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Exploration 1-3: Introduction to Definite Integrals

you (NUMINT).

Integral

estimate the area under the curve, including real world applications.

The two halves of Calculus

In the first half of the course, we focused on the derivative. We now turn our

attention to the integral.

Derivative

Slope

Integral

Area

The definite integral of a positive function corresponds to the area under the

function. We will clean this definition up later. This is an idea that doesnt seem

powerful, but it is.

Methods for finding area under a function

Geometry

Create convenient geometric shapes under

the function. Calculate and sum the areas.

(RAM)

Divide up the domain of interest into

subintervals. Use a constant

approximation of the function on each

interval to create rectangles. Sum the

rectangular areas.

(TRAM)

Stay tuned

Rectangular Approximation

Ex: Approximate the area under = 2 + 2 on the interval 1,5 .

We divide the interval into subintervals and then constant approximations of

the function on each subinterval (rectangles). These can be of unequal width,

or equal width.

In both pictures here, we use the left-hand value of on each subinterval. This

is called the Left-hand Rectangular Approximation Method (LRAM).

unequal subintervals

equal subintervals

Rectangular Approximation

Ex: Approximate the area under = 2 + 2 on the interval 1,5 .

Area

=1

1

LRAM4 to approximate the distance the particle travels over the first 4 seconds.

3

9

8

3

2

17

8

Distance LRAM4 =

= 1 1 +

=1

9

8

1 +

3

2

1 +

17

8

1 =

23

= 5.75 m

4

In this particular example, LRAM provides an underestimate. Can you think why?

Other representative function values on the subinterval can be chosen:

Left-hand Rectangular Approximation (LRAM)

Right-hand Rectangular Approximation (RRAM)

Traditionally, a subscript is used to denote how many rectangles to make IF using

subintervals that are the same width.

Otherwise, the number of subintervals used is written out.

3

LRAM4

RRAM4

MRAM4

1

RRAM4 to approximate the distance the particle travels over the first 4 seconds.

3

9

8

3

2

17

8

1 + 3 1 =

31

= 7.75 m

4

Distance RRAM4 =

=

=1

9

8

1 +

3

2

1 +

17

8

In this particular example, RRAM provides an overestimate. Can you think why?

1

MRAM4 to approximate the distance the particle travels over the first 4

seconds.

3

0.5

1.03125

1.5

1.28125

2.5

1.78125

3.5

2.53125

In this particular example, MRAM provides an underestimate. Can you think why?

Ex: The velocity (in m/s) of a particle at time

1

seconds is = 8 2 + 1. Use MRAM8 to

approximate the distance the particle travels

over the first 4 seconds.

0.25

1.00781

0.75

1.07031

1.25

1.19531

1.75

1.38281

2.25

1.63281

2.75

1.94531

3.25

2.32031

3.75

2.75781

Distance MRAM8 =

= 0.5

=1

= 13.31248

=1

How do we obtain the exact value?

Later well learn a way to find the exact area under a curve, provided we know

the function. But right now, we can get as close as we like to the actual value by

increasing the number of subintervals.

=1

Automating the process with NUMINT on your Calculator

1.

2.

Adjust window to see the area where you want to draw rectangles

3.

Run NUMINT

4.

5.

6.

Choose either LEFT, RIGHT, MIDPT for the kind of rectangles you want to draw.

7.

8.

After the calculator draws the rectangles, hit Enter to generate the area.

9.

Enter another number if you want to increase the number of rectangles OR hit

ZERO to get back to the menu.

Warm up

Ex: Given = 2 + 2 on 1,5 , use the NUMINIT program to find:

LRAM

=5

= 10

= 20

= 50

= 100

MRAM

RRAM

Ex: A car is moving continually with increasing velocity according to the table

below. Approximate the distance the car travels during the first 12 seconds

using the indicated method.

sec

(m/s)

(a) LRAM6

(b) MRAM3

(c) RRAM6

30

36

40

48

54

60

68

Ex: The rate of sales of a hot new video game is shown in the table below. What is

your best estimate as to the total number of games sold during this time

period? (Assume the rate of sales is increasing)

weeks

(games/week)

585

892

1875

2350

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