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One representative reference satisfying key parameters to be a voltage reference is the bandgap voltage reference.
The bandgap output voltage is realized by adding a voltage that is complementary-to-absolute-temperature (CTAT) to another voltage which is proportional-to-absolute-temperature (PTAT) to yield a first-order temperature-compensated voltage.

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Sovan Ghosh

Department of Electrical Engineering, IIT Madras

Voltage Reference

Analog circuits incorporate the voltage and current

references extensively . Such references are dc quantity that

exhibit A minimum dependence on the supply and process

parameters.

It has a well defined dependence on the temperature

(PTAT, constant Gm, or Temperature Independent)

We will analyze the operation of a temperature independent

voltage reference.

BANDGAP REFERENCE

One representative reference satisfying these key

parameters is the bandgap voltage reference.

The bandgap output voltage is realized by adding

a voltage that is complementary-to-absolutetemperature (CTAT) to another voltage which is

proportional-to-absolute-temperature (PTAT) to

yield a first-order temperature-compensated

voltage.

Now if we assume that the Op-Amp

is working perfectly in its negative

feedback configuration then current

I2 is given by

I2=(VBE1-VBE2)/R3

VBE1=VT ln (I1/I0)

VBE2=VT ln (I2/NI0)

V1=V2

I1R1=I2R2

I2=(VBE1-VBE2)/R3=VT ln (R2*N/R1)/R3

Several solutions to improve the temperature behavior exist. But They require

precision matching of current mirrors or a pre-regulated supply voltage and

Sometime special process also.

.

bandgap voltage principle.

Instead of adding a VBE voltage

to a scaled VT voltage, voltagemode references add a VT

voltage to an attenuated VBE

voltage.

Main draw back of this

implementation is that it need

special process (Twin

Well/BICMOS) to get high

quality BJT.

It needs separate bias current.

Drawbacks

Transistors Q1 and Q2 are fabricated in low voltage twin well

process. Figure below shows a Low voltage twin-well CMOS

process.

When the NPN device is fabricated, a parasitic PNP device is

formed from the base and collector of the NPN to the p-type

substrate. When the NPN device is saturated, the parasitic PNP

device begins operating in the forward-active region since the

emitter-base voltage (VEB) of the PNP is equal to VBC of the NPN.

This means we cant neglect the base current anymore and a

small change in VCE1 will change the IB1 significantly.

Twin Well or BICMOS processes are costlier.

Another disadvantage is that the circuit requires a separate bias

current source for proper operation instead of using a feedback

system to control the current of the reference core. The use of a

separate current source causes the currents inside the natural

logarithm to rely on temperature-dependent parameters instead

of ratios of resistors as or ratios of transistor sizes . Hence, it

complicates the calculation of the scale factor. This current

source also degrades the PSRR.

Though it has high flat band

and 1/f output noise problem

due to pMOS current mirror.

operate in low supply voltage

and can be port to different

process.

Minimum Supply Voltage is

limited by the common mode

of the amplifier.

Fig: Conventional Low Voltage CMR

Reference

Circuit Diagram

Amplifier/Op-Amp Architecture

Operational Details

Performance Result

Comparative Analysis

Circuit Diagram

Analysis

Vout1 = Ic*Rout1

=(Iptat1+Ictat1)*Rout1

=1*(Veb1-Veb2)+1*Veb1

+*(ib1*R_COMPENSATE)

The first term describe a PTAT voltage.

The Second term of the equation

describes a negative temperature

coefficient voltage along with a small

nonlinear dependency on temperature.

Now third term shows the following

characteristics with temperature.

As third term decreases slowly at higher

temperature so it can be used to

compensate higher reduction rate of 2nd

term (VEB) at high temperature.

of third term

Amplifier Circuit

Amplifier/Op-Amp Circuit

Analysis

Both the nMOS and pMOS input pair of the amplifier is biased at sub

threshold region of operation. The biasing circuit ensured that tail current of

nMOS input pair Intail = Ibias - Iptail irrespective of supply and common mode

voltage. So Iptail + Intail is also constant. Now the DC gain of the amplifier is

given by Gm*R where Gm is input effective trans conductance of the

amplifiers input pairs and R is the impedance seen by looking into the

circuit from node PBIAS. Now R can be approximately written 1/(*IMp7)

where is a process dependent constant and IMp7 is the source to drain

current of Mp7 . As Intail + Iptail is constant and Inbias is constant so the biasing

current of the output transistor IMp7 is also constant; i.e. R is constant. Now

the Gm is given by gmn+gmp where gmn is nMOS input pairs trans

conductance and gmp is pMOS input pairs trans conductance. Now

gmp=(iptail/2)/Vt and gmn= (intail/2)/Vt. Where iptail and intail are biasing current as

shown in fig. 5 and Vt is thermal voltage. So Gm = gmn+gmp = ibias/(2*Vt)

which is independent of supply and common mode voltage.

Amplifier's DC Gain in dB

For 220 nM

For 180 nM

83

82

81

80

79

78

77

76

75

74

73

72

71

70

69

68

67

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.0

1.2

1.4

Performance Of the BG

0.71680

A- For 180 nm

B- For 220 nm

0.71675

0.71670

0.71665

0.71660

B

0.71655

0.71650

0.71645

0.71640

-60

-40

-20

20

40

60

80

100

120

140

Temperature ( C)

Continued.

D-Supply Voltage

C-Bandgap output for 180 nm

B-Bandgap Output for 220 nm

3.25

3.00

2.75

2.50

2.25

Amplitude(V)

2.00

1.75

1.50

0.7169

0.7168

0.7167

0.7166

0.7165

0.7164

0.000

0.005

0.010

0.015

0.020

Time (s)

Continued.

-10

For 220 nm

For 180 nm

-20

-30

PSRR (dB)

-40

-50

-60

-70

-80

-90

10

10

10

10

10

10

10

10

10

10

Frequency (Hz)

Comparative Analysis

Parameters

[12]

[9]

[10]

[11]

This work

1.2

2.5

1.5 / 3

25

40

23

38

11.2

.487

1.14

.617

.716

3.68

8.9

5.3

2.7

-40C to

150C

-40C to

110C

Line Regulation (%

/V)

.24

0C

to

100C

.286

3.9

to

13.7

-50C to

150C

CMOS

Technology (m)

0.35

0.5

0.6

Supply

Voltage (V)

Supply Current (A)

Ref.

Voltage (V)

Temp.

Coefficient

(ppm/C)

Temperature

Range

.039

-55C

to

125C

.028

0.35

0.22 / 0.18

References

Question

Answer

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