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Warm up

HW 1 p270: 5-9, 12, 17, 19, 23, 33, 35, 36

Pick up and complete the warm up


Exploration 1-3: Introduction to Definite Integrals

While you do this, I have a calculator program that I will transfer to


you (NUMINT).

Unit 5 The Definite


Integral

5.1 Estimating with Finite Sums

Objective: Students will be able to use approximation methods to


estimate the area under the curve, including real world applications.

5.1 Estimating with Finite Sums


The two halves of Calculus
In the first half of the course, we focused on the derivative. We now turn our
attention to the integral.

Derivative

Slope

Integral

Area

The definite integral of a positive function corresponds to the area under the
function. We will clean this definition up later. This is an idea that doesnt seem
powerful, but it is.

5.1 Estimating with Finite Sums


Methods for finding area under a function

Geometry
Create convenient geometric shapes under
the function. Calculate and sum the areas.

Rectangular Approximation Method


(RAM)
Divide up the domain of interest into
subintervals. Use a constant
approximation of the function on each
interval to create rectangles. Sum the
rectangular areas.

Trapezoidal Approximation Method


(TRAM)
Stay tuned

5.1 Estimating with Finite Sums


Rectangular Approximation
Ex: Approximate the area under = 2 + 2 on the interval 1,5 .
We divide the interval into subintervals and then constant approximations of
the function on each subinterval (rectangles). These can be of unequal width,
or equal width.
In both pictures here, we use the left-hand value of on each subinterval. This
is called the Left-hand Rectangular Approximation Method (LRAM).

unequal subintervals

equal subintervals

5.1 Estimating with Finite Sums


Rectangular Approximation
Ex: Approximate the area under = 2 + 2 on the interval 1,5 .

Area


=1

This is an approximation of the area were looking for.

5.1 Estimating with Finite Sums


1

Ex: The velocity (in m/s) of a particle at time seconds is = 8 2 + 1. Use


LRAM4 to approximate the distance the particle travels over the first 4 seconds.
3

9
8

3
2

17
8

Distance LRAM4 =

= 1 1 +
=1

9
8

1 +

3
2

1 +

17
8

1 =

23
= 5.75 m
4

In this particular example, LRAM provides an underestimate. Can you think why?

5.1 Estimating with Finite Sums


Other representative function values on the subinterval can be chosen:
Left-hand Rectangular Approximation (LRAM)
Right-hand Rectangular Approximation (RRAM)

Mid-point Rectangular Approximation (MRAM)


Traditionally, a subscript is used to denote how many rectangles to make IF using
subintervals that are the same width.
Otherwise, the number of subintervals used is written out.
3

LRAM4

RRAM4

MRAM4

5.1 Estimating with Finite Sums


1

Ex: The velocity (in m/s) of a particle at time seconds is = 8 2 + 1. Use


RRAM4 to approximate the distance the particle travels over the first 4 seconds.
3

9
8

3
2

17
8

1 + 3 1 =

31
= 7.75 m
4

Distance RRAM4 =

=
=1

9
8

1 +

3
2

1 +

17
8

In this particular example, RRAM provides an overestimate. Can you think why?

5.1 Estimating with Finite Sums


1

Ex: The velocity (in m/s) of a particle at time seconds is = 8 2 + 1. Use


MRAM4 to approximate the distance the particle travels over the first 4
seconds.
3

0.5

1.03125

1.5

1.28125

2.5

1.78125

3.5

2.53125

Distance MRAM4 = 6.625 m

In this particular example, MRAM provides an underestimate. Can you think why?

5.1 Estimating with Finite Sums


Ex: The velocity (in m/s) of a particle at time
1
seconds is = 8 2 + 1. Use MRAM8 to
approximate the distance the particle travels
over the first 4 seconds.

0.25

1.00781

0.75

1.07031

1.25

1.19531

1.75

1.38281

2.25

1.63281

2.75

1.94531

3.25

2.32031

3.75

2.75781

Distance MRAM8 =

= 0.5
=1

= 13.31248

= 0.5 13.31248 = 6.65624 m


=1

This is still an underestimatebut its a pretty good estimate! Actual value is 6. 6 m.

5.1 Estimating with Finite Sums


How do we obtain the exact value?
Later well learn a way to find the exact area under a curve, provided we know
the function. But right now, we can get as close as we like to the actual value by
increasing the number of subintervals.

Exact area = lim


=1

5.1 Estimating with Finite Sums


Automating the process with NUMINT on your Calculator
1.

Put equation into Y1

2.

Adjust window to see the area where you want to draw rectangles

3.

Run NUMINT

4.

Enter Lower Limit

5.

Enter Upper Limit

6.

Choose either LEFT, RIGHT, MIDPT for the kind of rectangles you want to draw.

7.

Enter number of SUBINT (number of rectangles you want to draw).

8.

After the calculator draws the rectangles, hit Enter to generate the area.

9.

Enter another number if you want to increase the number of rectangles OR hit
ZERO to get back to the menu.

Warm up

HW Upper/Lower Over/Under Handout

Pick up and complete the warm up

5.1 Estimating with Finite Sums


Ex: Given = 2 + 2 on 1,5 , use the NUMINIT program to find:

LRAM

=5
= 10
= 20

= 50
= 100

Whats your guess for the actual area?

MRAM

RRAM

5.1 Estimating with Finite Sums


Ex: A car is moving continually with increasing velocity according to the table
below. Approximate the distance the car travels during the first 12 seconds
using the indicated method.

sec

(m/s)

(a) LRAM6

(b) MRAM3

(c) RRAM6

30

36

40

48

54

60

68

5.1 Estimating with Finite Sums


Ex: The rate of sales of a hot new video game is shown in the table below. What is
your best estimate as to the total number of games sold during this time
period? (Assume the rate of sales is increasing)

weeks

(games/week)

585

892

1875

2350

(a) LRAM with 4 subintervals

(b) RRAM with 4 subintervals

Note that MRAM is not even possible here.