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To make an autonomous ROBOTIC ARM

using microcontroller and motors


To increase the production speed in the
industry
To reduce the complexity in manufacturing
processes
To increase the profit and productivity in the
industries
To move hazardous materials

The manufacturing process are done manually


by humans like pick and place
Welding, material handling, and thermal
spraying, painting and drilling are doing with
the help of machines.

The manufacturing process is automated using


ROBOTIC ARM technology
Drilling, milling process are made to simpler
by using ROBOTIC ARM

The main idea behind the robotic arm is that it


imitates the actions of a human arm or hand.
It is a programmable Robotic Manipulator.
This type of robot is often termed,
Anthropomorphic because of the similarities
between its structure and the human arm.

SERVO
MOTOR

MAX 232

HORIZONTAL
TRACK DC
MOTOR

MOTOR
DRIVER
L293D

VERTICAL
TRACK DC
MOTOR

MOTOR
DRIVER
L2939

PSU

RS 232

AT89C51
ASK 433MHz
RECEIVER

ASK 433MHZ
TRANSMITTER

The AT89C51 microcontroller is used as the main


part of the design
The AT89C51 is a low-power, high-performance
CMOS 8-bit microcomputer with 4K bytes of Flash
programmable and erasable read only memory
(PEROM).
Atmel AT89C51 is a power full, highly flexible and
cost effective solution to many embedded control
applications.

External Interrupts
TIMER/
COUNTER

INTERRUPT
CONTROL

ON CHIP
ROM

ON CHIP
RAM

BUS
CONTROL

I/O PORTS

TIMER 1
TIMER 0

CPU

OSCILLATOR

P0 P1 P2 P3

SERIAL PORT

TxD

RxD

The AT89c51 operates at 12Mhz frequency


and an external crystal oscillator is connected
at pin no. 18 & 19 as shown

Reset input. A high on this pin for two


machine cycles while the oscillator is running
resets the device.

The max232 IC is used to interface


microcontroller and the wireless
transmitter/receiver
The max232 is an encoder and decoder IC
which encodes the data before transmitting and
decodes the data after receiving.

Servo is an automatic device that uses error-sensing


feedback to correct the performance of a mechanism
The servo is controlled by three wires: ground
(usually black/orange), power (red) and control
(brown/other color).

This is used to power the whole system


The main components of the power supply
unit are,
The transformer.
The rectifier unit.
The Filter Capacitors.
The Voltage Regulator

STEP DOWN
TRANSFORMER

BRUDGE
RECTIFIER

RIPPLE
FILTER

VOLTAGE
REGULATOR

The transformer is a 220/12V step down transformer


Bridge rectifier convert the 12V alternating current to
direct current.
The ripple filter converts pulsating dc to pure dc.
The voltage regulator is used to provide +5V pure dc to
microcontroller(LM7805) and +12V pure dc to motors
(LM7812)

Transformer- 230V/12V 0.75 amps.


Bridge rectifier- 41n4001 diodes.
Ripple filter- Capacitor 1000F.
Voltage regulator- LM7805.

All the necessary equipments, ICs, blocks and


power supply unit discussed above were
assembled on the PCB
The mechanical part of the ROBOTIC ARM
was fabricated using PVC pipes
The proposed idea is made into real kits for
demo purpose

The designed ROBOTIC ARM can be


expanded for the design of a ROBOT
This can be used as a Milling machine
This idea can be used for a pick and place
mechanism
This can be used for
painting purpose

It have the capacity to dramatically improve


product quality
Robots increase workplace safety. Workers are
moved to supervisory roles, so they no longer
have to perform dangerous applications in
hazardous settings
It have the ability to work at a constant speed
without pausing for breaks, sleep, vacations,
they have the potential to produce more than a
human worker.
Greater worker safety leads to financial savings .
Their movements are always exact, so less
material is wasted

The initial investment of the ROBOTIC ARM


is significant
Incorporating industrial robotic arms does not
guarantee results
Employees will require training in
programming and interacting with the new
robotic equipment

Pick and place machine


Milling machine
Drilling Machine
Security application
Medical applications

In this project we have interfaced the robot with different


kinds of I/O devices and our method allows for storing
more programs to enhance more functionality
we deduced that in comparison to humans, robots can be
much stronger and are therefore able to lift heavier
weights and exert larger forces
This project can be further enhanced to as a multidisciplinary project involving electronics, electrical and
computer engineers to work together to create more
complex, intelligent robots controlled by the8051 microcontroller.

www.wikipedia.com
www.thinklabs.com
www.alldatasheets.com
www.mathworks.com