power system analysis ppt

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power system analysis ppt

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You are on page 1of 17

Lecture 3

Three Phase, Power System Operation

Tom Overbye and Ross Baldick

For lecture 3 read Chapters 1 and 2

For lectures 4 through 6 read Chapter 4

we will not be covering sections 4.7, 4.11, and

4.12 in detail,

We will return to chapter 3 later.

2.30, 2.32, 2.33, 2.35, 2.37, 2.39, 2.40 (need

to install PowerWorld); due Thursday 9/11.

HW 3 is Problems 2.42, 2.44, 2.45, 2.47,

2.49, 2.50, 2.51, 2.52; due Thursday 9/18.

2

Per phase analysis allows analysis of balanced

3 systems with the same effort as for a single

phase system.

Balanced 3 Theorem: For a balanced 3

system with:

All loads and sources Y connected,

No mutual Inductance between phases.

Then

All neutrals are at the same potential,

All phases are COMPLETELY decoupled,

All system values are the same sequence as

sources. That is, peaks of phases occur in the

same order. The sequence order weve been

using (phase b lags phase a and phase c lags phase

b) is known as positive sequence; in EE368L

well discuss negative and zero sequence

systems.

4

To do per phase analysis

1. Convert all load/sources to equivalent Ys.

2. Solve phase a independent of the other

phases

3. Total system power S = 3 Va Ia*

4. If desired, phase b and c values can be

determined by inspection (i.e., 120 degree

phase shifts)

5. If necessary, go back to original circuit to

determine line-line values or internal values.

5

Assume a 3, Y-connected generator with

Van = 10 volts supplies a -connected load

with Z = -j through a transmission line

with impedance of j0.1 per phase. The

load is also connected to a -connected

generator with Vab = 10 through a

second transmission line which also has an

impedance of j0.1 per phase.

Find

1. The load voltage Vab

2. The total power supplied by each

generator, SY and S

6

+-

Y values and draw just the "a" phase circuit

7

1

(Va' 10)( 10 j ) Va' (3 j ) (Va' j

3

8

To solve the circuit, write the KCL equation at a'

1

(Va' 10)( 10 j ) Va' (3 j ) (Va' j

3

10

(10 j

60) Va' (10 j 3 j 10 j )

3

Va' 0.9 volts

Vc' 0.9 volts

Va'b' 1.56 volts

*

Sygen

3Va I a*

Va Va '

Va

5.1 j 3.5 VA

j 0.1

*

Sgen

Va '' Va '

3Va ''

5.1 j 4.7 VA

j 0.1

Is this a reasonable dispatch of generators?

What is causing real power flow from Yconnected generator to -connected

generator?

10

Goal is to provide an intuitive feel for power

system operation

Emphasis will be on the impact of the

transmission system

Introduce basic power flow concepts through

small system examples

11

All power systems have three major

components: Generation, Load and

Transmission/Distribution.

Generation: Creates electric power.

Load: Consumes electric power.

Transmission/Distribution: Moves electric power

from generation to load.

Lines/transformers operating at voltages above 100

kV are usually called the transmission system. The

transmission system is usually networked.

Lines/transformers operating at voltages below 100

kV are usually called the distribution system. The

distribution system is usually radial except in urban

12

areas.

Load with

green

arrows

indicating

amount

of MW

flow

real and reactive power flow

Bus 2

20 MW

-4 MVR

Bus 1

1.00 PU

204 MW

102 MVR

1.00 PU

106 MW

0 MVR

150 MW AGC ON

116 MVR AVR ON

-14 MW

-34 MW

10 MVR

34 MW

-10 MVR

Home Area

Used

to control

output of

generator

-20 MW

4 MVR

is shown as red box

Bus 3

4 MVR

100 MW

Voltage

shown in

normalized

per unit

values

14 MW

-4 MVR

1.00 PU

Note real

150 MW AGC ON

and reactive

37 MVR AVR ON

power

Direction of arrow on line is used to

balance at

Indicate direction of real power (MW) flow each bus13

102 MW

51 MVR

Power flow refers to how the power is moving

through the system.

At all times in the simulation the total power

flowing into any bus MUST be zero!

This is due to Kirchhoffs current law. It can

not be repealed or modified!

Power is lost in the transmission system:

If losses are small, the sending and receiving end

power may appear the same when shown to two

14

significant figures.

Opening a circuit breaker causes the power

flow to (nearly) instantaneously change.

No other way to directly control power flow in

an AC transmission line.

By changing generation (or, in principle, by

changing load) we can indirectly change this

flow.

15

Power flow in transmission line is limited by

heating considerations.

Losses (I2 R) can heat up the line, causing it to

sag.

Each line has a limit:

Simulator does not allow you to continually exceed

this limit.

Many transmission owners use winter/summer

limits.

Some transmission owners, eg Oncor, are moving to

dynamic ratings that consider temperature etc. 16

17

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