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1. Electromagnetic Wave

2. Diffraction

3. Diffraction at a Single Slit

4. Theory of Diffraction

5. Width of Central Maximum and Fresnels Distance

6. Difference between Interference and Diffraction

7. Polarisation of Mechanical Waves

8. Polarisation of Light

9. Malus Law

10. Polarisation by Reflection Brewsters Law

11. Polaroids and their uses

Electromagnetic Wave:

Y

E0

0

X

B0

Z

1. Variations in both electric and magnetic fields occur simultaneously.

Therefore, they attain their maxima and minima at the same place and at

the same time.

2. The direction of electric and magnetic fields are mutually perpendicular

to each other and as well as to the direction of propagation of wave.

3. The speed of electromagnetic wave depends entirely on the electric and

magnetic properties of the medium, in which the wave travels and not on

the amplitudes of their variations.

Wave is propagating along X axis with speed

c = 1 / 00

Diffraction of light:

The phenomenon of bending of light around the corners and the

encroachment of light within the geometrical shadow of the opaque obstacles

is called diffraction.

Slit

Obstacle

Screen

Diffraction at a slit

1) At an angle of diffraction = 0:

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

= 0

B

Plane

Wavefront Slit

Bright

D

Screen

the screen in same phase and hence interfere constructively

to give Central or Primary Maximum (Bright fringe).

2) At an angle of diffraction = 1:

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7 /2

8

9

10

11

12

P1 Dark

Bright

B

Plane

Wavefront Slit

The wavelets from the single wavefront diffract at an angle 1 such

that BN is and reach the point P1. The pairs (0,6), (1,7), (2,8), (3,9),

(4,10), (5,11) and (6,12) interfere destructively with path difference

/2 and give First Secondary Minimum (Dark fringe).

Screen

3) At an angle of diffraction = 2:

The slit is imagined to be divided into 4 equal parts.

A

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

/2

3/2

P2

Dark

P1

P1

Dark

Bright

2

B

Plane

Wavefront Slit

The wavelets from the single wavefront diffract at an angle 2 such that

BN is 2 and reach the point P2. The pairs (0,3), (1,4), (2,5), (3,6), (4,7),

(5,8), (6,9), (7,10), (8,11) and (9,12) interfere destructively with path

difference /2 and give Second Secondary Minimum (Dark fringe).

Screen

4) At an angle of diffraction = 1:

The slit is imagined to be divided into 3 equal parts.

0

1

2

3

4

5 /2

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

P2

P1 Bright

P1

Dark

Bright

N 1

B

Plane

3/2

Wavefront Slit

The wavelets from the single wavefront diffract at an angle 1 such that Screen

BN is 3/2 and reach the point P1. The pairs (0,8), (1,9), (2,10), (3,11) and

(4,12) interfere constructively with path difference and (0,4), (1,5), (2,6),

and (8,12) interfere destructively with path difference /2. However

due to a few wavelets interfering constructively First Secondary

Maximum (Bright fringe) is formed.

AA = 101

0

1

2

3 /2

4

5 /2

2

1

6

7 /2

8

9

3/2

10

N

11

N

N2 1 1

12

P2

P1

PP11

=0

BB 2

Plane

3/2

Wavefront Slit

Screen

Central Maximum is the brightest fringe.

Diffraction is not visible after a few order of diffraction.

Theory:

The path difference between the 0th wavelet and 12th wavelet is BN.

If is the angle of diffraction and d is the slit width, then BN = d sin

To establish the condition for secondary minima, the slit is divided into 2, 4,

6, equal parts such that corresponding wavelets from successive regions

interfere with path difference of /2.

Or for nth secondary minimum, the slit can be divided into 2n equal parts.

For 1, d sin 1 =

For 2, d sin 2 = 2

d n = n

For n, d sin n = n

n = n / d

(n = 1, 2, 3, )

To establish the condition for secondary maxima, the slit is divided into 3, 5,

7, equal parts such that corresponding wavelets from alternate regions

interfere with path difference of .

Or for nth secondary minimum, the slit can be divided into (2n + 1) equal

parts.

For 1, d sin 1 = 3/2

Since n is very small,

For 2, d sin 2 = 5/2

For n, d sin n = (2n + 1)/2

d n = (2n + 1) / 2

n = (2n + 1) / 2d

(n = 1, 2, 3, )

1

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7 /2

8

9

10

11

12

P1 Dark

y1

1

D

Bright

B

Plane

Wavefront Slit

tan 1 = y1 / D

or 1 = y1 / D (since 1 is very small)

d sin 1 =

or 1 = / d

Screen

y1 = D / d

Since the Central Maximum is

spread on either side of O, the

width is

0 = 2D / d

Fresnels Distance:

Fresnels distance is that distance from the slit at which the spreading

of light due to diffraction becomes equal to the size of the slit.

y1 = D / d

At Fresnels distance, y1 = d and D = DF

So, DF / d = d

or

DF = d2 /

If the distance D between the slit and the screen is less than Fresnels

distance DF, then the diffraction effects may be regarded as absent.

So, ray optics may be regarded as a limiting case of wave optics.

Interference

1.

2.

3.

4.

superposition of two different

wave trains coming from coherent

sources.

Fringe width is generally constant.

All the maxima have the same

intensity.

There is a good contrast between

the maxima and minima.

Diffraction

1.

2.

3.

4.

superposition of secondary

wavelets from the different parts

of the same wavefront.

Fringes are of varying width.

The maxima are of varying

intensities.

There is a poor contrast between

the maxima and minima.

Narrow Slit

Transverse

disturbance

(up and down)

Narrow Slit

90

Transverse

disturbance

(up and down)

Narrow Slit

Wave

S

- Parallel to the plane

- Perpendicular

Natural Light

to the plane

directions perpendicular to the direction of propagation of wave. But for

convenience, we can assume the rectangular components of the

vibrations with one component lying on the plane of the diagram and

the other perpendicular to the plane of the diagram.

Light waves are electromagnetic waves with electric and magnetic fields

oscillating at right angles to each other and also to the direction of

propagation of wave. Therefore, the light waves can be polarised.

Optic Axis

Unpolarised

light

Polariser

Plane

Polarised

light

Plane

Polarised

light

Analyser

Tourmaline

Crystal

Tourmaline

Crystal

90

No light

Unpolarised

light

Plane

Polarised

light

90

Unpolarised

light

Polariser

Plane of Vibration

Analyser

Plane

Polarised

light

Plane of Polarisation

the crystallographic axis are transmitted and those perpendicular to the axis

are absorbed. Therefore the transmitted light is plane (linearly) polarised.

The plane which contains the crystallographic axis and vibrations

transmitted from the polariser is called plane of vibration.

The plane which is perpendicular to the plane of vibration is called plane

of polarisation.

Malus Law:

When a beam of plane polarised light is incident on an analyser, the

intensity I of light transmitted from the analyser varies directly as the

square of the cosine of the angle between the planes of transmission of

analyser and polariser.

a

2

I cos

a sin

a cos

If a be the amplitude of the electric

P

vector transmitted by the polariser,

A

then only the component a cos

will be transmitted by the analyser.

the analyser is

or

I = k (a cos )2

I = k a2 cos2

I = I0 cos2

(where I0 = k a2 is the

intensity of light transmitted

from the polariser)

I = I0

I=0

on the analyser the intensity of the

transmitted light is one-half of the intensity of

incident light. (Since average value of cos2

is )

The incident light wave is made of

parallel vibrations ( components)

on the plane of incidence and

perpendicular vibrations (

components : perpendicular to plane

of incidence).

90

components completely refracted

whereas the perpendicular components

partially get refracted and partially get

reflected.

i.e. the reflected components are all in

perpendicular plane of vibration and

hence plane polarised.

The intensity of transmitted light

through the medium is greater than that

of plane polarised (reflected) light.

P + r = 90

a b =

a b =

or

r = 90 - P

sin P

sin r

sin P

sin 90 - P

a b

= tan P

Polaroids:

H Polaroid is prepared by taking a sheet of polyvinyl alcohol (long chain

polymer molecules) and subjecting to a large strain. The molecules are

oriented parallel to the strain and the material becomes doubly refracting.

When strained with iodine, the material behaves like a dichroic crystal.

K Polaroid is prepared by heating a stretched polyvinyl alcohol film in the

presence of HCl (an active dehydrating catalyst). When the film becomes

slightly darkened, it behaves like a strong dichroic crystal.

Uses of Polaroids:

1) Polaroid Sun Glasses

2) Polaroid Filters

3) For Laboratory Purpose

4) In Head-light of Automobiles

6) In Window Panes

7) In Wind Shield in Automobiles

End of Wave Optics

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