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Internet dan Jaringan Komputer

Komunikasi Data dan Jaringan


Komputer
(Bagian 1)

Dr. Tb. Maulana Kusuma


mkusuma@staff.gunadarma.ac.id
http://staffsite.gunadarma.ac.id/mkusuma

Magister Manajemen Sistem Informasi

Referensi
W. Stallings, Data and Computer
Communications, 4ed, Macmillan, 1994.
F. Halsall, Data Communications,
Computer Networks and Open
Systems, Addison Wesley, 1996.

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A Communications Model
Source
generates data to be transmitted
Transmitter
Converts data into transmittable signals
Transmission System
Carries data
Receiver
Converts received signal into data
Destination
Takes incoming data
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Simplified Communications
Model - Diagram

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Simplified Data
Communications Model

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Key Communications Tasks


Transmission System Utilization
Interfacing
Signal Generation
Synchronization
Exchange Management
Error detection and correction
Addressing and routing
Recovery
Message formatting
Security
Network Management
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Communications Standard
Many types of connection media :
telephone lines, optical fibers,
cables, radios, etc.
Many different types of machines and
operating systems
Many different network applications

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What Standard means?


How many volts pulse is a 0 and 1 ?
How to determine the end of a message ?
How to handle lost messages ?
How many bits for different data types ?
Integers/Strings, etc.; are ASCII chars ?
How machines are identified ?
How to find the way to reach a machine ?
How applications speaks together through the
network ?
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Standard Bodies
International Telecommunications Union
Telecommunications Sector (ITU-T)
Institute of Electrical and Electronics
Engineers (IEEE)
International Organization for
Standardization (ISO)
Electronic Industries Alliance (EIA)
dll
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The ISO/OSI Model


ISO (the International Standards Organization) has
developed a reference model for communications,
called the

OSI
(Open Systems Interconnection)
OPEN SYSTEM means that it can communicate with
any other system that follows the specified standards,
formats and semantics.

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OSI Networking Model


Program X

Data
AH Data

Application
Presentation

Presentation

SH Data unit

Transport

TH

Network

Physical

Application

PH Data unit

Session

Data link

Program Y

NH
LH

Session

Data unit

Transport

Data unit

Network

Data unit

Bits

LT

Data link

Physical

Physical transmission medium

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OSI Layers (1)


Physical
Physical interface between devices
Mechanical
Electrical
Functional
Procedural
Data Link
Means of activating, maintaining and deactivating a
reliable link
Error detection and control
Higher layers may assume error free transmission
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OSI Layers (2)


Network

Transport of information

Higher layers do not need to know about underlying technology

Not needed on direct links


Transport

Exchange of data between end systems

Error free

In sequence

No losses

No duplicates

Quality of service

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OSI Layers (3)


Session
Control of dialogues between applications
Dialogue discipline
Grouping
Recovery
Presentation
Data formats and coding
Data compression
Encryption
Application
Means for applications to access OSI environment
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Transmission Medium
Guided - wire
Unguided - wireless
Characteristics and quality determined by
medium and signal
For guided, the medium is more important
For unguided, the bandwidth produced by
the antenna is more important
Key concerns are data rate and distance
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Guided Transmission Media


Twisted Pair
Coaxial cable
Optical fiber

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Twisted Pair
Twisted pair - INEXPENSIVE
Two wires twisted together.
Makes them less susceptible to acting like
an antenna and picking up radio frequency
information or appliance noise.

Telephone company uses twisted-pair


copper wires to link telephones.

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Twisted Pair

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Twisted Pair - Applications


Most common medium
Telephone network

Between house and local exchange


(subscriber loop)

Within buildings

To private branch exchange (PBX)

For local area networks (LAN)

10Mbps or 100Mbps
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Twisted Pair - Pros and Cons


Cheap
Easy to work with
Low data rate
Short range

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Twisted Pair - Transmission


Characteristics
Analog
Amplifiers every 5km to 6km
Digital
Use either analog or digital signals
repeater every 2km or 3km
Limited distance
Limited bandwidth (1MHz)
Limited data rate (100MHz)
Susceptible to interference and noise

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Unshielded and Shielded TP


Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP)
Ordinary telephone wire
Cheapest
Easiest to install
Suffers from external EM interference
Shielded Twisted Pair (STP)
Metal braid or sheathing that reduces interference
More expensive
Harder to handle (thick, heavy)

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UTP Categories
Cat 3
up to 16MHz
Voice grade found in most offices
Twist length of 7.5 cm to 10 cm
Cat 4
up to 20 MHz
Cat 5 or Cat 6
up to 100MHz
Commonly pre-installed in new office buildings
Twist length 0.6 cm to 0.85 cm
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Coaxial Cable (1)


Coaxial cable
Also two wires:

Use this when


1. Long distances
2. Lots of interference

One of the wires is woven of fine strands of


copper forming a tube.
The wire mesh surrounds a solid copper
wire that runs down the center.
Space between has a non-conducting
material.
Makes them more impervious to outside
noise.
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Coaxial Cable (2)

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Coaxial Cable (3)

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Coaxial Cable Applications


Most versatile medium
Television distribution

Aerial to TV
Cable TV

Long distance telephone transmission

Can carry 10,000 voice calls simultaneously


Being replaced by fiber optic

Short distance computer systems links


Local area networks
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Coaxial Cable - Transmission


Characteristics
Analog

Amplifiers every few km


Closer if higher frequency
Up to 500MHz

Digital

Repeater every 1km


Closer for higher data rates

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Optical Fiber (1)

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Optical Fiber (2)

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Optical Fiber (3)


Fiber-optic cable
(BIG JOBS + EXPENSIVE)
Light is electromagnetic.
Can transmit more information down a single
strand.
It can send a wider set of frequencies.
Each cable can send several thousand phone
conversations or computer communications.
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Optical Fiber - Spectrum

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Optical Fiber - Benefits


Greater capacity

Data rates of hundreds of Gbps

Smaller size & weight


Lower attenuation
Electromagnetic isolation
Greater repeater spacing

10s of km at least

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Optical Fiber - Applications


Long-haul trunks
Metropolitan trunks
Rural exchange trunks
Subscriber loops
LANs

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Optical Fiber - Transmission


Characteristics
Act as wave guide for 1014 to 1015 Hz
Portions of infrared and visible spectrum
Light Emitting Diode (LED)
Cheaper
Wider operating temp range
Last longer
Injection Laser Diode (ILD)
More efficient
Greater data rate
Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM)
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Optical Fiber Transmission


Modes

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Wireless Transmission
Unguided media
Transmission and reception via antenna
Directional

Focused beam
Careful alignment required

Omni-directional

Signal spreads in all directions


Can be received by many antenna
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Frequencies
2GHz to 40GHz

Microwave

Highly
directional

Point to point

Satellite
30MHz to 1GHz

Omnidirectional

Broadcast radio
3 x 1011 to 2 x 1014

Infrared

Local
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Terrestrial Microwave
Parabolic dish
Focused beam
Line of sight
Long haul telecommunications
Higher frequencies give higher data rates

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Satellite Microwave
Satellite is relay station
Satellite receives on one frequency,
amplifies or repeats signal and transmits
on another frequency
Requires geo-stationary orbit

Height of 35,784km

Television
Long distance telephone
Private business networks

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Broadcast Radio
Omni-directional
FM radio
UHF and VHF television
Line of sight
Suffers from multi-path interference

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Infrared
Modulate non-coherent infrared light
Line of sight (or reflection)
Blocked by walls
e.g. TV remote control, IRD port

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Terminology (1)
Transmitter
Receiver
Medium

Guided medium
e.g. twisted pair, optical fiber

Unguided medium
e.g. air, water, vacuum

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Terminology (2)
Direct link

No intermediate devices

Point-to-point

Direct link
Only 2 devices share link

Multi-point

More than two devices share the link

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Terminology (3)
Simplex

One direction
e.g. Television

Half duplex

Either direction, but only one way at a time


e.g. police radio

Full duplex

Both directions at the same time


e.g. telephone
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Terminology (4)
Bits per second (bps).

The number of bits (0s and 1s) that travel


down the channel per second.

Baud rate

The number of bits that travel down the


channel in a given interval.
The number is given in signal changes per
second, not necessarily bits per second.

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Terminology (5)
Asynchronous transmission

Information is sent byte by byte.


Cheaper and more commonly used.

Synchronous transmission

Data is sent in large blocks rather than in


small pieces.
Preceded by special information, concerning
error detection and block size.
These modems are expensive but very fast.
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Analog and Digital Data


Transmission
Data

Entities that convey meaning

Signals

Electric or electromagnetic representations of


data

Transmission

Communication of data by propagation and


processing of signals
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Data
Analog

Continuous values within some interval


e.g. sound, video

Digital

Discrete values
e.g. text, integers

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Data and Signals


Usually use digital signals for digital data
and analog signals for analog data
Can use analog signal to carry digital data

Modem

Can use digital signal to carry analog data

Compact Disc audio

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Signals
Type of signal communicated (analog or digital).
Analog: Those signals that vary with smooth continuous
changes.
A continuously changing signal similar to that found on
the speaker wires of a high-fidelity stereo system.
Digital: Those signals that vary in steps or jumps from
value to value. They are usually in the form of pulses of
electrical energy (represent 0s or 1s).

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Analog Signals Carrying Analog


and Digital Data

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Digital Signals Carrying Analog


and Digital Data

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Analog Transmission
Analog signal transmitted without regard to
content
May be analog or digital data
Attenuated over distance
Use amplifiers to boost signal
Also amplifies noise

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Digital Transmission
Concerned with content
Integrity endangered by noise, attenuation etc.
Repeaters used
Repeater receives signal
Extracts bit pattern
Retransmits
Attenuation is overcome
Noise is not amplified
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Advantages of Digital
Transmission
Digital technology
Low cost LSI/VLSI technology
Data integrity
Longer distances over lower quality lines
Capacity utilization
High bandwidth links economical
High degree of multiplexing easier with digital techniques
Security & Privacy
Encryption
Integration
Can treat analog and digital data similarly
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Transmission Impairments
Signal received may differ from signal
transmitted
Analog - degradation of signal quality
Digital - bit errors
Caused by

Attenuation and attenuation distortion


Propagation delay
Noise
Interference
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Attenuation
Signal strength falls off with distance
Depends on medium
Received signal strength:

must be enough to be detected


must be sufficiently higher than noise to be
received without error

Attenuation is an increasing function of


frequency
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Propagation Delay
The time required for a signal to travel
from one point to another.
Propagation velocity varies with frequency.

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Noise (1)
Additional signals inserted between
transmitter and receiver
Thermal

Due to thermal agitation of electrons


White noise

Inter-modulation

Signals that are the sum and difference of


original frequencies sharing a medium
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Noise (2)
Crosstalk

A signal from one line is picked up by another

Impulse

Irregular pulses or spikes


e.g. External electromagnetic interference
Short duration
High amplitude

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Channel Capacity
Data rate

In bits per second


Rate at which data can be communicated

Bandwidth

In cycles per second of Hertz


Constrained by transmitter and medium

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Modulation Techniques

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Adaptive Modulation

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Data Rate and Bandwidth


Any transmission system has a limited
band of frequencies
This limits the data rate that can be carried

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Multiplexing

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Time Division Multiplexing


Data rate of medium exceeds data rate of
digital signal to be transmitted
Multiple digital signals interleaved in time
May be at bit level of blocks
Time slots pre-assigned to sources and
fixed
Time slots allocated even if no data
Time slots do not have to be evenly
distributed amongst sources
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Time Division Multiplexing

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TDM System

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Frequency Division Multiplexing


FDM
Useful bandwidth of medium exceeds
required bandwidth of channel
Each signal is modulated to a different
carrier frequency
Carrier frequencies separated so signals
do not overlap (guard bands)
e.g. broadcast radio
Channel allocated even if no data
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Frequency Division Multiplexing


Diagram

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FDM System

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Increasing Network Capacity


Options
More Fibers
(SDM)

Same bit rate, more fibers


Slow Time to Market
Expensive Engineering
Limited Rights of Way
Duct Exhaust

W
D
M

Faster Electronics
(TDM)

Same fiber & bit rate, more ls


Fiber Compatibility
Fiber Capacity Release
Fast Time to Market
Lower Cost of Ownership
Utilizes existing TDM Equipment

Higher bit rate, same fiber


Electronics more expensive

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Fiber Networks
Time division multiplexing
Single wavelength per fiber
Multiple channels per fiber
4 OC-3 channels in OC-12
4 OC-12 channels in OC-48
16 OC-3 channels in OC-48

Channel 1

Single
Fiber (One
Wavelength)

Channel n

Wave division multiplexing


Multiple wavelengths per fiber
4, 16, 32, 64 channels
per system
Multiple channels per fiber

l1
l2

Single Fiber
(Multiple
Wavelengths)

ln
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Types of WDM
Coarse WDM (CWDM)

Uses 3000GHz (20 nm) spacing.


Up to 18 channels.
Distance of 50 km on a single mode fiber.

Dense WDM (DWDM)

Uses 200, 100, 50, or 25 GHz spacing.


Up to 128 or more channels.
Distance of several thousand kilometres with amplification
and regeneration.

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TDM and DWDM Comparison


TDM (SONET/SDH)
Takes sync and async
signals and multiplexes them
to a single higher optical bit
rate
E/O or O/E/O conversion

DS-1
DS-3
OC-1
OC-3
OC-12
OC-48

SONET
ADM

Fiber

(D)WDM
OC-12c
Takes multiple optical
OC-48c
signals and multiplexes
OC-192c
onto a single fiber
No signal format conversion

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DWDM
OADM

Fiber

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Why DWDMThe Business


Case
Conventional TDM Transmission10 Gbps
40km 40km 40km 40km 40km 40km 40km 40km 40km
1310
1310
1310
1310
1310
1310
1310
1310
TERM
TERM
RPTR
1310
RPTR
1310
RPTR
1310
RPTR
1310
RPTR
1310
RPTR
1310
RPTR
1310
RPTR
1310
TERM
TERM
RPTR
1310
RPTR
1310
RPTR
1310
RPTR
1310
RPTR
1310
RPTR
1310
RPTR
1310
RPTR
1310
TERM
TERM
RPTR
1310
RPTR
1310
RPTR
1310
RPTR
1310
RPTR
1310
RPTR
1310
RPTR
1310
RPTR
1310
TERM
TERM
RPTR
RPTR
RPTR
RPTR
RPTR
RPTR
RPTR
RPTR

OC-48
OC-48
OC-48
OC-48

DWDM Transmission10 Gbps


120 km

120 km

OA

OA

4 Fibers Pairs
32 Regenerators

OC-48
OC-48
OC-48
OC-48

120 km
OA

OA

1 Fiber Pair
4 Optical Amplifiers

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Optical Transmission Bands


Band

New Band
S-Band
C-Band
L-Band
U-Band

Wavelength (nm)
820 - 900
1260 1360
1360 1460
1460 1530
1530 1565
1565 1625
1625 1675

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Characteristics of a WDM Network


Sub-wavelength Multiplexing or MuxPonding

Ability to put multiple services onto a single


wavelength

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Transmission Effects
Attenuation:

Reduces power level with distance

Dispersion and nonlinear effects:

Erodes clarity with distance and speed

Noise and Jitter:


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