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averages is one of the important topic in aptitude for engineering placement

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C.S.VEERARAGAVAN

DEFINITION

A measure of Central Tendency

Simple Average (or) Mean is defined as the ratio of sum of

the quantities to the number of quantities.

Sum of the quantities

Average =

No. of the quantities

1 + 2 + 3 +

=

how many may be greater than zero?

Average = 0.

Average =

sum of 20 numbers

= 0.

20

and if their sum is a ,

then the 20th number should be a.

Hence maximum = 19.

marks of both the sections of class X- A and X- B, when both

Then your answer will be 65% but this is wrong as you do not know

the total number of students in each sections.

number of students in both the sections.

variable values X1, X2, X3, .. Xn respectively.

Then the weighted arithmetic mean is given by

X

N1X1 N2 X2 N3 X3 ..... Nn Xn

N1 N2 N3 ..... Nn

Example

The average marks of 30 students in a section of class X are 20

while that of 20 students of second section is 30. Find the average

marks for the entire class X.

Solution

We can do the question by using both the Simple average &

weighted average method.

Sum of marks of all students 20 30 30 20

Simple average =

=

Total number of students

30 20

= 24

By the weighted mean method, Average =

30

20

20 +

30

50

50

= 12 + 12 = 24.

Example

If the average of first 6 results is 49 and that of the last 6 is 52,

(1) 48

(2) 50

(3) 60

(4) 56

Solution:

The sum of 11 results = 11 50 = 550

The sum of the first 6 results = 49 6 = 294

The sum of the last 6 results = 52 6 = 312

So the 6th result is = (294 + 312) 550 = 56

Answer (4)

average age (in years) of the same family of four members

after four years?

1)21

2)24 3) 28 4) 36

If each number is increased / decreased by a certain

quantity

n, then the mean also increases or decreases

by the same quantity.

Answer is 24.

certain quantity n, then the mean also gets

multiplied or divided by the same

quantity.

Example:

3x, 3y, 3z will be 3k

If the same value is added to half of the

quantities and

same value is subtracted

from other half quantities then there will not

be any change in the final value of the

average.

Example:

If the average of a, b, c, d is k, then average

of a + x, b + x, c x, d x is also k.

the middle number or the average of the first and last numbers.

Example:

The average of 10 consecutive numbers starting from 21 is the

average of 5th & 6th number, i.e. average of 25 and 26 which is 25.5

Example:

4+34

= 19

2

new student, whose weight is 40 kg, joins the class, then

what is the new average weight of the class? 1)40 kg 2)41

kg 3)44 kg 4)80kg.

New average =

1600+40

41

1640

=40

41

kg.

will be no change in average.

persons is 30 and 40 respectively.

What is the average age of the 2 groups together?

Let the number of persons be x.

Then Total age of both groups are 30x & 40x.

30x+40x 70x

Average age =

=

=35.

2x

2x

160 cm and the average height of male employee is

170cm.

If the total number of employees is 330, what is the

average height of all the employees of the company?

Since the number of female or male is not given, we

cannot determine the average height of all.

kg. which of the following could be the average weight of

30 of the boys is 50 kg? 1)42 kg 2) 43 kg 3) 45 kg 4) 47

kg?

If there are exactly 30 boys,

GIRLS

CLASS

BOYS

NUMBER

20

30

AVG WEIGHT

40

50

X

50X

50 20

=

40 30

1500 30X = 20X 800

230

X=

= 46

5

X 40

be greater than 46 but not less

students in an examination is 80.

If the number of boys in the class and their average marks

in the same examination are 25 and 72 respectively, what

are the average marks of all the students in the class?

1) 74 2) 75

3) 76

4) 78

Sum of marks of 25 boys = 72 x 25 = 1800

Sum of marks of 15 girls = 80 x 15 = 1200

3000

Average marks of total students =

= 75.

40

`.20,000 per month and that of male employees is `.20,000

per month. What is the average salary per month for all

the employees of the company?

1) 19000

2) 20000

3) 21000

4) cannot be determined.

Let number of female be f and male be m.

Average =

20000 +20000()

+

=20000

subjects is 54. to get an average of 60 in 6 subjects

together, what is the score that Suresh must get in the

sixth subject?

Total marks in 5 subjects = 5x 54 = 270.

Total marks in 6 subjects = 6 x 60 = 360.

Marks in 6th subject should be

= 360 270 = 90.

what is the average weight of the entire class? (in kg)

1)

36

2) 37

3) 38

Sum of age of girls = 70x and boys = 120x

190x

Average age =

= 38.

5x

4) 39

Now, the average number of chocolates with the five children is

5.

What is the number of chocolates with the fifth child?

1) 1

2) 9

3) 5

Total no after fifth child joined = 5 x 5 = 25.

Number of chocolates with fifth child = 9.

4) 6

If the cost of potatoes is Rs.5 per kg and that of tomatoes

is Rs.8 per kg, then what is the average price per kilogram

of the vegetables in the bag?

1) Rs.6

2) Rs.6.60

3)Rs.6.80

10+24

Average cost =

= Rs.6.80

5

4)Rs.7

each girl gets 5 chocolates and each boy gets 4 chocolates. What is the

number of girls?

1) 6

2) 5

3) 4

4) 3

Total average chocolates for the group = 4.4

Using rule of allegation

a 54.4 0.6 3

=

=

=

b 4.4 4 0.4 2

As a+b = 10, a = 6 and b = 4

Hence there are 4 girls.

5

4.4

0.6

0.4

per month.

Last 3 months is Rs. 20,000.

Then which of the following is necessarily true regarding the

1)

2)

It is exactly Rs.15,000

3)

It is between Rs.15,000

Hence average also should be closer to 10000

New average + No of old members X change in average.

Example

The average age of 30 boys of a class is equal to 14 years.

When the age of the class teacher is included the average

becomes 15 years.

Find the age of the class teacher.

= 15+30(15-14) = 45 years.

New average No. of old members X change in

average.

Example

There are 50 boys in a class. Their average weight is

45 kg. When one boy leaves the class, the average

reduces by 100 gms. Find the weight of the boy who

left the class.

= 44.9-50x(-0.1) = 44.9+5 = 49.9kg.

Age of the removed person + No. of members x change in

average.

Example

The average weight of 8 men is increased by 1.5 g. when

one of the men who weighs 65 kg is replaced by a new

man. The weight of the new man is:

= 65 + (8x1.5) = 65+12 = 77 kg.

factory was Rs. 600.

When one of the manager whose salary was Rs. 720, was replaced

with a new manager, then the average salary of the team went down

to 580.

A.

570

B.420

C.690

D.640

Salary of new person = 720 + (15)(-20)

= 720 300

= 420

Average Speed

Total dis tan ce cov ered

Average Speed =

Total time taken

and the time taken are t1 & t2 respectively, then the average speed

over the entire distance (d1 + d2) is given by

d d2

Total dis tan ce cov ered

d1 d2

1

t1 t 2

Total time taken

d1

d

2

v1

v2

TIP:

any of the two speeds.

Average Speed

# If both the distances are equal i.e. d1 = d2 = d then,

Average speed

2 v 1v 2

v1 v 2

Average speed

v1 v2

2

Example:

and returns at 100 kmph. Find his average speed for the

journey (in kmph).

(1) 80

(2) 72

(3) 75

Solution:

Average speed =

2 X 60 X 100

= 75

60+100

Answer (3)

certain examination is T.

If the average marks of passed candidates is P and that of

failed candidates is F.

Then the number of candidates who PASSED the exam is

n TF

given by:

PF

The average marks obtained by 90 candidates in a certain

examination is 38, if the average marks of passed

candidates is 40 and that of the failed candidates is 30,

what is the number of candidates who passed the exam?

90 3830

Here: n= 90, T=38, F= 30 and P= 40.

= 72.

4030

certain examination is T.

If the average marks of passed candidates is P and that of

failed candidates is F.

Then the number of candidates who passed the exam is

n PT

given by:

PF

The average marks obtained by 90 candidates in a certain

examination is 38, if the average marks of passed

candidates is 40 and that of the failed candidates is 30,

what is the number of candidates who FAILED the exam?

90 4038

Here: n= 90, T=38, F= 30 and P= 40.

=

4030

18 .

be x years and the average age of women be y

years and the average age of men be z years.

Then the number of men in that town is

women of the town.

If one new person joins them.

Then the average age is increased by y years.

Then the age of new comer is x + (1 + N) y years

If M persons joins them, the average age is

increased by y years then the average age of new

comers is + 1 +

years

If M persons joins them, the average age is

decreased by y years then the average age of new

comers is x 1 +

years

If M persons left, then the average age is increased by y

years, then the average age of outgoing persons is

+ 1

y years.

If M persons left, then the average age is decreased by y

years. Then the average age of outgoing persons is

1

y years

increased by y years when a person of x years is

replaced by a new man.

Then the age of new comer is x + Ny years.

The captain of a cricket team of 11 members is 26 years old and the wicket keeper

is 3 years older. If the ages of these two are excluded, the average age of the

remaining players is one year less than the average age of the whole team. What is

the average age of the team?

A. 23 years

B. 24 years

C. 25 years

D. None of these

Let the average age of the whole team by x years.

11x - (26 + 29) = 9(x -1)

11x - 9x = 46

2x = 46

x = 23.

So, average age of the team is 23 years.

monthly income of Q and R is Rs. 6250 and the average monthly income

of P and R is Rs. 5200. The monthly income of P is:

A. 3500 B. 4000 C. 4050 D. 5000

Let P, Q and R represent their respective monthly incomes. Then, we

have:

P + Q = (5050 x 2) = 10100 .... (i)

Q + R = (6250 x 2) = 12500 .... (ii)

P + R = (5200 x 2) = 10400 .... (iii)

Adding (i), (ii) and (iii), we get: 2(P + Q + R) = 33000 or P + Q + R =

16500 .... (iv)

Subtracting (ii) from (iv), we get P = 4000.

P's monthly income = Rs. 4000.

The average age of husband, wife and their child 3 years ago

was 27 years and that of wife and the child 5 years ago was

20 years. The present age of the husband is:

A. 35 years B. 40 years C. 50 years D. None of these

= (27 x 3 + 3 x 3) years = 90 years.

Sum of the present ages of wife and child

= (20 x 2 + 5 x 2) years = 50 years.

Husband's present age = (90 - 50) years = 40 years.

A car owner buys petrol at Rs.7.50, Rs. 8 and Rs. 8.50 per litre for

three successive years. What approximately is the average cost per

litre of petrol if he spends Rs. 4000 each year?

A.

Rs. 7.98

B.

Rs. 8

C. Rs. 8.50

D.

Rs. 9

4000 4000

Total quantity of petrol consumed in 3 years

=

+

litres

7.50 8.50

2

2

= 4000

+

litres

15 17

76700

=

litres

51

Total amount spent = Rs. (3 x 4000) = Rs. 12000.

12000X51

6120

Average cost = Rs.

= Rs.

= Rs. 7.98

76700

767

In Arun's opinion, his weight is greater than 65 kg but less than 72 kg.

His brother does not agree with Arun and he thinks that Arun's weight is

greater than 60 kg but less than 70 kg. His mother's view is that his

weight cannot be greater than 68 kg. If all are them are correct in their

estimation, what is the average of different probable weights of Arun?

A. 67 kg.

B. 68 kg.

C. 69 kg.

D. Data inadequate

E. None of these

Let Arun's weight by X kg.

According to Arun, 65 < X < 72

According to Arun's brother, 60 < X < 70.

According to Arun's mother, X <= 68

The values satisfying all the above conditions are 66, 67 and 68.

66+67+68 201

Required average =

=

= 67 kg.

3

3

40 kg and that of B and C be 43 kg, then the weight of B is:

A.

17 kg

B.

20 kg

C.

26 kg

D.

31 kg

Let A, B, C represent their respective weights. Then, we have:

A + B = (40 x 2) = 80 .... (ii)

B + C = (43 x 2) = 86 ....(iii)

Adding (ii) and (iii), we get: A + 2B + C = 166 .... (iv)

Subtracting (i) from (iv), we get : B = 31.

B's weight = 31 kg.

and that of the remaining 8 boys is 45.15 kg. Find the

average weights of all the boys in the class.

A. 47.55 kg

B. 48 kg

C. 48.55 kg

D. 49.25 kg

50.25X16 + 45.15X8

Required average =

16+8

804+361.20

=

24

1165.20

=

24

=48.55

and 240 on other days. The average number of

visitors per day in a month of 30 days beginning

with a Sunday is:

A. 250

B. 276

C. 280

D.

285

Since the month begins with a Sunday, to there will

be five Sundays in the month.

510X5 + 240X25

Required average =

5+25

8550

=

=285

30

45 students respectively is 50, 55, 60, then the

average marks of all the students is:

A. 53.33 B. 54.68 C. 55 D.

None of these

55X50+60X55+45X60

Required Average =

55+60+45

2750+3300+2700

160

=54.68

of 63. Due to that the average marks for the class

got increased by half (1/2). The number of pupils in

the class is:

A.

10 B.

20

C.

40 D.

73

Let there be x pupils in the class.

1

Xx =

= (83 63)

x= 40.

Average of the squares of the first n natural numbers =

[(n+1)(2n+1)]/6

Average of the cubes of the first n natural numbers =

[n2(n+1)2]/4

Average of the first n odd natural numbers = (n+1)

an equal distance at y kmph.

Then the average speed during whole journey =

(2xy/(x+y))kmph.

Average of n average is not equal to the { (sum of

n averages )/ n }.

quantity, the average also increases or decreases by

the same quantity.

If all values are multiplied or divided by a certain

quantity, the average also gets multiplied or divided

by the same quantity.

with average A, if the average increases by Y, then

the added value X = A + (B + 1)Y.

When a new value X is added to a set of B values

with average A, if the average decreases by Y, then

the added value X = A (B + 1)Y.

with average A, if the average increases by Y, then

the deleted value X = A (B 1)Y.

When a value X is removed from a set of B values

with average A, if the average decreases by Y, then

the deleted value X = A + (B 1)Y.

There are twice the number of two wheelers as there are three wheelers and the

number of 4 wheelers are equal to the number of two wheelers.

The average number of wheel per vehicle is

1) 3

2) 4

3) 5

4) None of these.

No. of 2

wheelers

No. of 3

wheelers

No. of 4

wheelers

2x

2x

3 * x = 3x

4 * 2x = 8x

No. of wheels 2 * 2x = 4x

15x

Average wheels = 3x = 5

the first four months,

the fifth to the eighth months and

the last four months in a particular year are

Rs.5000 per month, Rs.6000 per month and

Rs.10000 per month respectively.

What is the average salary per month in that year?

1) Rs.6000 2) Rs.7000 3) Rs.8000 4) Rs.9000

Since the period for each of averages is same

5000+6000+10000

21000

Average =

=

= 7000

3

3

Thank you !!

one litre of water, then one

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