coverage enhancement
technique adopted?

The gain produced by coverage enhancement


technique shall also be eliminated.

Measurement method of link balanceRMA


signaling analysis

Record Abis signaling for th problem cells,


choose measurement report;
import signaling data to RMS, then use TRX
equation to automatically generate the
scattergram of link balance vs TA ;
The benefits of using TRX equation are as
follows:

When RMA calculates UL-DL difference,


it considers influence from UL-DL power
control;

investigate carriers, which is good for


locating problem carriers in the cell.
Note: When RMA signaling analysis tool is
adopted, we need to choose the cells
frequency band according to actual situations.

Definition (China Unicom) :

(sample points with |DL-UL level


difference|>=15dB)*100%/(total sample
points)
Cells with this indicator>= 30% are
confirmed to have UL-DL unbalance.

Internal Use Only

Contents
Definition of link balance
Theoretical calculation of link balance
Test method of link balance
Analysis and elimination of link unbalance
Practical cases

Internal Use Only

Performance analysis-link balance analysis


Filter out cells with link No improvement
unbalance
No
No
improvement
improvement
Investigate
repeater system
Yes

Adjust parameters
Static
power
control

Yes

No

Indoor distribution
System &repeater
No

Investigate system
equipment

Antenna
system
problem

Abnormal
CDU
Abnormal
installation of problem carrier
antenna
output

Abnormal
carrier UL
calibration

Internal Use Only

Analysis of link-unbalance causes

Link unbalance caused by external TA connecting to antenna, repeater or


indoor distribution system

The UL-DL of these external devices can be unbalanced, which can cause
the whole BTS system link to be unbalanced.
Cable connection problem

If the cable connection between feeder, jumper or antenna and RF


equipment is not tight, increase UL-DL level loss and UL-DL level
difference can be caused, thus resulting in link unbalance.
Carrier hardware problem

Carrier output power deviates from normal value;

If the gain of carrier UL receive channel is small, it causes UL-DL level


difference to increase.
CDU problem

The increased insertion loss in DL channel will cause DL level to decrease


and reduce UL-DL level difference, thus coverage will be smaller;

Problem with UL receive channel will cause DL level to decrease, and


reduce UL-DL level difference, thus silent call or call drop will be resulted.

Contents
Definition of link balance
Theoretical calculation of link balance
Test method of link balance
Analysis and elimination of link unbalance
Practical cases

Internal Use Only

Case 1: Link unbalance caused by repeater

Problem
description

Subscribers complained about frequent call drops.

The problem cell was located after call tests were made; traffic statistics
analysis showed in this 900M cell, (DL-UL) level difference was 25dB,

which was far beyond the normal link balance range .


while the daily average of DL-UL level difference in Cell 2 (under
the same BTS) was 2dB.

checked

Handling
process

CDU and carrier, but no fault was found.

connected

the problem cells antenna (its antenna is connected with

repeater) to the normal Cell2.


PB

value in cell2 increased due to change on antenna .

The receive tributary with repeater has caused UL-DL level difference.

Internal Use Only

Case 2: Cable connection problem


Customers

complained that MS displayed signal available, but calls couldnt be

established.
Problem
description

After

call tests were made, problem cell was located. We discovered from traffic
analysis that the UL-DL level difference in the cell was 30dB, which exceeded the
normal range.
On-site

checking was needed.

Changed
During

Handling
process

carrier first.

changing the carrier, we found the cable connector was not tightened.

Checked

statistical result the next day, UL-DL level difference dropped to 6dB,
which was within the normal range.
After

test, we found that UL-DL level difference of carrier was improved by about
1dB, which could not be the main cause for the improvement. Considering the
loose connector, we could confirm that poor cable connection was the main cause
for link unbalance.
Loose cable connection could result in PB unbalance.

Internal Use Only

Equipment maintenance

Bad PB statistical result may be caused by broken


connector or cable, bad antenna VSWR or drop of
equipment.
Regular maintenance schedule is recommended, in order
to locate the parts with problem before the situation grows
worse.

Internal Use Only

Case 3: Carrier problem

Problem description:
Subscribers complained that
handover happened frequently
when they made calls around a
cell. Test was made at the site
being complained about.
Sectional drawing of the test is
shown bellow:
Test phenomena
Handover from 1800M to 900M
cells happened after MS
occupied a 1800M cell;
Handover from 900M to 1800M
cells happened after MS
occupied a 900M cell;
Handover between 900M and
1800M cells happened
frequently.

Internal Use Only

Case 3: Carrier problem

Problem analysis

Handover cause analysis

1800M900M handover cause: UL level handover


900M1800M handover cause: PBGT handover
Number of UL level handover in 1800M cells takes 90%
of total.

PB unbalance may exist;


After traffic statistics analayis, we found UL-DL level
difference of the 1800M cells was all above 25dB.
Its confirmed to be UL-DL unbalance.

Internal Use Only

Case 3: Carrier problem

Handling process
After KPI analysis, voice service in 1800M cells was
confirmed normal.
Checked power control settings, no errors found.
Checked cable connections, no loose connectors, no
damaged heads.
Changed carrier, PB value decreased to 10dB.
Result of retest displayed frequent handover problem was
sloved.

Carrier problem resulted in PB unbalance.

Internal Use Only

Questions for thinking

When we calculate link balance, what factors need to


be taken into consideration? Why?
As for link unbalance caused by too low UL level, what
methods can be employed to make adjustment?