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Sweep Frequency Response Analysis

Advanced Transformer Testing 2012

Transformer Diagnostics
Transformer Diagnostics is about acquiring accurate
measurement data and other information in order to make
the correct decision about what to do with the actual unit

SFRA
TTR
WRM
FDS

Advanced Transformer Testing 2012

SFRA testing basics


Off-line test
The transformer is seen as a complex
impedance circuit
[Open] (magnetization impedance)
and [Short] (short-circuit impedance)
responses are measured over a wide
frequency range and the results are
presented as magnitude response
(transfer function) in dB
Changes in the impedance/transfer
function can be detected and
compared over time, between test
objects or within test objects
The method is unique in its ability to
detect a variety of winding faults, core
issues and other electromechanical
faults in one test
Advanced Transformer Testing 2012

Rponse et analyse dun balayage en


SFRA mathematics basics
frquence

Generator test voltage

Measured voltage

Phase,

Gain, dB

V
G(dB) 20 log10 out
Vin

Advanced Transformer Testing 2012

Sweep Frequency Response Analysis


Standards Summary

Advanced Transformer Testing 2012

SFRA Standards and Recommendations


Frequency Response Analysis on Winding Deformation of Power
Transformers, DL/T 911-2004, The Electric Power Industry Standard of
Peoples Republic of China
Mechanical-Condition Assessment of Transformer Windings Using
Frequency Response Analysis (FRA), CIGRE report 342, 2008
IEC 60076-18, Power transformers Part 18: Measurement of
frequency response, 2012
IEEE PC57.149, Guide for the Application and Interpretation of
Frequency Response Analysis for Oil Immersed Transformers, 2012
Internal standards by transformer manufacturers, e.g. ABB FRA
Standard v.5

Advanced Transformer Testing 2012

SFRA - Theory and method

Advanced Transformer Testing 2012

FRA definitions
Frequency response
The amplitude ratio and phase difference between voltages measured at
two terminals of the test object over a range of frequencies when one of the
terminals is excited by a voltage source. The frequency response
measurement result is a series of amplitude ratios and phase differences at
specific frequencies over a range of frequency.
As Vout/Vin varies over a wide range, it is expressed in decibels (dB). The
relative voltage response in dB is calculated as 20 x log10(Vout/Vin)

Frequency response analysis (FRA)


The technique used to detect damage by the use of frequency response
measurements.

Advanced Transformer Testing 2012

FRA history
1960: Low Voltage Impulse Method. First proposed by W. Lech & L. Tyminski
in Poland for detecting transformer winding deformation.
1966: Results Published; Detecting Transformer Winding Damage - The
Low Voltage Impulse Method, Lech & Tyminsk, The Electric Review, UK
1978: Transformer Diagnostic Testing by Frequency Response Analysis,
E.P. Dick & C.C. Erven, Ontario Hydro, IEEE Transactions of Power Delivery
1980 - 1990s : Proving trials by utilities and OEMs, the technology cascades
internationally via CIGRE, and many other conferences and technical
meetings
2004: First SFRA standard, Frequency Response Analysis on Winding
Deformation of Power Transformers, DL/T 911-2004, is published by The
Electric Power Industry Standard of Peoples Republic of China
2008: CIGRE report 342, Mechanical-Condition Assessment of Transformer
Windings Using Frequency Response Analysis (FRA) is published
2012: IEC60076-18 and IEEE PC57.149 are released

Advanced Transformer Testing 2012

Transformer mechanics basics


A transformer is designed to handle certain (high!) mechanical
forces.
Design limits can be exceeded due to
Excessive mechanical impact
Transportation
Earthquakes

Over currents caused by


Through faults
Tap-changer faults
Faulty synchronization

Mechanical strength weakens as the transformer ages


Less capability to handle high stress/forces
Increased risk of mechanical problems
Increased risk for insulation problems

Advanced Transformer Testing 2012

Why assess the mechanical condition?

To detect core displacement and winding


deformation due to e.g.

Large electromagnetic forces from fault current


Transformer transportation and relocation

If these faults are not detected they may develop


into dielectric or thermal faults which normally
results in the loss of the transformer
Periodic testing is essential!

Advanced Transformer Testing 2012

Detecting Faults with SFRA


Winding faults
Deformation
Displacement
Shorts

Core related faults


Movements
Grounding
Screens

Mechanical faults/changes
Clamping structures
Connections

And more...
Advanced Transformer Testing 2012

SFRA measurement circuitry

Advanced Transformer Testing 2012

SFRA How does it work (1)

A large number of low voltage signals with varying


frequencies are applied to the transformer
The input and output signals are measured in amplitude
and phase
The ratio of the two signals gives the frequency
response or transfer function of the transformer
From the (complex) transfer function you can derive a
number of entities as function of frequency e.g.

Magnitude
Phase
Impedance/admittance
Correlation
Advanced Transformer Testing 2012

SFRA How does it work (2)

The RLC network has different impedance at different


frequencies.
The transfer function for all frequencies is the measure
of the effective impedance of the RLC network.
A geometrical deformation, changes the RLC network,
which in turn changes the impedance/transfer function
at different frequencies.
These changes gives an indication of damage within a
transformer.

Advanced Transformer Testing 2012

SFRA results Frequency regions


Transformer issues can be
detected in different frequency
ranges
Low frequencies
Core problems
Shorted/open windings
Bad connections/increased
resistance
Short-circuit impedance
changes

Winding
and tap
leads
Winding
interaction and
deformation

Medium frequencies
Winding deformations
Winding displacement

Core + windings

High frequencies
Movement of winding and tap
leads
Advanced Transformer Testing 2012

Frequency regions by IEC and IEEE


10
0
-10

Magnitude, dB

-20

Winding
structure
influence

Core
influence

-30
-40
-50
-60
-70
-80
-90
1
10

A phase
B phase
C phase
2

10

Earthing
leads
influence

Interaction
between
windings
3

10

10
Frequency, Hz

10

10

Advanced Transformer Testing 2012

10

SFRA measurement frequency ranges


IEC60076-18
Category

Low frequency limit High frequency limit

Power transformers, Uw < 72.5 kV

< 20 Hz

> 2 MHz

Power transformers, Uw > 72.5 kV

< 20 Hz

> 1 MHz

Comparing older measurements


and/or methods/practices not
following IEC method 1 (CIGRE 342)
standard for signal shield grounding

< 20 Hz

500 kHz

Advanced Transformer Testing 2012

SFRA measurement frequency ranges


Examples
Standard

Low frequency limit High frequency limit

Eskom standard

20 Hz

2 MHz

ABB standard

10 Hz

2 MHz

Japan (impedance)

100 Hz

1 MHz

DL/T-911 2004

1 kHz

1 MHz

Typical instrument default values are 20 Hz 2 MHz

Advanced Transformer Testing 2012

Comparative tests
Transformer A

Design based

Time based
Transformer A

Transformer B

Type based

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Comparisons
Time Based (Tests performed on the same transformer over time)
The most reliable test
Deviations between curves are easy to detect

Type Based (Tests performed on transformer of same design)


Requires knowledge about test object/versions
Small deviations are not necessarily indicating a problem

Design based (Tests performed on winding legs and bushings of


identical design)

Requires knowledge about test object/versions


Small deviations are not necessarily indicating a problem

Advanced Transformer Testing 2012

SFRA Measurement philosophy


New measurement = Reference measurement

Back in Service
New measurement Reference measurement

Further Diagnostics Required


Advanced Transformer Testing 2012

Reference measurements
When transformer is new
Capture reference data at commissioning of
new transformers

When transformer is in known good


condition
Capture reference data at a scheduled routine
test (no issues found)

Save for future reference


Start Your Reference Measurements ASAP!
Advanced Transformer Testing 2012

SFRA measurements When?


Manufacturing tests
Quality check during manufacturing
Proofing the transformer after short-circuit test
Before shipping

Installation/commissioning
Relocation
After a significant through-fault event
Part of routine diagnostic test
Catastrophic events
Earth quakes
Hurricanes/tornadoes

Trigger based test/transformer alarms


Buchholz
DGA
High temperature

Before-after maintenance

Advanced Transformer Testing 2012

Transformer fault detection

Advanced Transformer Testing 2012

Detection of Winding Movement (1)

Prior to SFRA the mechanical integrity of the


transformer was assessed with the following standard
methods:

Winding capacitance
Excitation current
Leakage reactance measurements

Each of these methods have drawbacks

26

Detection of Winding Movement (2)

Winding Capacitance

Excitation Current

Successful only if reference data is available


Limited sensitivity for some failure modes
Excitation current is an excellent means of detecting turn-to-turn
failure as a result of winding movement
If a turn-to-turn failure is absent, winding movements can remain
undetected.

Leakage Reactance

Per phase leakage reactance measurements generally shows


no or little correlation between the phases and nameplate
Discrepancies from nameplate value of 0,5 % to 3 % can be a
reason for concern
The range of defect detection is to large for an accurate
assessment
27

Comparing diagnostic techniques (CIGRE)


Diagnostic technique

Advantages

Magnetizing (exciting) current

Requires relatively simple equipment.


Can detect core damage

Disadvantages

Not sensitive to winding deformation.


Measurement strongly affected by core
residual magnetism
Impedance (leakage reactance)
Traditional method currently specified in Very small changes can be significant.
short-circuits test standards.
Limited sensitivity for some failure modes
Reference (nameplate) values are
(best for radial deformation)
available
Frequency Response of Stray Losses Can be more sensitive than impedance
Not a standard use in the industry
(FRSL)
measurement.
Almost unique to detect short circuits
between parallel strands
Winding capacitance
Can be more sensitive than impedance Limited sensitivity for some failure modes
measurements.
(best for radial deformation).
Standard equipment available
Relevant capacitance may not be
measurable (e.g. Between
series/common/tap windings for auto
transformers)
Low Voltage Impulse (LVI) (time domain)
Recognized as very sensitive
Specialist equipment required.
Difficult to achieve repeatability.
Difficult to interpret
Better repeatability than LVI with the
Standardization of techniques required.
Frequency Response Analysis
same sensitivity.
Guide to interpretation required
Easier to interpret than LVI (frequency
instead of time domain).
Increasing number of users

Advanced Transformer Testing 2012

Comparing SFRA and other traditional


transformer measurements
End-to-End [Open], (Open Circuit Self Admittance]

Example: 1U - 1N [open]
Excitation current as function of frequency

End-to-End [short], (Short Circuit Self Admittance)

Example: 1U 1N [short]
Leakage reactance/short-circuit impedance as function of frequency (compare
IEEE 62 measurements at 50/60 Hz)
FRSL, Frequency Response of Stray Losses (SFRA 20 600 Hz)

Input Impedance

Measurement of impedance to ground for a certain configuration (Japanese


standard, common in South America, common in China before DL/T 911)
Can be performed for grounded objects with the active impedance probe

Capacitive Inter-winding [Inter-Winding]

Capacitance as a function of frequency

Inductive Inter-winding [Transfer Admittance]

Turn-ratio measurement (voltage ratio) as a function of frequency


Possible to perform at various impedances with the active voltage probe

Advanced Transformer Testing 2012

SFRA vs Excitaion current


Example; U1 - N1 [open]
Excitation current as function of
frequency
Please note that excitation current is
voltage dependent!

SFRA

At low voltages the inductance is low and


increasing with voltage
At high voltages the core gets saturated and
the inductance decreases
Non-linear phenomena...

Advanced Transformer Testing 2012

SFRA vs short-circuit impedance/leakage reactance


Example; U1 N1 [short]
Short-circuit impedance/Leakage reactance as a function
of frequency (IEEE 50/60 Hz @ 200 V)
Leakage reactance is not voltage dependent. However, in certain
configurations the magnetizing impedance can influence the results
at lower test voltages

FRSL, Frequency Response of Stray Losses (SFRA 20


600 Hz @ ~200 V)

Advanced Transformer Testing 2012

Frequency Response of Stray Losses (FRSL)


End-to-End (short-circuit), [Short
Circuit Self Admittance]
Impedance changes may be caused
by;
Inductance changes e.g winding
movement
Resistance change (DC) due to bad
contacts, soldering issues etc
Resistance change at higher
frequencies (Rstray) due to stray losses
caused by;
Winding deformation
Shorts between parallel strands

Ref: L. BOLDUC, et. Al DETECTION OF


TRANSFORMER WINDING DISPLACEMENT
BY THE FREQUENCY RESPONSE OF STRAY
LOSSES (FRSL), CIGRE session, 2000.

Advanced Transformer Testing 2012

FRSL 160 MVA transformer with contact resistance problem

HV [short], Transformer G2-1

HV [short], Transformers G2-1 and 3

Advanced Transformer Testing 2012

FRA Methods
Sweep Frequency Response
Impulse

Advanced Transformer Testing 2012

Impulse FRA vs. SweepFRA


Impulse FRA

Impulse FRA

Injects a pulse signal and


measure response
Convert Time Domain to
Frequency Domain using Fast
Fourier Transform (FFT) algorithm
Low resolution in lower frequencies

SFRA
Injects a single frequency signal
Measures response at the same
frequency
No conversion
High resoultion at all frequencies
Advanced Transformer Testing 2012

Comparing Impulse & SweepFRA


SFRA (Sweep frequency response analysis)
provides good detail data in all frequencies
Black = Imported Impulse measurement
(Time domain converted to Frequency Domain)
Red = SFRA Measurement

Deviations Low Frequency = Method


Deviation High Frequency = Cable practice
Advanced Transformer Testing 2012

Zoom View of impulse vs. SFRA


Impulse instrument sample rate limts
frequency resolution to 2kHz.

Advanced Transformer Testing 2012

SFRA Measurement Technique, part 1


- Measurement setups

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SFRA test setup

Advanced Transformer Testing 2012

FRAX measurement circuitry

Advanced Transformer Testing 2012

Test types End-to-end (open)


Test signal is applied to one end of a winding and the
transmitted signal is measured at the other end
Magnetizing impedance of the transformer is the main
parameter characterizing the low-frequency response
(below first resonance) in this configuration
Commonly used because of its simplicity and the possibility
to examine each winding separately

Advanced Transformer Testing 2012

End-to-end (open) - Example


Low frequencies
May vary between measurements pending magnetization
Typical dubbel-dip response
B-phase should be below A and C-phase (Y)

Advanced Transformer Testing 2012

Test types End-to-end short-circuit


The test is similar to the end-to-end measurement, but with
a winding on the same phase being short-circuited
The influence of the core is removed below about 10-20
kHz because the low-frequency response is characterized
by the short-circuit impedance/leakage reactance instead of
the magnetizing inductance
Response at higher frequencies is similar to end-to-end
(open) measurements

Advanced Transformer Testing 2012

End-to-end (short) - Example


Low frequencies
All phases should be very similar. > 0.25 dB difference may indicate leakage
reactance/winding resistance/connection/tap-changer problems

Advanced Transformer Testing 2012

Test types Capacitive inter-winding (IW)


Test signal is applied to one end of a winding and
the response is measured at one end of another
winding on the same phase (not connected to the
first one)
The response using this configuration is dominated
at low frequencies by the inter-winding capacitance

Advanced Transformer Testing 2012

Test types Inductive inter-winding (TA)


The signal is applied to a terminal on the HV side, and
the response is measured on the corresponding
terminal on the LV side, with the other end of both
windings being grounded
The low-frequency range of this test is determined by
the winding turns ratio

Advanced Transformer Testing 2012

Inter-winding measurements - Example


IW (red) is capacitive at low frequencies
TA (black) reflects turn ratio at low frequencies (135 MVA, 160/16 Dd0)
Similar response at high frequencies

Advanced Transformer Testing 2012

SFRA Measurement Technique, part 2


- How to achieve high quality results

Advanced Transformer Testing 2012

Test results always comparisons

Core NOT grounded


Core grounded

Repeatability is of utmost importance!


Advanced Transformer Testing 2012

Example of repeatability
105 MVA, Single phase Generator Step-up (GSU)
transformer
SFRA measurements with FRAX 101 before and
after a severe short-circuit in the generator
Two different test units
Tests performed by two different persons
Test performed at different dates

Advanced Transformer Testing 2012

Before (2007-05-23) and after fault (2007-08-29)

LV winding

HV winding

Advanced Transformer Testing 2012

105 MVA, Single phase GSU


Measurements before and after were virtually
identical
Very good correlation between reference and after
fault
Conclusion:
No indication of mechanical changes in the transformer
Transformer can safely be put back in service

Advanced Transformer Testing 2012

Potential compromising factors


Measurement signal connection quality
Shield grounding practice
Instrument dynamic range/internal noise
floor
Understanding core property influence in
lower frequencies in open - circuit SFRA
measurements

Advanced Transformer Testing 2012

Bad connection
Bad connection can affect the curve at higher frequencies

Advanced Transformer Testing 2012

Good connection
After proper connections were made

Advanced Transformer Testing 2012

FRAX C-Clamp ensuring connection quality


C-Clamp ensures good
contact quality
Penetrates non conductive
layers
Solid connection to round or
flat busbars/bushings
Provides strain relief for cable
Separate connector for single
or multible ground braids

Advanced Transformer Testing 2012

Proper ground connection ensures


repeatability at high frequencies

Good grounding practice;


use shortest braid from cable
shield to bushing flange.

Poor grounding practice

Advanced Transformer Testing 2012

Shield grounding influence

C. Homagk et al, Circuit design for reproducible on-site measurements of


transfer function on large power transformers using the SFRA method, ISH2007

Advanced Transformer Testing 2012

FRAX cable set and grounding

Always the same ground-loop


inductance on a given bushing

Advanced Transformer Testing 2012

Instrument performance
Transformers have high impedance/large
attenuation at first resonance
Internal instrument noise is most often the main
limiting source, not substation noise
Test your instruments noise floor by running a
sweep with open cables (Clamps not connected to
transformer)

Advanced Transformer Testing 2012

Internal noise level Noise floor

Open/noise floor measurements


Red = Other brand
Green = FRAX 101

Advanced Transformer Testing 2012

Example of internal noise problem

H1 H2 (open & short) measurements


Black = Other brand
Red = FRAX 101

Advanced Transformer Testing 2012

Why you need at least -100 dB...

Westinghouse 40 MVA, Dyn1, 115/14 kV, HV [open]

Advanced Transformer Testing 2012

Influence of core
Try to minimize the effect, however, some
differences are still to be expected and must be
accepted (magnetic viscosity).
Preferably:
perform SFRA measurements prior to winding
resistance measurements (or demagnetize the
core prior to SFRA measurements)
use same measurement voltage in all SFRA
measurements

Advanced Transformer Testing 2012

Run winding resistance test after SFRA!

H1-H2 [open]
After winding resistance test

After
demagnetization

Advanced Transformer Testing 2012

Core magnetization by Doble

Trace A shows the fingerprint response of the transformer and trace B


shows the response as a result of magnetized core (caused by WRM
measurements)

66

Magnetization status over time

Lachman et al, Frequency Response


Analysis of Transformers and Influence
of Magnetic Viscosity, Doble 2012

67

Effect of applied measurement voltage

H1-H0 [open]
0.1 V peak-to-peak

10V peak-to peak


Influence of applied
voltage is more
pronounced on LV
windings

Advanced Transformer Testing 2012

Measurement voltage by Tettex

69

Measurement voltage effect in practice

2.8 V
Omicron

10 V
FRAX, Doble and others

Advanced Transformer Testing 2012


70

FRAX101 has adjustable output voltage!

Omicron (2.8 V)

FRAX, 2.8 V

Advanced Transformer Testing 2012


71

Influence of tap changers


The tap windings in a transformer add in one section at a time
- affecting the low frequency (magnetization impedance)
response and the mid-frequency (winding) response
Tap lead responses will be seen at higher frequencies than
the tap windings. They are less organized but are still
repeatable
Some tap-changers have a neutral position which is more
different than the difference between consecutive taps. Avoid
using the neutral position as reference measurement

Advanced Transformer Testing 2012

Distribution transformer with 5 HV taps

Tap winding
Low frequency
effect

73

Tap changer measurements by Doble

Tap leads

Low frequency
effect

Tap winding

74

System integrity test

Field verification unit with known


frequency response is
recommended in CIGRE and
other standards to verify
instrument and cables before
starting the test
Advanced Transformer Testing 2012

Summary
Measurement quality and repeatability
The basis of SFRA measurements is comparison and
repeatability/reproducibility is of utmost importance
To ensure high repeatability;
Select a high quality, high accuracy instrument with high dynamic
range and input/output impedance matched to the coaxial cables
(e.g. 50 Ohm)
Make sure to get good signal connection and connect the shields
of coaxial cables to flange of bushing using shortest braid
technique
Use the same applied voltage in all SFRA measurements
Be careful about WRM testing and other tests that can magnetize
the core. Perform after SFRA or demagnetize prior to SFRA
Make good documentation, e.g. make photographs of connections
and note tap settings
Advanced Transformer Testing 2012

SFRA Analysis

Advanced Transformer Testing 2012

Detecting Faults with SFRA


Winding faults
Deformation
Displacement
Shorts

Core related faults


Movements
Grounding
Screens

Mechanical faults/changes
Clamping structures
Connections

And more...
Advanced Transformer Testing 2012

SFRA analysis tools


Visual/graphical analysis

Starting dB values
The expected shape of star and delta configurations
Comparison of fingerprints from;
The same transformer
A sister transformer
Symmetric phases
New/missing resonance frequencies

Correlation analysis
DL/T 911 2004 standard
Customer/transformer specific

Advanced Transformer Testing 2012

Typical response from a healthy transformer


HV [short] identical
between phases
LV [open] as
expected for a Y tx

Very low deviation


between phases for
all tests no winding
defects
HV [open] as expected for
a Y tx
Double dip and mid
phase response lower

80

Transformer with serious issues...

Large deviations
between phases for
LV [open] at low
frequencies
indicates changes in
the magnetic
circuit/core defects

Large deviations
between phases at mid
and high frequencies
indicates winding faults

81

Transformer with winding shorted turn


Easiest fault to recognize with SFRA
Typically produced by a through current fault
Adjacent turns lose paper and weld together resulting in a
solid loop around the core
SFRA gives clear and unambiguous diagnosis of a
shorted turn
SFRA response for the shorted phase may be identified
without reference results since the variation at low
frequencies gives a clear fault signature

Advanced Transformer Testing 2012

Shorted turn (IEEE)


Frequency
Range
20 Hz 10 kHz

5 kHz 100 kHz

Winding Turn-to-Turn Short Circuit


Assuming no other failure modes exist:
Open Circuit Tests:
The short circuit failure mode removes the effect of the cores reluctance from
the open circuit FRA results. The FRA open circuit trace assumes a similar
behavior as short circuit test. The affected winding will show the greatest
change. This failure mode will also affect the FRA responses from all other
windings, but not as much.
Short Circuit Tests:
The results will not compare well against previous data or amongst phases. The
affected winding is generally offset.
Open Circuit and Short Circuit Tests:
This range can shift or produce new resonance peaks and valleys. The changes
will be greater on the affect phase.

50 kHz 1 MHz

Open Circuit and Short Circuit Tests:


This range can shift or produce new resonance peaks and valleys. The changes
will be greater on the affect phase.

> 1 MHz

Open Circuit and Short Circuit Tests:


This range can shift or produce new resonance peaks and valleys. The changes
will be greater on the affect phase.

83

Transformer with shorted turn


10

100

1000

10000

100000

1000000

0
-10

Response (dBs)

-20
-30
-40
-50
-60
-70
-80
Frequency (Hz)

HV [open]; B phase (red) should have lower response compared to A and


C phase but has instead higher magnitude/lower impedance

84

Shorted turn by Doble

Responses of the HV and LV winding of the same transformer


Significant difference in the white phase due to imbalance in the reluctance
on one of the core limbs (white phase) as a result of shorted turns

85

Shorted turn by IEEE


Large impedance decrease
at low frequencies in open
circuit test

Impedance decrease at low


frequencies in HV shortcircuit test (only if short is
on HV side)

86

Radial winding deformation Hoop buckling (IEEE)


Frequency Range

Radial Winding Deformation


Assuming, no other failure modes exist:

20 Hz 10 kHz

Open Circuit Tests:


This region (core region) is generally unaffected during radial winding deformation.
Short Circuit Tests:
Results in an increase in impedance. The FRA trace for the affected phase
generally exhibits slight attenuation within the inductive roll-off portion.

5 kHz 100 kHz

Open Circuit and Short Circuit Tests:


The bulk winding range can shift or produce new resonance peaks and valleys
depending of the severity of the deformation. However, this change is minimal and
difficult identify. The changes will be greater on the affect winding, but it is still
possible to have the effects transferred to the opposing winding. The response in
the bulk region should be used as secondary evidence to support the analysis.

50 kHz 1 MHz

Open Circuit and Short Circuit Tests:


Radial winding deformation is most obvious in this range. It can shift or produce
new resonance peaks and valleys depending of the severity of the deformation.
The changes will be greater on the affect winding, but it is still possible to have the
effects transferred to the opposing winding.

> 1 MHz

Open Circuit and Short Circuit Tests:


This range is generally unaffected in this range. However, severe deformation can
extend into this range.

Advanced Transformer Testing 2012

Radial winding deformation by IEEE...

Resonance changes at
mid- and high
frequencies in open
circuit test

Small but significant


impedance increase at
low frequencies in
short-circuit test

Advanced Transformer Testing 2012

Axial winding deformation Telescoping (IEEE)


Frequency Range

Axial Winding Deformation


Assuming, no other failure modes exist:

20 Hz 10 kHz

Open Circuit Tests:


This region (core region) is generally unaffected during axial winding deformation.
Short Circuit Tests:
Results in a change in impedance. The FRA trace for the affected winding causes a
difference between phases or previous results in the inductive roll-off portion.

5 kHz 100 kHz

Open Circuit and Short Circuit Tests:


Axial winding deformation is most obvious in this range. The bulk winding range
can shift or produce new resonance peaks and valleys depending of the severity of
the deformation. The changes will be greater on the affect winding, but it is still
possible to have the effects transferred to the opposing winding.
Open Circuit and Short Circuit Tests:
Axial winding deformation can shift or produce new resonance peaks and valleys
depending of the severity of the deformation. The changes will be greater on the
affect winding, but it is still possible to have the effects transferred to the opposing
winding.

50 kHz 1 MHz

> 1 MHz

Open Circuit and Short Circuit Tests:


The response to axial winding deformation is unpredictable.

Advanced Transformer Testing 2012

Axial winding deformation by IEEE...

Resonance changes at
mid- and high
frequencies in open
circuit test

Small but significant


iImpedance increase at
low frequencies in
short-circuit test

Advanced Transformer Testing 2012

Core defects
Core defects failures cause changes to the cores
magnetic circuit
Burnt core laminations
Shorted core laminations
Multiple/unintentional core grounds
Lost core ground and joint dislocations.

Advanced Transformer Testing 2012

Core defects (IEEE)


Frequency
Range
20 Hz 10 kHz

5 kHz 100 kHz

Core Defects
Assuming, no other failure modes exist:
Open Circuit Tests:
These types of failures will affect the lower frequency regions generally below
10 kHz. Core defects often change the primary core resonance shape. Less
weight should be placed on shifting, because identifying core defects can
sometimes be masked by the effects of core residual magnetization. If the
open circuit core appears to be loaded, (looking closer to a short circuit
response), this could indicated a core defect.
Short Circuit Tests:
This region is generally unaffected during bulk winding movement. All phases
should be similar.
Open Circuit and Short Circuit Tests:
This range can shift or produce new resonance peaks and valleys.

50 kHz 1 MHz

Open Circuit and Short Circuit Tests:


Generally this range remains unaffected. However, if the fault is due to a core
ground issue, changes to the CL capacitance can cause resonance shifts in
the upper portion of this range.

> 1 MHz

Open Circuit and Short Circuit Tests:


If the fault is due to a core ground issue, changes to the CL capacitance can
cause resonance shifts.

Advanced Transformer Testing 2012

Core defects Example

Significant (and
unexpected)
differencies between
phases at low
frequencies in LV
[open] test

No differencies
between phases at high
frequencies No
winding defetcts...

Advanced Transformer Testing 2012

Core defects by IEEE...

Significant changes in
the magnetic circuit at
first resonance in open
circuit test

Advanced Transformer Testing 2012

SFRA analysis dB and Impedance

dB-scale
Magnitude = 20*log(Meas/Ref)
Phase = Phase (Meas/Ref)
Impedance scale (Admittance Y = 1/Z)
|Z| = |U/I| = 50*(Ref Meas)/Mea.
Phase = Phase (Z)

Advanced Transformer Testing 2012

SFRA standard magnitude response in dB

Advanced Transformer Testing 2012

Magnitude (dB) and Admittance (S)


Second resonance
decreased on LV...
Second resonance
looks normal on LV...

Advanced Transformer Testing 2012

Magnitude (dB) and Impedance ()

Low resolution on LV
magnitude
High resolution with LV
impedance

Advanced Transformer Testing 2012

Admittance (S) and Impedance ()

Advanced Transformer Testing 2012

Magnitude response or Impedance/Admittance?


Magnitude response (dB)

Most established and standardized


Most pubished results are in dB
Common file format e.g. *.xfra supports magnitude

Impedance ()

More engineering, most power engineers are familiar with transformer


impedance in ohms
Improved resolution for low impedance circuits (< about 100 ) e.g. LV windings
on distribution transformers
Impedance representation makes it possible to discriminate between resistive
and inductive parts

Admittance (S)

Improved resolution for low impedance circuits (< about 100 ) e.g. LV windings
on distribution transformers
Same shape as Magnitude

Advanced Transformer Testing 2012

FRAX
The Features And Benefits

101

FRAX 101 Frequency Response Analyzer

Advanced Transformer Testing 2012

FRAX101 Frequency Response Analyzer


Power Input
11-16VDC,
internal battery
(FRAX 101)
USB Port
On all models
Bluetooth
On FRAX101

Rugged Extruded
Aluminum Case

Most feature rich and accurate


SFRA unit in the world!
Generator,
reference and
measure
connectots All
panel mounted

Active probe
connector on
FRAX101

Advanced Transformer Testing 2012

SFRA test setup

Easy to connect
shortest braid cables

Optional Internal Battery


Over 8h effective run time

Industrial grade class 1


Bluetooth (100m)
USB for redundancy

Advanced Transformer Testing 2012

Search Database Feature


Data files stored in XML format
Index function stores all relevant data in a small database

Search function can list and sort files in different locations

Advanced Transformer Testing 2012

Import formats

Advanced Transformer Testing 2012

Fast testing
Less points where it takes
time to test and where high
frequency resolution is not needed

More points where


higher frequency
resolution is useful
Traditional test
about 2 min
vs.
FRAX fast test
< 40 seconds

Advanced Transformer Testing 2012

Decision support with correlation analysis

Advanced Transformer Testing 2012

Unlimited analysis
Unlimited graph control
Lots of available graphs
Ability to create custom
calculation models using any
mathematic formula and the
measured data from all
channels
Turn on and off as needed
Compare real data with
calculated model data

Advanced Transformer Testing 2012

FRAX150

As FRAX-101 except:
Internal PC/stand-alone
No internal battery option
No Bluetooth

Advanced Transformer Testing 2012

FRAX99

As FRAX 101 except:

No internal battery option


No Bluetooth
Dynamic range > 115 dB
Fixed output voltage
9 m cable set
No active probes

Advanced Transformer Testing 2012

FRAX product summary

Light weight
Rugged
Battery operated (FRAX101)
Wireless communication (FRAX101)
Accuracy & Dynamic Range/Noise floor
Cable Practice
Easy-to-use software
Export & Import of Data
Complies with all SFRA standards and recommendations
Only unit that is compatible with all other SFRA
instruments
Advanced Transformer Testing 2012

Sweep Frequency Response Analysis


Application Examples

Advanced Transformer Testing 2012

Time Based Comparison - Example

1-phase generator transformer, 400 kV


SFRA measurements before and after
scheduled maintenance
Transformer supposed to be in good condition
and ready to be put in service

Advanced Transformer Testing 2012

Time Based Comparison - Example

Obvious distorsion as by DL/T911-2004 standard (missing core ground)

Advanced Transformer Testing 2012

Time Based Comparison After repair

Normal as by DL/T911-2004 standard (core grounding fixed)


Advanced Transformer Testing 2012

Type Based Comparisons (twin-units)


Some parameters for identifying twin-units:

Manufacturer
Factory of production
Original customer/technical specifications
No refurbishments or repair
Same year of production or +/-1 year for large units
Re-order not later than 5 years after reference order
Unit is part of a series order (follow-up of ID numbers)
For multi-unit projects with new design: reference transformer should
preferably not be one of the first units produced

Advanced Transformer Testing 2012

Type Based Comparison - Example

Three 159 MVA, 144 KV single-phase transformers


manufactured 1960 (shell-form)
Put out of service for maintenance/repair after DGA
indication of high temperatures
Identical units
SFRA testing and comparing the two transformers
came out OK indicating that there are no
electromechanical changes/problems in the
transformers
Short tests indicated high resistance in one unit
(confirmed by WRM)
Advanced Transformer Testing 2012

Type Based Comparison 3x HV [open]

Advanced Transformer Testing 2012

Type Based Comparison 3x LV [open]

Advanced Transformer Testing 2012

Type Based Comparison 3x HV [short]

Advanced Transformer Testing 2012

Design Based Comparisons


Power transformers are frequently designed in multi-limb
assembly. This kind of design can lead to symmetric
electrical circuits
Mechanical defects in transformer windings usually
generate non-symmetric displacements
Comparing FRA results of separately tested limbs can be
an appropriate method for mechanical condition
assessment
Pending transformer type and size, the frequency range
for design-based comparisons is typically limited to about
1 MHz
Advanced Transformer Testing 2012

Design Based Comparison - Example

40 MVA, 114/15 kV, manufactured 2006


Taken out of service to be used as spare
No known faults
No reference FRA measurements from factory
SFRA testing, comparing symmetrical phases
came out OK
The results can be used as fingerprints for
future diagnostic tests

Advanced Transformer Testing 2012

Designed Based Comparison HV [open]

Advanced Transformer Testing 2012

Designed Based Comparison HV [short]

Advanced Transformer Testing 2012

Designed Based Comparison LV [open]

Advanced Transformer Testing 2012

Design Based Comparison


After Suspected Fault
Power transformer, 25MVA, 55/23kV,
manufactured 1985
By mistake, the transformer was energized
with grounded low voltage side
After this the transformer was energized again
resulting in tripped CB (Transformer protection
worked!)
Decision was taken to do diagnostic test

Advanced Transformer Testing 2012

Design Based Comparison


After Suspected Fault
10

100

1000

10000

100000

0
-10

Response (dBs)

-20
-30
-40
-50
-60
-70
-80
Frequency (Hz)

HV-0, LV open
A and C phase OK, large deviation on B-phase (shorted turn?)
Advanced Transformer Testing 2012

1000000

Design Based Comparison


After Suspected Fault
10

100

1000

10000

100000

1000000

Response (dBs)

-10

-20

-30

-40

-50

-60
Frequency (Hz)

HV-0 (LV shorted)


A and C phase OK, deviation on B-phase

Advanced Transformer Testing 2012

And how did the mid-leg look like?


Core limb
Insulation cylinder

LV winding

Advanced Transformer Testing 2012

Rponse et analyse dun balayage en


frquence
SFRA for testing filter circuits
(Line traps)

Advanced Transformer Testing 2012

Rponse et analyse dun balayage en


Typical line trap circuit frquence

The filter circuit is an RLC network

Advanced Transformer Testing 2012

Rponse et analyse dun balayage en


Measurement principle frquence

Generator signal

Measurement signal

Attenuation, dB

Phase shift,

V
G (dB) 20 log10 out
Vin

Advanced Transformer Testing 2012

Rponse et analyse dun balayage en


frquence

225 kV line trap

225kV, 850A, 17mH


Verification of cut-off
frequency

Advanced Transformer Testing 2012

Rponse et analyse dun balayage en


No capacitors connectedfrquence

-10

-20

Magnitude (dB)

-30

-40

-50

-60

-70

-80

100

1k

10 k

100 k

1M

Frequency (Hz)
[A-a1 [open]]

Advanced Transformer Testing 2012

Rponse et analyse dun balayage en


One capacitor connected
frquence

-5

-10

Magnitude (dB)

-15

-20

-25

-30

-35

-40

100

1k

10 k

100 k

1M

Frequency (Hz)
[C-c1 [open] (2)]

Advanced Transformer Testing 2012

Rponse et analyse dun balayage en


Two capacitors connected
frquence
0

Magnitude (dB)

-10

-20

-30

-40

-50
100

1k

10 k

100 k

1M

Frequency (Hz)
[C-c1 [open] (4)]

Advanced Transformer Testing 2012

Sweep Frequency Response Analysis


Standards

Advanced Transformer Testing 2012

SFRA Standards and Recommendations


Frequency Response Analysis on Winding Deformation of Power
Transformers, DL/T 911-2004, The Electric Power Industry Standard of
Peoples Republic of China
Mechanical-Condition Assessment of Transformer Windings Using
Frequency Response Analysis (FRA), CIGRE report 342, 2008
IEEE PC57.149/D4, Draft Guide for the Application and Interpretation
of Frequency Response Analysis for Oil Immersed Transformers, 2011
IEC 60076-18, Power transformers Part 18: Measurement of
frequency response, 2011 (for voting)
Internal standards by transformer manufacturers, e.g. ABB FRA
Standard v.5

Advanced Transformer Testing 2012

SFRA Standards Short summary


Standard

Dynamic range

Accuracy

Signal cable grounding

Self-test

EPIS PRC DL/T 911

-100 to +20 dB

1 dB @ -80 dB

Wire, shortest length to


transformer core grounding

not stated

CIGRE brochure 342

-100 to +20 dB
(measurement
range)

1 dB @ -100 dB

Shortest braid principle

Test circuit with a known


response
Shorted leads test

IEEE PC57.149/D9 (draft)

"Sufficient dynamic
range to
accommodate most
transformer test
objects"

"Calibrated to an
acceptable
standard"

Grounded at both ends.


"Precise, repeatable and
documented" procedure

Standard test object with


a known response

IEC 60076-18

-90 to +10 dB
min 6 dB S/N
(-96 to +10 dB)

Three methods described:


Standard test object with
0.3 dB @ -40 dB 1. Same as CIGRE (2 MHz)
a known response
1 dB @ -80 dB
2. "Old" method (500 kHz)
Shorted/open leads test
3. "Inversed CIGRE" (2 MHz)

ABB FRA Technical Standard

Better than
-100 to +40 dB
(measurement
range)

Condition control of FRA


device, including coaxial
cables, is strongly
recommended

1 dB @ -100 dB

Shortest braid principle

Advanced Transformer Testing 2012

Instrumentation
Frequency range All major brands are OK
Dynamic range
First transformer circuit resonance gives typically a -90 dB
response. Smaller transformers may have a first response at -100
dB or lower
Note that CIGRE recommends measurement range down to -100
dB. This implies a dynamic range/noise floor at about -120 dB.

Accuracy
1 dB at -100 dB fulfills all standards.

All FRAX instruments fulfills all standards for dynamic


range and accuracy!

Advanced Transformer Testing 2012

Why you need at least -100 dB...

Westinghouse 40 MVA, Dyn1, 115/14 kV, HV [open]

Advanced Transformer Testing 2012

Measurement voltage and internal noise


Measurement voltage and internal noise/dynamic range for common SFRA test sets
20.00

Tettex 5310

FRAnalyzer

Doble M54000

Doble M53000

Doble M5200

HP4395A

HP4195A

FRAX-99

-60.00

FRAX-150

-40.00

FRAX-101

-20.00

Doble M51000

0.00

Dynamic range
Measuring voltage p-p

-80.00

-100.00

-120.00

-140.00

Advanced Transformer Testing 2012

Measurement range comparison

-100 dB measurement
(CIGRE standard)
Black FRAX-101
Red Other SFRA

Internal noise (open) measurements


Green FRAX-101
Blue Other SFRA

Advanced Transformer Testing 2012

Cable grounding practice


The shortest wire/braid-practice is now generally accepted
All European equipment manufacturers have adapted to
this practice

Recommended grounding practice (CIGRE)

Bad grounding practice (CIGRE)

Advanced Transformer Testing 2012

Instrumentation verification
Verification of instrument including cables
Measurement with open cables (at clamp) should give a response
close to the noise floor of the instrument (at lower frequencies,
pending cable length)
Measurement with shorted cables (at clamp) should give close to
0 dB response (pending cable length)
External test device with known response (FTB-101 included in
FRAX standard kit)

Calibration at recommended interval


FRAX; Minimum every 3 years, calibration set and SW available

Advanced Transformer Testing 2012

Field Verification Unit

Field verification unit with known


frequency response is
recommended in CIGRE and
other standards to verify
instrument and cables before
starting the test
Advanced Transformer Testing 2012

FRAX - Benchmarking

Advanced Transformer Testing 2012

Measurement voltage and internal noise


Measurement voltage and internal noise/dynamic range for common SFRA test sets
20.00

Tettex 5310

FRAnalyzer

Doble M54000

Doble M53000

Doble M5200

HP4395A

HP4195A

FRAX-99

-60.00

FRAX-150

-40.00

FRAX-101

-20.00

Doble M51000

0.00

Dynamic range
Measuring voltage p-p

-80.00

-100.00

-120.00

-140.00

Advanced Transformer Testing 2012

FRAX 101 has the highest dynamic range, -130 dB!

Westinghouse 40 MVA, Dyn1, 115/14 kV, HV [open]

Advanced Transformer Testing 2012

Internal noise (dynamic range)


Internal noise (open) measurements
Green FRAX-101
Red Other SFRA 1
Blue Other SFRA 2

Advanced Transformer Testing 2012

Measurement range

-100 dB measurement
(CIGRE standard)
Black FRAX-101
Red Other SFRA 1

Internal noise (open) measurements


Green FRAX-101
Blue Other SFRA 1

Advanced Transformer Testing 2012

Field verification test (FTB101)

Blue = Other brand


Black = FRAX101

Advanced Transformer Testing 2012

Dynamic Range Comparison (1)


End-to-end open
Green FRAX-101
Blue Other SFRA 1

Neutral to capacitive tap


Red FRAX-101
Black Other SFRA 1

Advanced Transformer Testing 2012

Dynamic Range Comparison (2)

H1 H2 (open) measurements
Red FRAX-101
Grey Other SFRA

Advanced Transformer Testing 2012

Dynamic Range
Measurements at first resonance

Blue FRAX
Purple Other SFRA 3
Red Other SFRA 1

Jiri Velek, CEPS SFRA Market Research, October 2006

Advanced Transformer Testing 2012

FRAX - Compatibility

Advanced Transformer Testing 2012

FRAX vs Doble (1)


5 MVA, Dyn, H2-H3 measurement

Blue Doble
Orange Frax

Advanced Transformer Testing 2012


158

FRAX vs Doble (2)


YNd, H1-H0 measurement

Blue Doble
Orange Frax

Advanced Transformer Testing 2012


159

FRAX vs Tettex and Doble


H1-H0 (short) measurement

Blue FRAX
Purple Tettex
Red Doble
(Doble high frequency
deviation due to different
grounding practice)

Jiri Velek, CEPS SFRA Market Research, October 2006

Advanced Transformer Testing 2012


160

Frax-101, 2.8 vs 10 V meas voltage

2.8 V

10 V

Advanced Transformer Testing 2012


161

Frax (2.8V) vs FRAnalyzer

Omicron (2.8 V)

PAX, 2.8 V

Advanced Transformer Testing 2012


162

Summary - conclusions
SFRA is an established methodology for detecting
electromechanical changes in power transformers
Collecting reference curves on all mission critical
transformers is an investment!
Ensure repeatability by selecting good instruments and
using standardized measurement practices
Select FRAX from Megger, the ultimate Frequency
Response Analyzer!

Advanced Transformer Testing 2012

Additional IEC slides

Advanced Transformer Testing 2012

IEC connection picture


A

B
C

50

Vin

B
C
D

Vout

50

reference lead
response lead
earth connection

Advanced Transformer Testing 2012

IEC FRA condition assessment

Some examples of conditions that FRA can be used


to assess are:
Damage following a through fault or other high
current event (including short-circuit testing),
Damage following a tap-changer fault,
Damage during transportation, and
Damage following a seismic event.
Damage caused by short-circuit tests

Advanced Transformer Testing 2012

IEC Test object conditions Factory and site


The test object shall be fully assembled as for service
complete with all bushings.
Liquid or gas filled transformers and reactors shall be filled
with liquid or gas of the same type as in service conditions
Busbars or other system or test connections shall be removed
and there shall be no connections to the test object other than
those being used for the specific measurement
If internal current transformers are installed but not connected
to a protection or measurement system, the secondary
terminals shall be shorted and earthed.
The core and frame to tank connections shall be complete
and the tank shall be connected to earth.
Measurements should be performed at ambient temperature

Advanced Transformer Testing 2012

IEC Test object conditions Site


The test object shall be disconnected from the associated
electrical system at all winding terminals and made safe for
testing.
Line, neutral and any tertiary line connections shall be
disconnected but tank earth, auxiliary equipment and current
transformer service connections shall remain connected.
In the case where two connections to one corner of a delta
winding are brought out, the transformer shall be measured
with the delta closed (see also 4.4.4).
In instances where it is impossible to connect directly to the
terminal, then the connection details shall be recorded with
the measurement data since the additional bus bars
connected to the terminals may impact on the measurement
results.

Advanced Transformer Testing 2012

IEC Instrument performance check


1.

2.

3.

Connect the source, reference and response channels of the


instrument together using suitable low loss leads, check that the
measured amplitude ratio is 0 dB 0,3 dB across the whole
frequency range. Connect the source and reference channels
together and leave the response terminal open circuit, check that
the measured amplitude ratio is less than -90 dB across the whole
frequency range.
The performance of the instrument may be checked by measuring
the response of a known test object (test box) and checking that
the measured amplitude ratio matches the expected response of
the test object. The test object shall have a frequency response
that covers the attenuation range -10 dB to -80 dB.
The correct operation of the instrument may be checked using a
performance check procedure provided by the instrument
manufacturer. This performance check procedure shall verify that
the instrument is operating at least over an attenuation range of -10
dB to -80 dB over the whole frequency range.
Advanced Transformer Testing 2012

IEC Measurement connection check


Measurement connection and earthing

The continuity of the main and earth connections shall be checked at the
instrument end of the coaxial cable before the measurement is made. Poor
connections can cause significant measurement errors, attention must be paid to
the continuity of the main and earth connections. In particular, connections to bolts
or flanges shall be verified to ensure that there is a good connection to the winding
or the test object tank.

Zero-check measurement

If specified, a zero-check measurement shall be carried out as an additional


measurement. Before measurements commence, all the measuring leads shall be
connected to one of the highest voltage terminals and earthed using the normal
method. A measurement is then made which will indicate the frequency response
of the measurement circuit alone. The zero check measurement shall also be
repeated on other voltage terminals if specified.
The zero-check measurement can provide useful information as to the highest
frequency that can be relied upon for interpretation of the measurement.

Repeatability check

On completion of the standard measurements the measurement leads and earth


connections shall be disconnected and then the first measurement shall be
repeated and recorded.

Advanced Transformer Testing 2012

IEC Measurement configuration with OLTC


For transformers and reactors with an on-load tap-changer
(OLTC), the standard measurement on the tapped winding
shall be
on the tap-position with the highest number of effective turns in circuit,
and
on the tap-position with the tap winding out of circuit.

Other windings with a fixed number of turns shall be


measured on the tap-position for the highest number of
effective turns in the tap winding.
Additional measurements may be specified at other tappositions.
For neutral or change-over positions, the direction of
movement of the tap-changer shall be in the lowering voltage
direction unless otherwise specified. The direction of
movement (raise or lower) shall be recorded.
Advanced Transformer Testing 2012

IEC Measurement configuration Auto with OLTC


For auto-transformers with a line-end tap-changer, the
standard measurements shall be:
on the series winding with the minimum number of actual turns of the
tap-winding in circuit (the tapping for the highest LV voltage for a linear
potentiometer type tapping arrangement or the change-over position for
a reversing type tapping arrangement, or the tapping for the lowest LV
voltage in a linear separate winding tapping arrangement),
on the common winding with the maximum number of effective turns of
the tap-winding in circuit (the tapping for the highest LV voltage), and
on the common winding with the minimum number of actual turns of the
tap-winding in circuit (the tapping for the lowest LV voltage for a linear
potentiometer or separate winding type tapping arrangement or the
change-over position for a reversing type tapping arrangement).

Advanced Transformer Testing 2012

IEC Measurement configuration DECT and OLTC


For transformers with both an OLTC and a de-energised tapchanger (DETC), the DETC shall be in the service position if
specified or otherwise the nominal position for the
measurements at the OLTC positions described in this
Clause.
For transformers fitted with a DETC, baseline measurements
shall also be made on each position of the DETC with the
OLTC (if fitted) on the position for maximum effective turns.
It is not recommended that the position of a DETC on a
transformer that has been in service is changed in order to
make a frequency response measurement, the measurement
should be made on the as found DETC tap position. It is
therefore necessary to make sufficient baseline
measurements to ensure that baseline data is available for
any likely service (as found) position of the DETC.
Advanced Transformer Testing 2012

IEC Frequency range and measurement points


The lowest frequency measurement shall be at or below
20 Hz.
The minimum highest frequency measurement for test objects
with highest voltage > 72,5 kV shall be 1 MHz.
The minimum highest frequency measurement for test objects
with highest voltage of 72,5 kV shall be 2 MHz.
Below 100 Hz, measurements shall be made at intervals not
exceeding 10 Hz
Above 100 Hz, a minimum of 200 measurements
approximately evenly spaced on either a linear or logarithmic
scale shall be made in each decade of frequency.

Advanced Transformer Testing 2012

IEC Measurement equipment specification (1)


Dynamic range
The minimum dynamic range of the measuring instrument shall be
+10 dB to -90 dB of the maximum output signal level of the voltage
source at a minimum signal to noise ratio of 6 dB over the whole
frequency range.

Amplitude measurement accuracy


The accuracy of the measurement of the ratio between Vin and Vout
shall be better than 0,3 dB for all ratios between +10 dB and -40 dB
and 1 dB for all ratios between -40 dB and -80 dB over the whole
frequency range.

Phase measurement accuracy


The accuracy of the measurement of the phase difference between Vin
and Vout shall be better than 1 at signal ratios between +10 dB and 40 dB, over the whole frequency range.

Frequency range
The minimum frequency range shall be 20 Hz to 2 MHz.

Advanced Transformer Testing 2012

IEC Measurement equipment specification (2)


Frequency accuracy
The accuracy of the frequency (as reported in the measurement record) shall be
better than 0,1 % over the whole frequency range.

Measurement resolution bandwidth


For measurements below 100 Hz, the maximum measurement resolution
bandwidth (between -3 dB points) shall be 10 Hz; above 100 Hz, it shall be less
than 10 % of the measurement frequency or half the interval between adjacent
measuring frequencies whichever is less.

Operating temperature range


The instrument shall operate within the accuracy and other requirements over a
temperature range of 0 to +45 C.

Smoothing of recorded data


The output data recorded to fulfil the requirements of this standard shall not be
smoothed by any method that uses adjacent frequency measurements, but
averaging or other techniques to reduce noise using multiple measurements at a
particular frequency or using measurements within the measurement resolution
bandwidth for the particular measurement frequency are acceptable.

Advanced Transformer Testing 2012

IEC Measurement records

Test object identifier


Date
Time
Test object manufacturer
Test object serial number
Measuring equipment
The peak voltage used for the measurement.
Reference terminal
Response terminal
Terminals connected together
Earthed terminals
OLTC tap positions, current and previous
DETC position
Test object temperature
Fluid filled, yes or no.
Comments, free text to be used to state the condition of the test object
Measurement result (the frequency in Hz, the amplitude in dB and the phase in degrees) for
each measurement frequency

Advanced Transformer Testing 2012

IEC Test records (1)


Test object data

Manufacturer
Year of manufacture
Manufacturers serial number
Highest continuous rated power of each winding
Rated voltage for each windings
Short circuit impedance between each pair of windings
Rated frequency
Vector group, winding configuration / arrangement
Number of phases (single or three-phase)
Transformer or reactor type (e.g. GSU, phase shifter, transmission, distribution, furnace,
industrial, railway, shunt, series, etc.)
Transformer configuration (e.g. auto, double wound, buried tertiary, etc.)
Transformer or reactor construction (e.g core form, shell form), number of legs (3 or 5-leg),
winding type, etc.
Load tap-changer (OLTC): number of taps, range and configuration (linear, reversing,
coarse-fine, line-end, neutral-end, etc.)
De-Energized Tap Changer (DETC): number of positions, range, configuration, etc.

Advanced Transformer Testing 2012

IEC Test records (2)


Organisation owning the test object

Test object identification (as given by the owner if any)


Any other information that may influence the result of the measurement

Location data

Location (e.g. site name, test field, harbour, etc.)


Bay identification reference if applicable
Notable surrounding conditions (e.g. live overhead line or energized busbars nearby)
Any other special features

Measuring equipment data

Working principle of device (sweep or impulse)


Equipment name and model number
Manufacturer
Equipment serial number
Calibration date
Any other special features of the equipment

Test organization data

Company
Operator

Advanced Transformer Testing 2012

IEC Test records (3)


Measurement set-up data
Remanence of the core: was the measurement carried out immediately following
a resistance or switching impulse test, or was it deliberately demagnetised?
Whether the tank was earthed
Measurement type (e.g. open circuit, short circuit, etc.)
Length of braids used to ground the cable shields
Length of coaxial cables

Reason for measurement (e.g. routine, retest, troubleshooting,


commissioning new transformer, commissioning used transformer,
protection tripping, recommissioning, acceptance testing, warranty
testing, bushing replacement, OLTC maintenance, fault operation,
etc.)
Additional information
Photographs of the test object as measured showing the position of
the bushings and connections

Advanced Transformer Testing 2012

IEC Measurement lead connction. Method 1


The central conductor of the coaxial
measurement leads shall be connected
directly to the test object terminal using
the shortest possible length of
unshielded conductor.
The shortest possible connection
between the screen of the measuring
lead and the flange at the base of the
bushing shall be made using braid. A
specific clamp arrangement or similar is
required to make the earth connection as
short as possible
In general this method may be expected
to give repeatable measurements up to
2 MHz

A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
I
J

connection clamp
unshielded length to be made as short as possible
measurement cable shield
central conductor
shortest braid
bushing
earth connection
earth clamp
tank
smallest loop

Advanced Transformer Testing 2012

IEC Measurement lead connction. Method 2


Method 2 is identical to method 1
except that the earth connection
from the measurement leads to the
flange at the base of the terminal
bushing may be made using a fixed
length wire or braid, so that the
connection is not the shortest
possible.
The position of the excess earth
conductor length in relation to the
bushing may affect amplitude (dB)
measurements above 500 kHz and
resonant frequencies above 1 MHz

Advanced Transformer Testing 2012

IEC Measurement lead connction. Method 3


In a method 3 connection, the screen of
the coaxial measurement lead is
connected directly to the test object tank
at the base of the bushing and an
unshielded conductor is used to connect
the central conductor to the terminal at
the top of the bushing.
If a method 3 connection is used for the
response lead connection only then the
results are comparable with method 1.
This connection may be the most
practical option if an external shunt
(measuring impedance) is used
If a common conductor is used for the
signal and reference connections then
the conductor is included in the
measurement which will therefore differ
from a method 1 measurement

A
B
C
D
E
F
G

connection clamp
shortest braid or wire
measurement cable shield
central conductor
earth clamp
tank
smallest loop

Advanced Transformer Testing 2012

IEC Frequency response comparison


In order to interpret a measured frequency response, a comparison
is made between
The measured response and a previous baseline measurement (time based
comparison)
With the response measured on a twin transformer, a transformer made to the
same drawings from the same manufacturer (type based comparisons). Careful
attention should be given when using responses from sister transformers
(transformers with the same specification but with possible differences in winding
configuration even from the same manufacturer) for comparison. Improvements
and changes to the transformer design may have been introduced by a
manufacturer over a period of time to outwardly similar units and this may cause
different frequency responses
For three-phase transformers, comparisons can also be made between the
responses of the individual phases (design based comparisons). When
comparing phases of the same transformer quite significant differences are
considered normal and could be due to different internal lead lengths, different
winding inter-connections and different proximities of the phases to the tank and
the other phases

Advanced Transformer Testing 2012

IEC Comparisons of frequency responses


The comparison of frequency response measurements is used to
identify the possibility of problems in the transformer. Problems are
indicated by the following criteria:
Changes in the overall shape of the frequency response;
Changes in the number of resonances (maxima) and antiresonances (minima);
Shifts in the position of the resonant frequencies.
The confidence in the identification of a problem in the transformer
based on the above criteria will depend on the magnitude of the
change when compared with the level of change to be expected for
the type of comparison being made (baseline, twin, sister or phase).

Advanced Transformer Testing 2012

IEC Typical frequency response

Influence regions:
A
core
B
interaction between windings
C
winding structure
D
measurement setup and lead (including earthing connection)

Advanced Transformer Testing 2012

IEC Influence of tertiary delta connections


10
0
-10
Amplitude, dB

-20
-30
-40
-50
-60
-70

delta open
delta closed

-80
-90 1
10

10

10

10
Frequency, Hz

10

10

Advanced Transformer Testing 2012

IEC Influence of star neutral connections


0
-5

Amplitude, dB

-10
-15
-20
-25
-30
-35
neutrals open
neutrals joined

-40
-45 1
10

10

10

10
Frequency, Hz

10

10

Advanced Transformer Testing 2012

IEC Influence of measurment direction (example)


0
-10

Amplitude, dB

-20
-30
-40
-50
-60
-70
HV to N
N to HV

-80
-90 1
10

10

10

10
Frequency, Hz

10

10

Advanced Transformer Testing 2012

IEC Influence of oil


-20
-30

Amplitude, dB

-40
-50
-60
-70
Full oil
Without oil

-80
-90 1
10

10

10

10
Frequency, Hz

10

10

Advanced Transformer Testing 2012

IEC Influence of DC injection (magnetization)


10
0

Amplitude, dB

-10
-20
-30
-40
-50
-60
Before DC
After DC

-70
-80 1
10

10

10

10
Frequency, Hz

10

10

Advanced Transformer Testing 2012

IEC Influence of bushings


0

Amplitude, dB

-20

-40

-60

-80

oil/SF6/air bushing
oil/SF6 bushing

-100 1
10

10

10

10
Frequency, Hz

10

10

Advanced Transformer Testing 2012

IEC Influence of temperature (minor efftect)


-20

Amplitude, dB

-30
-40
-50
-60
32 C

-70

80 C
-80 1
10

10

10

10
Frequency, Hz

10

10

Advanced Transformer Testing 2012

IEC Bad measurements


-40

Amplitude, dB

-60
-80
-100
-120
HV to N (good measurement)
HV to N with bad connection at N
Hv to N with bad connection at HV

-140
-160 1
10

10

10

10
Frequency, Hz

10

10

Advanced Transformer Testing 2012

Additional IEEE slides

Advanced Transformer Testing 2012

IEEE When to perform FRA measurements

Factory short-circuit testing


Installation or relocation
After a significant through-fault event
As part of routine diagnostic measurement protocol
After a transformer alarm (i.e. sudden pressure, gas detector,
Buchholz)
After a major change in on-line diagnostic condition (i.e. a sudden
increase in combustible gas, etc.)
After a change in electrical test conditions (i.e. a change in winding
capacitance)
System Modeling Purposes

Advanced Transformer Testing 2012

IEEE FRA base line measurement


Quality assurance
Required by Customer Specification
To provide a standard of comparison for future diagnostic
FRA measurements

Advanced Transformer Testing 2012

IEEE FRA base line measurement


Quality assurance
Required by Customer Specification
To provide a standard of comparison for future diagnostic
FRA measurements

Advanced Transformer Testing 2012

IEEE FRA diagnostic application


Verification that no damage occurred during a short
circuit test
Relocation and commissioning validation
Post incident verification : lightning, external throughfault, internal short circuit, seismic event etc
Routine diagnostic purposes
Condition assessment of older transformers
Evaluation of used or spare transformers

Advanced Transformer Testing 2012

IEEE SFRA instrument specification


Calibrated to an acceptable standard.
The output power of the excitation source should provide adequate power over
the entire frequency range to allow for consistent measurement of the transfer
function across the frequency range.
The test set should be capable of measuring sufficient dynamic range, over
the frequency range in order to accommodate most transformer test objects
The test set should be capable of collecting a minimum of 200 measurements
per decade, either spaced linearly or logarithmically.
The test system (set and leads) should provide a known and constant
characteristic impedance.
A three lead system, signal, reference and test, should be used to reduce
effect of leads in the measurement.
Test leads should be coaxial cables of the same length, within 1 cm, and less
then 30 m (100 ft) long. Shielded test leads should have the ability to be
grounded at either end.
Both the Magnitude and Phase of the measured transfer function should be
presented.
Advanced Transformer Testing 2012

IEEE Measurement type; Open circuit


An open circuit measurement is made from one end of a
winding to another with all other terminals floating. The Open
Circuit test can be applied to both single phase and three phase
transformers. Open Circuit tests generally fall into five winding
categories: High Voltage, Low Voltage, Tertiary, Series, and
Common. The Series and Common categories are applied to
autotransformers.
Open Circuit tests are primarily influenced by the core
properties at or around the fundamental power frequency. The
Open Circuit tests can be used in conjunction with exciting
current tests in determining failure modes that affect the
magnetic circuit of the transformer.

Advanced Transformer Testing 2012

IEEE Measurement type; Short circuit


The short circuit measurement is made from one end of a high
voltage winding to another while the associated low voltage
winding is shorted. For repeatability purposes, it is
recommended that all low voltage windings are shorted on three
phase transformers to create a three phase equivalent short
circuit model. This ensures all three phase are similarly shorted
to give consistent impedance. Any available neutral connections
should not be included in the shorting process.
The Short Circuit test isolates the winding impedance from the
core effects properties at or around the fundamental power
frequency. The Short Circuit results should produce similar and
comparable diagnostic information as seen in both leakage
reactance and DC winding resistance measurements.

Advanced Transformer Testing 2012

IEEE Measurement type; Capacitive inter-winding


The capacitive inter-winding measurement also known as the
inter-winding measurement is performed between two
electrically isolated windings. A Capacitive Inter-Winding
measurement is made from one end of a winding and
measuring the signal through one of the terminals of another
winding, with all other terminals floating. Capacitive InterWinding measurements are capacitive in nature. These
measurements exhibit a high impedance at low frequencies
(<100 Hz); the impedance generally decreases as frequency
increases. This would include, for example, H1 to X1 on a
double wound transformer, or H1 to Y1 on an autotransformer
with a tertiary. Note that H1 to X1 on an autotransformer is not
an Inter-Winding measurement but an open circuit
measurement on the series winding.
Advanced Transformer Testing 2012

IEEE Measurement type; Inductive inter-winding


The inductive inter-winding measurement also known as the
transfer voltage measurement is performed between two
windings with one end of each winding grounded. All other
winding terminals not under test should remain floating. The
inductive inter-winding measurement most closely resembles
the turns ratio test properties at or around the fundamental
power frequency.

Advanced Transformer Testing 2012

IEEE Influence of residual magnetization


Residual magnetization within the core must be identified, so as not to
be mis-interpreted as an actual fault.
Residual magnetization is the flux density that remains in the core
steel.
DC winding resistance testing, switching operations, and geomagnetic
phenomena are sources of residual magnetism.
Residual magnetization can be identified by the shifting of the low
frequency core resonance (zero) to the right compared to the
demagnetized results.
Residual magnetization can be removed by demagnetizing the core,
and should be conducted if there is concern about the condition of the
core.

Advanced Transformer Testing 2012

IEEE Influence of an open circuit


An open circuit can be caused by connections that come loose or coils
that become burned through due to a catastrophic thermal failure.
The end result is very high impedances being inserted into the
measurement circuit. It is common that the transfer function will drop
across a wide spectrum.
For complete open circuits, the results will often be lost in the noise
floor of the measurement.

Advanced Transformer Testing 2012

Rponse et analyse dun balayage en


SFRA testing basics
frquence

Generator test voltage

Measured voltage

Phase,

Gain, dB

V
G(dB) 20 log10 out
Vin

Advanced Transformer Testing 2012