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EE369

POWER SYSTEM ANALYSIS


Lecture 3
Three Phase, Power System Operation
Tom Overbye and Ross Baldick

Reading and Homework


For lecture 3 read Chapters 1 and 2
For lectures 4 through 6 read Chapter 4
we will not be covering sections 4.7, 4.11, and
4.12 in detail,
We will return to chapter 3 later.

HW 2 is Problems 2.26, 2.27, 2.28, 2.29,


2.30, 2.32, 2.33, 2.35, 2.37, 2.39, 2.40 (need
to install PowerWorld); due Thursday 9/11.
HW 3 is Problems 2.42, 2.44, 2.45, 2.47,
2.49, 2.50, 2.51, 2.52; due Thursday 9/18.
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Per Phase Analysis


Per phase analysis allows analysis of balanced
3 systems with the same effort as for a single
phase system.
Balanced 3 Theorem: For a balanced 3
system with:
All loads and sources Y connected,
No mutual Inductance between phases.

Per Phase Analysis, contd


Then
All neutrals are at the same potential,
All phases are COMPLETELY decoupled,
All system values are the same sequence as
sources. That is, peaks of phases occur in the
same order. The sequence order weve been
using (phase b lags phase a and phase c lags phase
b) is known as positive sequence; in EE368L
well discuss negative and zero sequence
systems.
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Per Phase Analysis Procedure


To do per phase analysis
1. Convert all load/sources to equivalent Ys.
2. Solve phase a independent of the other
phases
3. Total system power S = 3 Va Ia*
4. If desired, phase b and c values can be
determined by inspection (i.e., 120 degree
phase shifts)
5. If necessary, go back to original circuit to
determine line-line values or internal values.
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Per Phase Example


Assume a 3, Y-connected generator with
Van = 10 volts supplies a -connected load
with Z = -j through a transmission line
with impedance of j0.1 per phase. The
load is also connected to a -connected
generator with Vab = 10 through a
second transmission line which also has an
impedance of j0.1 per phase.
Find
1. The load voltage Vab
2. The total power supplied by each
generator, SY and S
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Per Phase Example, contd


+-

First convert the delta load and source to equivalent


Y values and draw just the "a" phase circuit
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Per Phase Example, contd

To solve the circuit, write the KCL equation at a'


1
(Va' 10)( 10 j ) Va' (3 j ) (Va' j
3
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Per Phase Example, contd


To solve the circuit, write the KCL equation at a'
1
(Va' 10)( 10 j ) Va' (3 j ) (Va' j
3
10
(10 j
60) Va' (10 j 3 j 10 j )
3
Va' 0.9 volts
Vc' 0.9 volts

Vb' 0.9 volts


Va'b' 1.56 volts

Per Phase Example, contd


*

Sygen

3Va I a*

Va Va '
Va
5.1 j 3.5 VA

j 0.1
*

Sgen

Va '' Va '
3Va ''
5.1 j 4.7 VA

j 0.1

What is real power into load?


Is this a reasonable dispatch of generators?
What is causing real power flow from Yconnected generator to -connected
generator?

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Power System Operations Overview


Goal is to provide an intuitive feel for power
system operation
Emphasis will be on the impact of the
transmission system
Introduce basic power flow concepts through
small system examples

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Power System Basics


All power systems have three major
components: Generation, Load and
Transmission/Distribution.
Generation: Creates electric power.
Load: Consumes electric power.
Transmission/Distribution: Moves electric power
from generation to load.
Lines/transformers operating at voltages above 100
kV are usually called the transmission system. The
transmission system is usually networked.
Lines/transformers operating at voltages below 100
kV are usually called the distribution system. The
distribution system is usually radial except in urban
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areas.

Small PowerWorld Simulator Case


Load with
green
arrows
indicating
amount
of MW
flow

Pie chart and numbers show


real and reactive power flow
Bus 2

20 MW
-4 MVR

Bus 1
1.00 PU

204 MW
102 MVR

1.00 PU
106 MW
0 MVR

150 MW AGC ON
116 MVR AVR ON

-14 MW

-34 MW
10 MVR
34 MW
-10 MVR

Home Area

Used
to control
output of
generator

-20 MW
4 MVR

Closed circuit breaker


is shown as red box

Bus 3

4 MVR

100 MW

Voltage
shown in
normalized
per unit
values

14 MW
-4 MVR
1.00 PU

Note real
150 MW AGC ON
and reactive
37 MVR AVR ON
power
Direction of arrow on line is used to
balance at
Indicate direction of real power (MW) flow each bus13
102 MW
51 MVR

Power Balance Constraints


Power flow refers to how the power is moving
through the system.
At all times in the simulation the total power
flowing into any bus MUST be zero!
This is due to Kirchhoffs current law. It can
not be repealed or modified!
Power is lost in the transmission system:
If losses are small, the sending and receiving end
power may appear the same when shown to two
14
significant figures.

Basic Power Control


Opening a circuit breaker causes the power
flow to (nearly) instantaneously change.
No other way to directly control power flow in
an AC transmission line.
By changing generation (or, in principle, by
changing load) we can indirectly change this
flow.

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Transmission Line Limits


Power flow in transmission line is limited by
heating considerations.
Losses (I2 R) can heat up the line, causing it to
sag.
Each line has a limit:
Simulator does not allow you to continually exceed
this limit.
Many transmission owners use winter/summer
limits.
Some transmission owners, eg Oncor, are moving to
dynamic ratings that consider temperature etc. 16

Overloaded Transmission Line

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