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PRODUCTION

CHARACTERISTICS
OF FRACTURED
RESERVOIRS

Problem
Fractured reservoirs are very
inhomogeneous & anisotropic. A few wells
dominate both the reserves & rates.
Prior to sanction, we simulate these
reservoirs using average wells or wells of
a limited range of properties.
We need to predict likely distributions of
rates & reserves prior to early simulation.

Schematic Distribution of
Fractured Reservoir Types

All
Fractures

% of Total Permeability

100 % kf

II

FRACTURED RESERVOIR
CLASSIFICATION

III

IV

Type I: Fractures provide the


essential storage capacity and
permeability in a
reservoir. The matrix has little
porosity or permeability.

Increasing Effect of Fractures


Decreasing Effect of Matrix

Type III: Fractures provide a


permeability assist in an already
economically producible
reservoir that has good matrix
porosity and permeability.
Type IV: Fractures do not
provide significant additional
storage capacity or permeability
in an already producible
reservoir, but instead create
anisotropy.

M
100% kr
100% r
All
Matrix

Type II: Rock matrix provides


the essential storage capacity
and fractures provide the
essential permeability in a
reservoir. The rock matrix has
low permeability, but may have
low, moderate, or even high
porosity.

100% f
% of Total Porosity
R.A. Nelson 12/99

Selected Cumulative Oil per Well Distributions


in Fractured Reservoirs
Frequency of Cum. Oil per Well, Point Arguello Field,
Monterrey

25

16
14
12
10
8
6
4
2
0

20

Series1

Frequency

Skewed

Frequency

La Paz Field, Cumm. Frequency Diagram

15
Series1

10

20

40

60

80
0

Cummulative Production per well,


MMBO

10

11

12

13

14

Cummulative Oil per Well, MMBO

Fractures Only

Fractures + Some Matrix

Frequency of Cum. Oil per Well, Upper Valley


Field, Kaibab

La Paz Field, Cumm Frequency Diagram


35

25

5
Series1

4
3

Frequency

30

7
6

Frequency

BellShaped

20
15

Series1

10
5

0
0

0.5

1.5

2.5

3.5

4.5

5.5

Cummulative Oil per Well, MMBO

Matrix Only

20

40

60

80

Cummulative Production per well,


MMBO

Fractures + More Matrix

Production Inhomogeneity in Fractured Reservoirs


% Wells vs % Cum. Oil for Various Fractured Reservoirs

% Wells vs % Cum. Oil for Selected Fractured


Reservoirs

120

Field
East Anschutz
Ryckman Creek
Pineview
Painter
East Painter
Lost Soldier
Wertz Dome
Rangeley
Middle Ground Shoals
Granite Point
Yellow Creek
Whitney Canyon
Lost Soldier
Wertz Dome
La Paz
Trap Spring
Dine-Bi-Keyah
Florence
Point Arguello
La Paz
Upper Valley
Walker Creek

Whitney
Ryckman
Dine-Bi-Keya

100

120

Yellow Ck.

I-IV = Fractured
Reservoir Type,
< Matrix
Contribution

Up. Valley

% Cumulative Oil

% Cumulative Oil

Trap Spring
80

Lost Soldier, Mad.


Point Arguello
60

Granite Point
E. Anschutz
Walker Ck.

40

E. Painter
Pineview
Wertz Dome, Mad.

20

Werz Dome, Tns


La Paz, Carb.

20

40

60

80

100

IV

Trap Spring

III

60

E. Anschutz

II

40

Werz Dome, Tns

La Paz, Carb.

20

Middle Ground Shoal

120

Ryckman

80

La Paz, Gt.

100

20

40

60

80

100

120

Lost Soldier, Tns

% Wells (Ordered)

% Wells (Ordered)

All

Formation
Nugget
Nugget
Nugget
Nugget
Nugget
Tensleep
Tensleep
Weber
Tyonek
Tyonek
Twin Creek
Madison
Madison
Madison
Cogollo

Rock Type
Sandstone
Sandstone
Sandstone
Sandstone
Sandstone
Sandstone
Sandstone
Sandstone
Sandstone
Sandstone
Carbonate
Carbonate
Carbonate
Carbonate
Carbonate
Ignimbrite
Hermosa
Syenite Sill
Pierre
Shale
Monterrey
Siliceous Sh
Jr. Basement Granite
Kaibab
Carbonate
Smackover Carbonate

EOD
Cum., MMBOE Max. Rate, BOPD
Eolian
564
7217
Eolian
64
3445
Eolian
15
540
Eolian
167
3282
Eolian
138
4744
Eolian
138
Eolian
42
Eolian
4
1163
Conglomerate
167
Conglomerate
132
Shelf
6
679
Shelf
33
2643
Shelf
40
1941
Shelf
3
642
Shelf
575
14600
Volcanic
13
1546
Volcanic
18
1809
Marine Sh
106
Deep Water Sh
131
10921
Intrusive
209
12252
24
273
Grainstone
16
336 (Capped)

Controls
Profiles by Rock Type
% Wells vs % Cum. Oil for Carbonate Fractured Reservoirs

% Wells vs % Cum. Oil for Various Sandstone Reservoirs


100

% Wells vs % Cum. Oil for Other Rock Types

120
120

90

100
80

60

E. Painter
Pineview

50

Werz Dome, Tns


Middle Ground Shoal

40

80

Whitney
Yellow Ck.

60

Lost Soldier, Mad.


Wertz Dome, Mad.
La Paz, Carb.

40

Lost Soldier, Tns


30

% Cumulative Oil

E. Anschutz

% Cumulative Oil

Granite Point

70
% Cumulative Oil

100

Ryckman

80

Dine-Bi-Keya
Trap Spring

60

Point Arguello
La Paz, Gt.
Florence

40

Painter
Rangley

20
10

20

0
0.00

0
0

20

40

60

80

100

120

20

20.00

40.00

60.00

80.00

100.00

120.00

20

% Wells (Ordered)

40

60

80

100

120

% Wells (Ordered)

% Wells (Ordered)

R.A. Nelson 11/99

Premise: In Fractured Reservoirs, 50% of Reserves


come from a small % of the Wells Drilled & this
varies with Fractured Reservoir Type (I-IV)
Type 1: 5%-15% of Wells give 50% of Reserves
Type II: 15%-25% of Wells
Types III & IV: 25%-40% of Wells

Data Source:
Dwights Database

Selected Maximum Oil Rate Distributions


in Fractured Reservoirs
La Paz Field, IP Frequency Diagram

Frequency of Max. Oil Rate per Well, Point Arguello


Field, Monterrey

Skewed

14

25

12
10

20

8
6

Series1

4
2

Frequency

Frequency

16

15
Series1
10
5

0
0

10

15

20

0
0

Initial Production per well, MBOPD

2000

4000

6000

8000

10000 12000 14000

Maximum Oil Rate per Well, bopd

Fractures Only

Fractures + Some Matrix


La Paz Field, IP Frequency Diagram

Frequency of Max. Oil Rate per Well, Upper Valley Field,


Kaibab
35
30

BellShaped

Frequency

20
15
Series1
10

Frequency

25

25
20
15

Series1

10
5

0
0

0
0

100

200

300

400

500

10

15

20

Initial Production per well, MBOPD

Maximum Oil Rate per Well, bopd

Matrix Only

Fractures + More Matrix

Rate Inhomogeneity in Fractured Reservoirs


% Wells vs % Max. Oil Rate for Various Fractured Reservoirs
Whitney

120.00

Ryckman
Dine-Bi-Keya

% Maximum Oil Rate

100.00

All

Yellow Ck.
Trap Spring

80.00

Only 10% of the wells have


rates at least half that of the
best rate well in the field.

Up. Valley
Lost Soldier, Mad.

60.00

Point Arguello
E. Anschutz
E. Painter

40.00

Pineview
Wertz Dome, Mad.

20.00

La Paz, Carb.
La Paz, Gt.

0.00

Lost Soldier, Tns


0

20

40

60

80

100

120

% Wells (Ordered)

Florence
Painter

Profiles by Rock Type


% Wells vs % Max. Oil Rate for Other Rock Type Fractured Reservoirs

% Wells vs % Max. Oil Rate for Carbonate Fractured Reservoirs

% Wells vs % Max. Oil Rate for Sandstone Fractured Reservoirs


100.00
120

90.00
100

E. Anschutz

80

E. Painter
60

Pineview
Lost Soldier, Tns

40

Painter
Rangley

20

70.00

Whitney

60.00

Yellow Ck.

50.00

Lost Soldier, Mad.

40.00

Wertz Dome, Mad.

30.00

La Paz, Carb.

20.00

% Mamimum Oil Rate

Ryckman

% Maximum Oil Rate

80.00

100
% Maximum Oil Rate

120

80

Dine-Bi-Keya
Trap Spring

60

Point Arguello
La Paz, Gt.
Florence

40

20

10.00
0
0

20

40

60

80

100

120

% Wells (Ordered)

Type III & IV

R.A. Nelson 11/99

0.00
0

20

40

60

% Wells (Ordered)

80

100

20

40

60

80

100

120

% Wells (Ordered)

Type I

Data Source: Dwights Database

Selected Cum. Oil vs Max. Oil Rate Correlations


in Fractured Reservoirs
Max. Oil Rate vs Cum. Oil, Point Arguello Field, Monterrey
14000000

60

y = 1123.4x - 1E+06
R2 = 0.8385

12000000

50

y = 0.0036x - 0.9382
R2 = 0.8478

40

Cumulative Oil, bbls

Good
Fit

Cummulative Production, MMBO

La Paz Field, IP vs. Cumm.

30
20
10
0
0

-10

5000

10000

15000

10000000
8000000
Series1

6000000

Linear (Series1)
4000000
2000000
0
-2000000

2000

Initial Production, BOD

Fractures Only

y = 4282.5x + 668416
R2 = 0.2101

1500000

Series1
Linear (Series1)

1000000
500000
0
0

50

100

150

200

250

8000

10000

12000

La Paz Field, IP vs. Cumm.

300

Maximum Oil Rate per Well, bopd

Matrix Only

Cummulative Production, MMBO

Cumulative Oil per Well,


bbls

2500000
2000000

6000

Fractures + Some Matrix

Max. Oil Rate vs Cum. Oil per Well, Upper Valley Field,
Kaibab

Bad
Fit

4000

Maximum Oil Rate per Well, bopd

70

60
y = 0.0023x + 1.1915
2
R
50 = 0.4505
40
30
20
10
0
0

5000

10000

15000

20000

Initial Production, BOD

Fractures + More Matrix

Selected Reserves History Plots


for Fractured Reservoirs
Cum. Oil Additions with Time, Rangeley Field

14000000
12000000
10000000
8000000
Series1
6000000
4000000
2000000
0
Dec-73

May-79

Nov-84

May-90

Oct-95

Apr-01

Addition to Field Cumulative Oil,


boe

Addition to Field Cumulative Oil,


boe

Cum. Oil Additions with Time, Trap Spring Field

4500000
4000000
3500000
3000000
2500000

Series1

2000000
1500000
1000000
500000
0
Jun-68

First Production Date per Well

Dec-73

May-79

Nov-84

May-90

Oct-95

First Production Date per Well

Type 1 Field:
Good Wells Early

Type 2 Field:
3 Random Wells Give >30%
of Reserves
Cum. Oil with Time, Point Arguello Field, Monterrey

20000000
18000000
16000000
14000000
12000000
10000000

Series1

8000000
6000000
4000000
2000000
0
Dec-62 Sep-65 Jun-68 Mar-71 Dec-73 Aug-76 May- Feb-82 Nov-84
79
First Production Date per Well

Type 1 Field:
Late Stage Wells Rate
Acceleration Only?

Addition to Field Cumulative Oil,


bbls

Addition to Field Cumulative Oil, boe

Cum. Oil Additions with Time, Dine-Bi-Keyah Field

Addition to Field Cumulative Oil, boe

Cum. Oil Additions with Time, Ryckman Creek Field


25000000

20000000

15000000
Series1
10000000

2 Slopes

5000000

0
Apr-75 Aug-76 Jan-78 May- Oct-80 Feb-82 Jul-83 Nov-84 Mar-86 Aug-87
79
First Production Date per Well

140000000
120000000
100000000
80000000
Series1

60000000
40000000
20000000
0
Mar-86

Dec-88

Sep-91

Jun-94

Mar-97

Dec-99

First Production Date per Well

Type 2 Field:
Too Much Continued
Drilling

Type 3 Field:
Efficient Drilling?

Utility of Relationships
Can better predict skewed production
distributions in fractured reservoirs early
in the development planning
Can be a screening tool to determine
fracture effects prior to secondary
recovery planning
Can be used to perform cost-benefit
analysis in production spending
Can be used to justify R&D to predict
dominant production sweet spots

% Wells vs % Cum. Oil for Various Fractured Reservoirs


120
Whitney
Ryckman
Dine-Bi-Keya

100

Yellow Ck.

% Cumulative Oil

Trap Spring
80

Up. Valley
Lost Soldier, Mad.
Point Arguello

60

Granite Point
E. Anschutz
Walker Ck.

40

E. Painter
Pineview
Wertz Dome, Mad.

20

Werz Dome, Tns


La Paz, Carb.
La Paz, Gt.

0
0

20

40

60
% Wells (Ordered)

80

100

120

Middle Ground Shoal


Lost Soldier, Tns

% Wells vs % Cum. Oil for Selected Fractured


Reservoirs

% Cumulative Oil

120
I-IV = Fractured
Reservoir Type,
< Matrix Contribution

100

Ryckman

80

Trap Spring

IV

60

E. Anschutz

III

Werz Dome, Tns

II

40

La Paz, Carb.

20
0
0

20

40

60

80

% Wells (Ordered)

100

120
0.00 -1.00 = Fracture Impact
Coefficient or % Area
Deviation Below 45 deg. Line
(Range observed 0.28 - 0.73)

% Wells vs % Cum. Oil for Carbonate Fractured Reservoirs


120

% Cumulative Oil

100

80

Whitney
Yellow Ck.

60

Lost Soldier, Mad.


Wertz Dome, Mad.
La Paz, Carb.

40

20

0
0.00

20.00

40.00

60.00
% Wells (Ordered)

80.00

100.00

120.00

% Wells vs % Cum. Oil for Various Sandstone Reservoirs


100
90
80

Ryckman
Granite Point

% Cumulative Oil

70

E. Anschutz
60

E. Painter
Pineview

50

Werz Dome, Tns


Middle Ground Shoal

40

Lost Soldier, Tns


30

Painter
Rangley

20
10
0
0

20

40

60
% Wells (Ordered)

80

100

120

% Wells vs % Cum. Oil for Other Rock Types


120

% Cumulative Oil

100

80

Dine-Bi-Keya
Trap Spring

60

Point Arguello
La Paz, Gt.
Florence

40

20

0
0

20

40

60
% Wells (Ordered)

80

100

120

% Wells vs % Max. Oil Rate for Various Fractured Reservoirs


Whitney

120.00

Ryckman
Dine-Bi-Keya

100.00
% Maximum Oil Rate

Yellow Ck.
Trap Spring
80.00

Up. Valley
Lost Soldier, Mad.

60.00

Point Arguello
E. Anschutz
E. Painter

40.00

Pineview
Wertz Dome, Mad.

20.00

La Paz, Carb.
La Paz, Gt.

0.00

Lost Soldier, Tns


0

20

40

60
% Wells (Ordered)

80

100

120

Florence
Painter

% Wells vs % Max. Oil Rate for Carbonate Fractured Reservoirs


120.00

% Maximum Oil Rate

100.00
80.00

Whitney
Yellow Ck.

60.00

Lost Soldier, Mad.


Wertz Dome, Mad.

40.00

La Paz, Carb.

20.00
0.00
0

20

40

60
% Wells (Ordered)

80

100

120

% Wells vs % Max. Oil Rate for Sandstone Fractured Reservoirs

120

% Maximum Oil Rate

100
Ryckman
E. Anschutz

80

E. Painter
60

Pineview
Lost Soldier, Tns

40

Painter
Rangley

20
0
0

20

40

60
% Wells (Ordered)

80

100

120

% Wells vs % Max. Oil Rate for Other Rock Type Fractured Reservoirs
120

% Mamimum Oil Rate

100

80

Dine-Bi-Keya
Trap Spring

60

Point Arguello
La Paz, Gt.
Florence

40

20

0
0

20

40

60
% Wells (Ordered)

80

100

120