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Pipe Flow and Water

Distribution Systems

Background
Will now consider pipe systems under
pressure flow
Water distribution systems
Sewer interceptors
Problems can be solved using:
Continuity equation
Steady-state energy equation
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Continuity Equation
Between two points in the system,
continuity equation states that flows are
equal:
Q1 A 1V1 Q2 A 2 V2

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Steady-State Energy Equation


Total head is the sum of elevation,
pressure and velocity heads
Between two points in the system, can
write the steady-state energy equation:
P1
V12
P2
V22
Z1
Z2
h f h m (11.1)

2g

2g
Elevation Friction losses
Pressure Minor losses
Velocity

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Definition of Terms
Hydraulic grade line (HGL)
Line depicting elevation of pressure
head + elevation head along the pipe
Energy grade line (EGL)
Line depicting elevation of total head
along the pipe
For uniform pipe, V1=V2 thus EGL is
parallel to HGL
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Hydraulic and Energy Grade Lines


L
Sf

Gupta, Fig. 11.1

hf
L

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Energy Grade Line Concepts


The EGL will have discontinuities at
fittings due to minor losses
Pumps and turbines also add
discontinuities
For pump, add energy term to LHS
For turbine, subtract energy term
from LHS
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Computing Friction Losses


In some cases, can determine hf from
energy balance
Can compute hf directly from equations
Chezy equation
Darcy-Weisbach equation
Hazen-Williams equation

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Chezy Equation
Recall the form of the Chezy equation:
V C RS

(10.11)

Substituting S = hf/L and solving for hf:


LV 2 4LV 2
hf

2
RC
dC2
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Darcy-Weisbach Equation
In 1845, Darcy and Weisbach found a
corresponding model for pipe flow:
L V2
hf f
d 2g

(11.2)

Where f = friction factor [-], L = pipe


length [L], d = pipe diameter [L], V =
velocity [LT-1], and g = gravity [LT-2]
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Darcy-Weisbach Equation
Equating this to the Chezy formula, see
the relationship between Chezy
coefficient and the friction factor:
8g
f 2
C

or

8g
C
f

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Darcy-Weisbach Equation
The friction factor depends on the flow
Different relationship for laminar and
turbulent flow
Recall that Reynolds number (Re)
can be used to define flow conditions:
Vd
Re

(11.3)
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Darcy-Weisbach Equation
For laminar flow (Re < 2000), friction
factor is a simple function of Re (64/Re)
For turbulent flow (Re > 4000), friction
factor is a function of Re and pipe
roughness
Pipe roughness determined from
equivalent sand roughness (e)
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Roughness terms for pipes

Gupta, Table 11.1

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Darcy-Weisbach Equation
Based on experiments in the 1930s and
1940s, determined relationship between
friction factor and Re
Expressed in graphical form as the
Moody diagram

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Moody Diagram

Relative roughness (e/d)

Gupta, Fig. 11.4

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Darcy-Weisbach Equation
In 1976, Jain derived an empirical
relationship for the family of curves
presented in the Moody diagram:
e
5.72
2 log
0.9
3.7d Re
f

(11.8)

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Minor Losses
To determine head losses due to pipe
fittings (bends, valves, transitions):
V2
hm K
2g

(11.12)

The loss coefficient (K) is a function of


the type of fitting (Table 11.2)
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Minor Loss Coefficients

Gupta, Table 11.2

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Darcy-Weisbach Equation
There are three main variables in the
Darcy-Weisbach equation: hf, d and
V(or Q)
Thus there are three main classes of
problems:
Compute hf given d and V
Compute V given d and hf
Compute d given hf and Q
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Compute hf (given d, V)
Determine Re from V, d and (function
of temperature)
Determine f using either Moody
diagram or equation (laminar eqn or
Jain formula)
Compute hf directly from D-W equation

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Compute V (given d, hf)


Since V and f are unknown, cannot
determine Re directly
Solution is to use a trial-and-error
procedure:
Assume a value for f
Compute V from D-W eqn
Determine Re and hence f
Iterate until f converges
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Compute d (given hf, Q)


Since V and f are unknown, cannot
determine Re directly
Solution is to use a trial-and-error
procedure:
Assume a value for f
Compute d from D-W eqn and
continuity (V=Q/A)
Determine Re and hence f
Iterate until f converges
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Hazen-Williams Equation
Another relationship for hf is commonly
used for pipe flow in water-supply
systems:
0.63 0.54

V 1.318CR S

(11.9)

Where V is velocity in ft/s, C is a


coefficient, R is hydraulic radius (d/4)
in ft, and S is slope of EGL (hf/L)
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Hazen-Williams Equation
For circular pipes, can substitute
V=Q/A, A=pd2/4, and R=d/4 to get
English
Metric

Q 0.432Cd2.63S0.54

(11.10a)

2.63 0.54

(11.10b)

Q 0.278Cd

Where Q is flow in ft3/s (m3/s), d is


diameter in ft (m), and S is slope of EGL
(hf/L), dimensionless

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Pipes in Series
Consider a compound pipeline, with the
pipes in series:

The general approach is to compute the


equivalent length of a single diameter
pipe
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Pipes in Series
For pipes in series, know that:
Q1=Q2==Qn
hf=hf1+hf2++hf3
If we assume a value of Q, can compute
individual losses
Setting this equal to loss for a single
pipe (diameter d), can solve for
equivalent length (Leq)
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Pipes in Parallel
Consider a compound pipeline, with the
pipes in parallel:

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Pipes in Parallel
For pipes in parallel, know that:
hf=hf1=hf2==hf3
Q=Q1+Q2++Qn
If we assume a value of hf, can compute
individual discharges (Qi) for each pipe
Setting total loss for single pipe
(diameter d) equal to hf, can solve for
equivalent length (Leq)
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Pipe Networks
Flow through pipe networks has
multiple paths
Solution techniques based on
corrections to assumed flows
Hardy-Cross method
Linear theory
Newton-Rhapson method
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Example Pipe Network

Linsley, Fig. 11.7


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Pipe Networks
For a valid solution, two conditions
must hold:
The algebraic sum of the pressure
drops around any closed loop must be
zero
The flow entering a junction must
equal the flow leaving it
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Pipe Networks
Recall the Darcy-Weisbach and HazenWilliams formulas:
2

16 L Q
hf 2 f 5
p d 2g

4.727L 1.85
h f 1.85 4.87 Q
C d

Both formulas are of the general form


hf=KQn, where K is equivalent
resistance (see Table 11.5 in Gupta)
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Hardy-Cross Method
Method is based on successive
iterations
A flow is assumed in each pipe to satisfy
continuity
A correction to each flow is computed
based on pressure drops around closed
loops

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Hardy-Cross Method
The pressure drop condition can be
written as

loop

From general resistance formula, this


can be written as

KQ

0
n

loop

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Hardy-Cross Method
Using a binomial expansion and
neglecting 2nd and higher order terms,
h f

loop

n h f Q a

(11.18)

loop

Where hf is the head loss for the


assumed Qa and n is the exponent in the
resistance formula
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Systems with Pumps


To accommodate pumps in the system,
the energy equation needs to be
modified:
P1
V12
P2
V22
Z1
H p Z2
hf hm

2g

2g

Hp is the head added to the system by


the pump
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System with a Pump


V1=V2

P1=P2
=Hp=DZ+hf+hm

DZ

Gupta, Fig. 11.8

22
2V 2 V
P1
V12 P2 P1
P
V
2 12 h h
Z

H p1 Z 2 Z1 p
hf f hmm
2

2g
2g2g

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Pump Brake Horsepower


Efficiency of pump (h) is the ratio of
horsepower out (BHP) and power in,
thus BHP can be computed as
QH p
BHP
550h

(11.14)

Where BHP is power (HP), is specific


weight (lb/ft3), Q is flow (cfs), Hp is
head added (ft), and h is efficiency
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Pumps
There are many different types of
pumps
Closed radial
Open radial
Mixed flow
Propeller
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Pumps
For design purposes, pumps are
selected based on performance
Performance parameters include:
Rotational speed
Discharge capacity
Pumping head
Power applied
Efficiency
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Affinity Laws
For geometrically similar (homologous)
pumps, dimensional analysis produces
3

Q 2 N 2 D2


Q1 N1 D1

H 2 N 2 D2

H1 N1 D1
3

P2 N2 D2

P1 N1 D1

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Pump System Terms


Static suction lift: Vertical distance
from source water level to centerline
of pump

Gupta, Fig. 11.17b


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Pump System Terms


Static discharge lift: Vertical distance
from centerline of pump to water
level at outlet

Gupta, Fig. 11.17b


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Pump System Terms


Total static head: Sum of static
suction lift and static discharge lift

=DZ

Gupta, Fig. 11.17b


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Pump System Terms


Total dynamic head (Hp): Sum of total
static head and head losses
H p DZ hloss DZ hf hm

Using Darcy-Weisbach formula for


friction losses, in terms of Q:
2

0.81 LQ
H p DZ
f 5
g d

2
KQ
(11.31)
d4
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Example System-Head Curve

Gupta, Fig. 11.18

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Pump Characteristics
So far, weve assumed the efficiency (h)
of a pump is constant
In practice, for a given pump running at
a given speed, there are relationships
among Q, Hp, and h
The relationships are called the pump
characteristics or performance curves
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Pump Characteristics
The pump characteristic curves are
experimentally derived
Generally shown as a function of Q
Pumping head (Hp)
Brake horsepower (P)
Efficiency (h)

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Example Pump Characteristic Curve

Gupta, Fig. 11.19


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Pump Systems
If we superimpose the system-head
curve with the pump-characteristic
curve, the intersection will determine
the operating point of the pump in the
system
If efficiency is too low, then select
another pump
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Economics Review
In many cases, comparison of different
water-resources alternatives is difficult
due to differing types of costs, benefits
Economic analysis offers a basis for
comparison
There are 2 general bases for
comparison: money and time
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Economics Review
The time to be considered will be one of the
following:
Economic life
Point where benefits < costs
Physical life
Analysis period
Planning horizon, generally less than
economic or physical life
Since projects have different lives and cash
flows, need to reduce to a common unit
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Time Value of Money


In an inflation-free world, there is a
time-value associated with money
Given $1 today, I could invest the
money, earn i percent interest, and have
$1(1+i) in a year
If we let P = present value, and F1 =
future value in 1 year, see that
F1
F1 P1 i P
1 i
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Time Value of Money


Thus $1 a year from today is worth less
than $1 in terms of todays money
In general, for a future amount at the
end of N years, see that
FN P1 i

and

FN
1 iN

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Time Value of Money


Usually use the following notation:
P
1
i,N
F
1 iN

Present worth of
a future sum

F
N
i,N 1 i
P

Future worth of a
present sum

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Time Value of Money


Now consider a series of payments which
result in $A each year
This is termed an annual series
From the formula for present worth of a
future sum, see that

A
A
P
1
2
1 i 1 i

1 iN

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Time Value of Money


It can be shown that:
P
1 i 1
i,N
N
A
i1 i

Present worth of
an annual series

A
i1 i
i,N
P
1 iN 1

Equivalent
annual series of a
present sum

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Time Value of Money


It is easy to shown that:
F
1 i 1
i,N
A
i

Future worth of
an annual series

A
i
i,N
F
1 iN 1

Equivalent
annual series of a
future sum

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Economic Analysis
With the discounting formulas, can put
projects on an equivalent basis in terms
of money and time
In practice, there are three approaches:
Present worth method
Benefit-cost ratio method
Net annual benefit method
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Economic Analysis
Consider the choice between two projects:

Initial cost
Annual benefits
Project life
Discount rate

Project A
$50,000
$12,000
50 yrs
4%

Project B
$50,000
$12,500
25 yrs
4%

Which project should be chosen?


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Present Worth Method


The idea is to compute the net present worth
(B-C) of each project
Select the project with the largest net present
worth
Rules of analysis:
Bring benefits, costs back to the present
Use the same discount rate
Use the same period of analysis
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Benefit-Cost Ratio Method


The idea is to move to the next alternative if
benefits increase more than costs
Rules of analysis:
Bring benefits, costs back to the present
Use the same discount rate
Use the same period of analysis
Rank alternatives from least to greatest
cost
If DB/DC >1, move to next alternative
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Net Annual Benefit Method


The idea is to chose the project with the
largest net annual benefit (B-C)
Rules of analysis:
Compute annual benefits, costs
Use the same discount rate
Use the same period of analysis

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Choosing a Discount Rate (i)


The discount rate represents the cost
of money
For private industry, use the interest
rate corresponding to the least
expensive source of capital
For the public sector, generally use the
rate paid by the Treasury on securities
with terms to maturity exceeding 15 yrs
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