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techniques

EMLAB

Contents

1. Introduction

2. Superposition

3. Thevenins and Nortons theorems

4. Maximum power transfer

5. Application Examples

EMLAB

1. Introduction

To simply solution procedures, the

number of nodes or loops should be

minimized by replacing the original

circuits with equivalent ones.

EMLAB

Linearity

1 (t )

i1 (t )

Linear system

L

i2 (t )

Linear system

L

2 (t )

Linear system

L

A1 (t ) B 2 (t )

Ai1 (t ) Bi2 (t )

Capacitors, Inductors are all linear systems. An independent source is not a linear

system.

All the circuits in the circuit theory class are linear systems!

EMLAB

R1

output

Resistor

1 (t ) -

1k

R1

i1 (t )

1k

1 (t ) i1 (t ) R1

input

2 (t ) -

Capacitor

C1

1n

C1

i2 (t )

1n

1

2 (t )

C

( ) d

EMLAB

Example 5.1

For the circuit shown in the figure, determine the output voltage Vout using linearity.

First, arbitrarily assume that the output voltage is Vout = 1 [V].

Vout V2 1 [V ]

I1

V1

1 [mA]

3k

I2

V2

0.5 [mA]

2k

I 0 I1 I 2 1.5 [mA]

V1 4k I 2 V2 3 [V ]

Vo 2k I o V1 6 [V ]

For the arbitrary assumption that Vout = 1 [V], the source voltage Vo should be 6 V.

Then from linearity, the actual output voltage should satisfy the following relation.

actual

actual

Vo : Vout 12 : Vout

6 : 1 Vout

2 [V ]

EMLAB

2. Superposition

Source superposition

VS

VS

VL

IS

I L,2

I L ,1

IL

Circuit

set to zero (Short circuited)

Circuit

VL ,1

set to zero(Open circuited)

Circuit

VL , 2

IS

I L I L ,1 I L , 2

VL VL ,1 VL , 2

If a voltage source is eliminated, it is replaced by a short circuit connected

to the original terminals.

If a current source is eliminated, it is replaced by an open circuit.

EMLAB

Example 5.2

To provide motivation for this subject, let us examine the simple circuit below, in

which two sources contribute to the current in the network. The actual values of the

sources are left unspecified so that we can examine the concept of superposition.

=

1 3k i1 3k (i1 i2 ) 0

3k (i2 i1 ) 6k i2 2 0

6k

3k

i

1

1

i2 15k

+

1 3k i1 3k (i1 i2 ) 0

3k (i2 i1 ) 6k i2 0

6k

3k

3k i1 1

9k i2 2

3 1 1

1

1 2 15k

31 2

2

2

1

3k i1 1

9k i2 0

i

1

1

i2 15k

31

1

3k i1 3k (i1 i2 ) 0

3k (i2 i1 ) 6k i2 2 0

6k

3k

3k i1 0

9k i2 2

i

1

1

i2 15k

2

2

2

EMLAB

Example 5.3

+

Io

1

6k

2 [mA]

1

1

3k 6k

Vo I o 6k 4 [V ]

2

[mA]

3

Vo

6k

3 [V ] 2 [V ]

3k 6k

Vo Vo Vo 6 [V ]

I1 2 [mA]

1k ( I1 I 2 ) 2k ( I1 I 2 ) 3 6k I 2 0

I 2 1 [mA], Vo 6 [V ]

EMLAB

Example 5.4

10

Consider now the network in Fig. 5.4a. Let us use superposition to find Vo.

8k

3 24 [V ]

V1 6

8k 2k 7

3

6k 18

Vo V1

[V ]

6k 2 k 7

30

10

Vo k || 6k 2 [mA]

[V ]

7

3

Vo Vo Vo

48

[V ]

7

EMLAB

11

i

a

RV

VS

RI

b

IS

f (i )

Ai B RTh i VTh

1. To find B, measure voltage with

i=0. (open circuit voltage)

2. To find A, measure the variation

of with i changing. (impedance)

i g (i )

i C D YNor I Nor

1. To find D, measure current with =

0. (short circuit current)

2. To find C, measure the variation of

i with changing. (admittance)

EMLAB

12

VS

I 0

Input resistance of a

voltmeter is infinite.

RTH

Circuit

VOC

IS

VOC

sources short circuited and current sources open circuited.

short

Circuit

Ohm meter

open

EMLAB

13

VS

Input resistance of an

ammeter is zero.

I SH

Circuit

IS

I SH

RTH

Voltage sources short circuited and current sources open circuited.

short

Circuit

Ohm meter

open

EMLAB

14

Example 5.6

Let us use Thvenins and Nortons theorems to find Vo in the network below.

Vo

Vo

1

1

1

3k 6k

6k

9 6 [V ]

3k 6k

3 [mA] 6 [V ]

EMLAB

15

Example 5.7

Let us use Thvenins theorem to find Vo in the network in Fig. 5.9a.

VOC1

6k

12 [V ] 8 [V ]

3k 6k

VOC2 8 4k 2 [mA] 16 [V ]

VO

RTh1 2k

3k 6k

4 [ k ]

3k 6k

RTh1 4 [k]

8k

16 8 [V ]

16k

EMLAB

16

Determine the Thvenin equivalent of the network in Fig. 5.11a at the terminals A-B.

V1 V1 2Vx V1 1

0

1k

2k

1k

V1

Vx 1 V1

Io

5V1 2(1 V1 ) 2 0

4

3

, Vx

7

7

Vx 1 2Vx 1

3

3 15

[mA]

1k

1k

2k 2k 7k 14

RTh

1 [V ] 14

[ k ]

Io

15

EMLAB

17

Example 5.10

Let us determine at the terminals A-B for the network in Fig. 5.12a.

V1 2000 I x V1 V1 V2

0

2k

1k

3k

V2 V1 V2

1m 0

3k

2k

Ix

V1

1k

2V2 2V1 3V2 6 2V1 5V2 6 0

V2

10

V

10

[V ] RTh 2 [k]

7

1m 7

EMLAB

18

and short-circuit current to calculate the Thvenin equivalent resistance.

Let us use Thvenins theorem to find Vo in the network in Fig. 5.13a.

12-V source is

VOC 12 2000 I x VOC 12 VOC

0

1k

2k

2k

V

I x OC

2k

I x 0

I SC

Vo

12

2

[ k ]

3

1k

18 [mA]

1

1k 1k k

3

( 6 )

RTh

VOC 6 [V ]

VOC

1

[ k ]

I SC

3

3

18

( 6) [V ]

7

7

EMLAB

19

Example 5.12

Let us find Vo in the network in Fig. 5.14a using Thvenins theorem.

I 2 2 [mA]

I1

Vx

2000

Vx 4k ( I1 I 2 )

Vx 2Vx 8 Vx 8 [V ]

VOC 2k I1 3 11 [V ]

V

3 2k I SC x 0, Vx 4k x 2m

2000

2000

Vx 8 [V ]

I SC

RTh

Vo

Vx

3

11

4m 1.5m [mA]

2000 2k

2

VOC

11

2 [ k ]

I Sc 11 [mA]

2

6k

33

11

[V ]

6k 2 k

4

EMLAB

20

Example 5.14

Determine Vo in the circuit in Fig. 5.16a using the repeated application of

source transformation.

I SC

12

3k 6k

4 [mA], RTh

2k

3k

3k 6k

VOC 4m 2k 8 [V ], RTh 2k 2k 4k

I SC

8

2 [mA], RTh 4k

4k

VOC 4m 4k 16 [V ], RTh 4k

VO

8k

16k 8 [V ]

4k 4k 8k

EMLAB

21

RS

PL i 2 RL , i

PL

Equivalent circuit of

a signal source

RS RL

2 RL

( RS RL ) 2

this quantity. Hence, we differentiate this expression

with respect to RL and equate the derivative to zero.

2

PL

2 ( RS RL ) 2 RL ( RS RL )

RL

( RS RL ) 4

( RS RL )

0

( RS RL )3

RL RS

EMLAB

22

Example 5.16

Let us find the value of RL for maximum power transfer in the network in Fig. 5.20a

and the maximum power that can be transferred to this load.

RL RTh 4k

6k 3k

6k

6k 3k

3k ( I 2 I1 ) 6k I 2 3 0, I1 2m

I2

1

[mA]

3

VOC 4k I1 6k I 2 8 2 10 [V ]

10

PL

6k 4.17 [mW ]

12k

EMLAB

23

Example 5.17

Let us find RL for maximum power transfer and the maximum power transferred

to this load in the circuit in Fig. 5.21a.

VOC 2000 I x

V

V

4m OC 0, I x OC

4k

2k

2k

VOC 8 [V ]

I x 0 x I SC 4 [mA]

RTh

VOC

2 k

I SC

2

8

PL

6k 2.67 [mW ]

12k

EMLAB

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