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1.

WATER
POLLUTION

1.WATER POLLUTION
THE RELEASE OF SOLID OF LIQUID
WASTE INTO SOURCES OF WATER
SUCH AS RIVERS , LAKES AND SEAS
CAN DESTROY AQUATIC ORGANISMS
SOME OF THE HUMAN ACTIVITIES
CAN CONSTRIBUTE TO WATER
POLLUTION .

Industrial
Factories

Livestock
Farming

Agriculture

Sources

Domestic
Seawage

Ship
Tank

INDUSTRIAL
FACTORIES
CAUSE BY HEAVY METALS SUCH AS
MERCURY , ZINC , LEAD AND
RADIOACTIVE WASTE
SINCE MOST OF THEM ARE TOXIC ,
SO THIS MAY CAUSE CANCER AND
LEUKEMIA IF THEY ACCUMULATE IN
THE BODY .
THIS POLLUTION CAN BE PASSED
ON THROUGH FOOD CHAINS

AGRICULTURE
CAUSE BY PHOSPHATE AND NITRATE IN
FERTILISER , HERBICIDES AND PESTICIDES .
EUTROPICATION IS THE ENRICHMENT OF
NUTRIENTS IN THE SOURCES OF WATER THAT
PROMOTES THE GROWTH OF ALGAE ON THE
SURFACE AND THUS PREVENT SUNLIGHT FROM
ENTERING THE WATER .
SUBMERGED PLANTS WILL DIE AND
DECOMPOSED BY BACTERIA CAUSING THE
OXYGENIN THE WATER TO DECREASE .
CONSEQUENTLY , THE BOD INCREASES AND
AQUATIC ORGANSMS WILL DIE .
PESTICIDES ARE TOXIC AND ARE PASSED ON
THROUGH THE FOOD CHAIN TO HUMANS

BOD IS THE AMOUNT OF WATER


REQUIRE BY MICROORGANISMS
TO DECOMPOSE THE ORGANIC
SUBSTANCES IN THE WATER

LIVESTOCK FARMING
CAUSES BY ANIMAL FEACES THAT
CONTAINS BACTERIA
THIS ILL CAUSE DISEASE SUCH AS
TYPOID FEVER , CHLOREA , AND
SKIN DISEASE

DOMESTIC SEWAGE
CAUSES BY NON-BIODEGRADABLE
MATERIALS SUCH AS PLASTIC , GLASS
AND ALUMINIUM .
THIS WILL BLOCKS THE FLOW OF WATER
AND CAUSES STAGNANT WATER .
ITS ALSO BECOMES BREEDING GROUNDS
FOR MOSQITOES AND CAUSES THE
SPREAD OF DISEASE SUCH AS DENGUE
FEVER AND MALARIA .

SHIP TANK
CAUSE BY THE OIL SPILL
THIS WILL BLOCKS THE EXCHANGE
OF RESPIRATORY GASES AND
CAUSES THE DEATH OF SEA BIRDS
AND FISH

NOISE POLLUTION
CAUSE BY MOTOR VEHICLES ,
AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY , INDUSTRIAL
MACHINERY AND WORK AT
CONSTRUCTION SITES .
CONTINOUS EXPOSURE TO LOUD SOUNDS
AND MORE THAN 80 DECIBELS (db) IN THE
LONG TERM CAN CAUSE DEAFNESS
EXTREME NOISE CAN ALSO CAUSE
STRESS-RELATED PROBLEMS SUCH A S
HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE , HEART
ATTACKS , DEPRESSION AND HEADACHES
.

EXPERIMENT 9.2

INVESTIGATING
THE LEVEL OF
POLLUTION IN
SEVERAL SAMPLES
OF WATER FROM
DIFFERENT
SOURCES

AIM
To investigate the level of pollution in
several samples of water from different
sources.

PROBLEM STATEMENT
What is the level of pollution in different
sources of water ?

HYPOTHESIS
River water is the most polluted of the
samples of water collected.

VARIABLES
Manipulated Variable

Water samples

Responding Variable

Time taken for the


methylene blue solution
to decolourise

Fixed Variable

Volume of methylene
blue solution

MATERIALS
Methylene blue solution (0.1%), water
samples (from a river, a pond, a drain, a
pipe, a well and distilled water).

APPARATUS
250 ml reagent bottles with stoppers,
beakers, syringes and a stopwatch.

TECHNIQUE
Measure and record the time taken for the
methylene blue solution to decolourise
with a stopwatch.

PROCEDURE
1. Water samples are collected from five
different water sources.
2. The reagent bottles are labelled P, Q, R, S, T
and U.
3. The reagent bottles are filled with the following
water samples.
P : Pipe water S : Pond water
Q : Drain water T : Well water
R : River water
U : Distilled water

Each reagent bottles is then closed with a


stopper.

4. If the water samples are not tested immedietly,


the reagent bottles should be wrapped in
aluminium foil or black paper to shield them
from light.
5. The tests for all the water samples are run on
the same day.
6. A syringe is used to add 1ml of methylene blue
solution to the base of each water samples.
(figure 9.5)
7. The reagent bottles are closed quickly. The
contents of the bottles cannot be shaken.
8. All the bottles are places in a dark cupboard
and the stopwatch is activated.

9. The bottle are examined from time to


time.
10. The time taken for the methylene blue
solution to decolourise (become
colourless) is recorded for all the water
samples.
11. The result are recorded in a table.

RESULT
Reagent
bottle

Water sample

Time taken for methylene


blue solution to
decolourise

Pipe water

Did not decolourise

Drain water

3 hours

River water

1 hours

Pond water

2 hours

T
U

Well water
Distilled water

Did not decolourise


Did not decolourise

DISCUSSION
1.
2.

Methylene blue solution is used as an indicator to test


for the presence of oxygen in the water samples.
a) If the methylene blue solution decolourises rapidly,
this shows that the presence of dissolved oxygen in
the water sample is low and, therefore, the water
sample is highly polluted. The water water sample
contains a large amount of organic matter. High
concentration of organic matter encourage the growth
of decomposers, especially aerobic bacteria. This
reduces the level of dissolve oxygen in the water
sample. The water sample is said to have a high BOD
value or it is highly polluted.

4.

b) Conversely, if the methylene blue solution takes a


longer time to decolourise, this shows that the water
sample contains a high level of dissolved oxygen and
has a low BOD value. The water sample is not
polluted.
a) The methylene blue solution must be added at the
base of the water samples to avoid being oxidised by
atmospheric oxygen.
b) The contents of the reagent bottles should not be
shaken to avoid aeration or the prevent more oxygen
from dissolving in the water samples.
a) Low values of biochemical oxygen demand indicate
good or better water quality and, therefore, the water is
not polluted.

b) High values of biochemical oxygen


demand
indicate that the samples are severely polluted.
5. The most polluted water sample is river water.
6. a) The sources of pollution in river water and pond
water are nitrates and phosphates from agricultural
run-offs and untreated sewage.
b) Drain water usually contains domestic waste.

CONCLUSION
The methylene blue solution took the
shortest time to decolourise in river water.
River water is the most polluted.
The hyphothesis is accepted.