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You are on page 1of 65

Distribution Systems

Background

Will now consider pipe systems under

pressure flow

Water distribution systems

Sewer interceptors

Problems can be solved using:

Continuity equation

Steady-state energy equation

CEE 311Hydroscience

Continuity Equation

Between two points in the system,

continuity equation states that flows are

equal:

Q1 A 1V1 Q2 A 2 V2

CEE 311Hydroscience

Total head is the sum of elevation,

pressure and velocity heads

Between two points in the system, can

write the steady-state energy equation:

P1

V12

P2

V22

Z1

Z2

h f h m (11.1)

2g

2g

Elevation Friction losses

Pressure Minor losses

Velocity

CEE 311Hydroscience

Definition of Terms

Hydraulic grade line (HGL)

Line depicting elevation of pressure

head + elevation head along the pipe

Energy grade line (EGL)

Line depicting elevation of total head

along the pipe

For uniform pipe, V1=V2 thus EGL is

parallel to HGL

CEE 311Hydroscience

L

Sf

hf

L

CEE 311Hydroscience

The EGL will have discontinuities at

fittings due to minor losses

Pumps and turbines also add

discontinuities

For pump, add energy term to LHS

For turbine, subtract energy term

from LHS

CEE 311Hydroscience

In some cases, can determine hf from

energy balance

Can compute hf directly from equations

Chezy equation

Darcy-Weisbach equation

Hazen-Williams equation

CEE 311Hydroscience

Chezy Equation

Recall the form of the Chezy equation:

V C RS

(10.11)

LV 2 4LV 2

hf

2

RC

dC2

CEE 311Hydroscience

Darcy-Weisbach Equation

In 1845, Darcy and Weisbach found a

corresponding model for pipe flow:

L V2

hf f

d 2g

(11.2)

length [L], d = pipe diameter [L], V =

velocity [LT-1], and g = gravity [LT-2]

CEE 311Hydroscience

Darcy-Weisbach Equation

Equating this to the Chezy formula, see

the relationship between Chezy

coefficient and the friction factor:

8g

f 2

C

or

8g

C

f

CEE 311Hydroscience

Darcy-Weisbach Equation

The friction factor depends on the flow

Different relationship for laminar and

turbulent flow

Recall that Reynolds number (Re)

can be used to define flow conditions:

Vd

Re

(11.3)

CEE 311Hydroscience

Darcy-Weisbach Equation

For laminar flow (Re < 2000), friction

factor is a simple function of Re (64/Re)

For turbulent flow (Re > 4000), friction

factor is a function of Re and pipe

roughness

Pipe roughness determined from

equivalent sand roughness (e)

CEE 311Hydroscience

CEE 311Hydroscience

Darcy-Weisbach Equation

Based on experiments in the 1930s and

1940s, determined relationship between

friction factor and Re

Expressed in graphical form as the

Moody diagram

CEE 311Hydroscience

Moody Diagram

CEE 311Hydroscience

Darcy-Weisbach Equation

In 1976, Jain derived an empirical

relationship for the family of curves

presented in the Moody diagram:

e

5.72

2 log

0.9

3.7d Re

f

(11.8)

CEE 311Hydroscience

Minor Losses

To determine head losses due to pipe

fittings (bends, valves, transitions):

V2

hm K

2g

(11.12)

the type of fitting (Table 11.2)

CEE 311Hydroscience

CEE 311Hydroscience

Darcy-Weisbach Equation

There are three main variables in the

Darcy-Weisbach equation: hf, d and

V(or Q)

Thus there are three main classes of

problems:

Compute hf given d and V

Compute V given d and hf

Compute d given hf and Q

CEE 311Hydroscience

Compute hf (given d, V)

Determine Re from V, d and (function

of temperature)

Determine f using either Moody

diagram or equation (laminar eqn or

Jain formula)

Compute hf directly from D-W equation

CEE 311Hydroscience

Since V and f are unknown, cannot

determine Re directly

Solution is to use a trial-and-error

procedure:

Assume a value for f

Compute V from D-W eqn

Determine Re and hence f

Iterate until f converges

CEE 311Hydroscience

Since V and f are unknown, cannot

determine Re directly

Solution is to use a trial-and-error

procedure:

Assume a value for f

Compute d from D-W eqn and

continuity (V=Q/A)

Determine Re and hence f

Iterate until f converges

CEE 311Hydroscience

Hazen-Williams Equation

Another relationship for hf is commonly

used for pipe flow in water-supply

systems:

0.63 0.54

V 1.318CR S

(11.9)

coefficient, R is hydraulic radius (d/4)

in ft, and S is slope of EGL (hf/L)

CEE 311Hydroscience

Hazen-Williams Equation

For circular pipes, can substitute

V=Q/A, A=pd2/4, and R=d/4 to get

English

Metric

Q 0.432Cd2.63S0.54

(11.10a)

2.63 0.54

(11.10b)

Q 0.278Cd

diameter in ft (m), and S is slope of EGL

(hf/L), dimensionless

CEE 311Hydroscience

Pipes in Series

Consider a compound pipeline, with the

pipes in series:

equivalent length of a single diameter

pipe

CEE 311Hydroscience

Pipes in Series

For pipes in series, know that:

Q1=Q2==Qn

hf=hf1+hf2++hf3

If we assume a value of Q, can compute

individual losses

Setting this equal to loss for a single

pipe (diameter d), can solve for

equivalent length (Leq)

CEE 311Hydroscience

Pipes in Parallel

Consider a compound pipeline, with the

pipes in parallel:

CEE 311Hydroscience

Pipes in Parallel

For pipes in parallel, know that:

hf=hf1=hf2==hf3

Q=Q1+Q2++Qn

If we assume a value of hf, can compute

individual discharges (Qi) for each pipe

Setting total loss for single pipe

(diameter d) equal to hf, can solve for

equivalent length (Leq)

CEE 311Hydroscience

Pipe Networks

Flow through pipe networks has

multiple paths

Solution techniques based on

corrections to assumed flows

Hardy-Cross method

Linear theory

Newton-Rhapson method

CEE 311Hydroscience

CEE 311Hydroscience

Pipe Networks

For a valid solution, two conditions

must hold:

The algebraic sum of the pressure

drops around any closed loop must be

zero

The flow entering a junction must

equal the flow leaving it

CEE 311Hydroscience

Pipe Networks

Recall the Darcy-Weisbach and HazenWilliams formulas:

2

16 L Q

hf 2 f 5

p d 2g

4.727L 1.85

h f 1.85 4.87 Q

C d

hf=KQn, where K is equivalent

resistance (see Table 11.5 in Gupta)

CEE 311Hydroscience

Hardy-Cross Method

Method is based on successive

iterations

A flow is assumed in each pipe to satisfy

continuity

A correction to each flow is computed

based on pressure drops around closed

loops

CEE 311Hydroscience

Hardy-Cross Method

The pressure drop condition can be

written as

loop

can be written as

KQ

0

n

loop

CEE 311Hydroscience

Hardy-Cross Method

Using a binomial expansion and

neglecting 2nd and higher order terms,

h f

loop

n h f Q a

(11.18)

loop

assumed Qa and n is the exponent in the

resistance formula

CEE 311Hydroscience

To accommodate pumps in the system,

the energy equation needs to be

modified:

P1

V12

P2

V22

Z1

H p Z2

hf hm

2g

2g

the pump

CEE 311Hydroscience

V1=V2

P1=P2

=Hp=DZ+hf+hm

DZ

22

2V 2 V

P1

V12 P2 P1

P

V

2 12 h h

Z

H p1 Z 2 Z1 p

hf f hmm

2

2g

2g2g

CEE 311Hydroscience

Efficiency of pump (h) is the ratio of

horsepower out (BHP) and power in,

thus BHP can be computed as

QH p

BHP

550h

(11.14)

weight (lb/ft3), Q is flow (cfs), Hp is

head added (ft), and h is efficiency

CEE 311Hydroscience

Pumps

There are many different types of

pumps

Closed radial

Open radial

Mixed flow

Propeller

CEE 311Hydroscience

Pumps

For design purposes, pumps are

selected based on performance

Performance parameters include:

Rotational speed

Discharge capacity

Pumping head

Power applied

Efficiency

CEE 311Hydroscience

Affinity Laws

For geometrically similar (homologous)

pumps, dimensional analysis produces

3

Q 2 N 2 D2

Q1 N1 D1

H 2 N 2 D2

H1 N1 D1

3

P2 N2 D2

P1 N1 D1

CEE 311Hydroscience

Static suction lift: Vertical distance

from source water level to centerline

of pump

CEE 311Hydroscience

Static discharge lift: Vertical distance

from centerline of pump to water

level at outlet

CEE 311Hydroscience

Total static head: Sum of static

suction lift and static discharge lift

=DZ

CEE 311Hydroscience

Total dynamic head (Hp): Sum of total

static head and head losses

H p DZ hloss DZ hf hm

friction losses, in terms of Q:

2

0.81 LQ

H p DZ

f 5

g d

2

KQ

(11.31)

d4

CEE 311Hydroscience

CEE 311Hydroscience

Pump Characteristics

So far, weve assumed the efficiency (h)

of a pump is constant

In practice, for a given pump running at

a given speed, there are relationships

among Q, Hp, and h

The relationships are called the pump

characteristics or performance curves

CEE 311Hydroscience

Pump Characteristics

The pump characteristic curves are

experimentally derived

Generally shown as a function of Q

Pumping head (Hp)

Brake horsepower (P)

Efficiency (h)

CEE 311Hydroscience

CEE 311Hydroscience

Pump Systems

If we superimpose the system-head

curve with the pump-characteristic

curve, the intersection will determine

the operating point of the pump in the

system

If efficiency is too low, then select

another pump

CEE 311Hydroscience

Economics Review

In many cases, comparison of different

water-resources alternatives is difficult

due to differing types of costs, benefits

Economic analysis offers a basis for

comparison

There are 2 general bases for

comparison: money and time

CEE 311Hydroscience

Economics Review

The time to be considered will be one of the

following:

Economic life

Point where benefits < costs

Physical life

Analysis period

Planning horizon, generally less than

economic or physical life

Since projects have different lives and cash

flows, need to reduce to a common unit

CEE 311Hydroscience

In an inflation-free world, there is a

time-value associated with money

Given $1 today, I could invest the

money, earn i percent interest, and have

$1(1+i) in a year

If we let P = present value, and F1 =

future value in 1 year, see that

F1

F1 P1 i P

1 i

CEE 311Hydroscience

Thus $1 a year from today is worth less

than $1 in terms of todays money

In general, for a future amount at the

end of N years, see that

FN P1 i

and

FN

1 iN

CEE 311Hydroscience

Usually use the following notation:

P

1

i,N

F

1 iN

Present worth of

a future sum

F

N

i,N 1 i

P

Future worth of a

present sum

CEE 311Hydroscience

Now consider a series of payments which

result in $A each year

This is termed an annual series

From the formula for present worth of a

future sum, see that

A

A

P

1

2

1 i 1 i

1 iN

CEE 311Hydroscience

It can be shown that:

P

1 i 1

i,N

N

A

i1 i

Present worth of

an annual series

A

i1 i

i,N

P

1 iN 1

Equivalent

annual series of a

present sum

CEE 311Hydroscience

It is easy to shown that:

F

1 i 1

i,N

A

i

Future worth of

an annual series

A

i

i,N

F

1 iN 1

Equivalent

annual series of a

future sum

CEE 311Hydroscience

Economic Analysis

With the discounting formulas, can put

projects on an equivalent basis in terms

of money and time

In practice, there are three approaches:

Present worth method

Benefit-cost ratio method

Net annual benefit method

CEE 311Hydroscience

Economic Analysis

Consider the choice between two projects:

Initial cost

Annual benefits

Project life

Discount rate

Project A

$50,000

$12,000

50 yrs

4%

Project B

$50,000

$12,500

25 yrs

4%

CEE 311Hydroscience

The idea is to compute the net present worth

(B-C) of each project

Select the project with the largest net present

worth

Rules of analysis:

Bring benefits, costs back to the present

Use the same discount rate

Use the same period of analysis

CEE 311Hydroscience

The idea is to move to the next alternative if

benefits increase more than costs

Rules of analysis:

Bring benefits, costs back to the present

Use the same discount rate

Use the same period of analysis

Rank alternatives from least to greatest

cost

If DB/DC >1, move to next alternative

CEE 311Hydroscience

The idea is to chose the project with the

largest net annual benefit (B-C)

Rules of analysis:

Compute annual benefits, costs

Use the same discount rate

Use the same period of analysis

CEE 311Hydroscience

The discount rate represents the cost

of money

For private industry, use the interest

rate corresponding to the least

expensive source of capital

For the public sector, generally use the

rate paid by the Treasury on securities

with terms to maturity exceeding 15 yrs

CEE 311Hydroscience

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