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HEAT TREATMENT

ISAT 430
Heat the metal to a temperature
Hold at that temperature
Slowly cool

Heat Treatment

Three reasons for heat treatment

To soften before shaping

To relieve the effects of strain hardening

To acquire the desired strength and toughness


in the finished product.

Spring 2001

Dr. Ken Lewis

ISAT 430

Module 6

Heat Treatment

Principal heat treatments


Annealing
Martensite formation in steel
Precipitation hardening

Spring 2001

Dr. Ken Lewis

ISAT 430

Module 6

Annealing

Process

Surface hardening

Purpose

Reduce hardness and brittleness

Alter the microstructure for a special property

Soften the metal for better machinability

Recrystallize cold worked (strain hardened) metals

Relieve induced residual stresses

Spring 2001

Dr. Ken Lewis

ISAT 430

Module 6

The Iron Carbon System

Steels, ferrous alloys, cast irons, cast steels


Versatile and ductile
Cheap
Irons (< 0.008% C)
Steels (< 2.11% C)
Cast irons (<6.67% [mostly <4.5%]C)
The material properties are more than composition
they are dependent on how the material has been
treated.

Spring 2001

Dr. Ken Lewis

ISAT 430

Module 6

The
Phase
Diagram

Spring 2001

Dr. Ken Lewis

ISAT 430

Module 6

Fe - C

Iron melts at 1538C

As it cools, it forms in sequence

Delta ferrite
Austenite
Alpha ferrite

Alpha ferrite

Solid solution of BCC iron

Maximum C solubility of 0.022% at 727C

Soft and ductile

Magnetic up to the Curie temperature of 768C

Spring 2001

Dr. Ken Lewis

ISAT 430

Module 6

Fe - C

Delta ferrite
exists only at high temperatures and is of little
engineering consequence.
Note that little carbon can be actually interstitially
dissolved in BCC iron
Significant amounts of Chromium (Cr), Manganese
(Mn), Nickel (Ni), Molybdenum (Mb), Tungsten (W),
and Silicon (Si) can be contained in iron in solid
solution.

Spring 2001

Dr. Ken Lewis

ISAT 430

Module 6

Fe - C

Austenite (gamma iron)


Between 1394 and 912C iron transforms from
the BCC to the FCC crystal structure.
It can accept carbon in its interstices up to
2.11%
Denser than ferrite, and the FCC phase is much
more formable at high temperatures.
Large amounts of Ni and Mn can be dissolved
into this phase
The phase is non-magnetic.

Spring 2001

Dr. Ken Lewis

ISAT 430

Module 6

Fe - C

Cementite

100% iron carbide Fe3C

Very hard

Very brittle
Pearlite

Mixture of ferrite and cementite

Formed in thin parallel plates


Bainite

Alternate mixture of the same phases

Needle like cementite regions

Formed by quick cooling

Spring 2001

Dr. Ken Lewis

ISAT 430

Module 6

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Martensite formation in Steel

Spring 2001

Dr. Ken Lewis

The diagram at left


assumes slow equilibrium
cooling.

Each phase is allowed to


form

Time is not a variable.

ISAT 430

Module 6

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Martensite formation in Steel

Spring 2001

Dr. Ken Lewis

However

If cooling is rapid
enough that the
equilibrium reactions
do not occur

Austenite transforms
into a non-equilibrium
phase

Called Martensite.

ISAT 430

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Spring 2001

Dr. Ken Lewis

ISAT 430

Module 6

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Fe - C

Martensite
Hard brittle phase
Iron carbon solution whose composition is the
same as austenite from which it was derived
But the FCC structure has been transformed
into a body center tetragonal (BCT)
The extreme hardness comes from the lattice
strain created by carbon atoms trapped in the
BCT

Spring 2001

Dr. Ken Lewis

ISAT 430

Module 6

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The Time Temperature


Transformation Curve (TTT)

Spring 2001

Dr. Ken Lewis

ISAT 430

Module 6

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The Time Temperature


Transformation Curve (TTT)

Spring 2001

Dr. Ken Lewis

Composition Specific

Here 0.8% carbon

At different compositions,
shape is different

ISAT 430

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0.8C

Spring 2001

Dr. Ken Lewis

ISAT 430

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The Time Temperature


Transformation Curve (TTT)

Spring 2001

Dr. Ken Lewis

At slow cooling rates the


trajectory can pass through the
Pearlite and Bainite regions
Pearlite is formed by slow
cooling

Trajectory passes
through Ps above the
nose of the TTT curve
Bainite

Produced by rapid
cooling to a temperature
above Ms

Nose of cooling curve


avoided.

ISAT 430

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The Time Temperature


Transformation Curve (TTT)

Spring 2001

Dr. Ken Lewis

If cooling is rapid enough


austenite is transformed into
Martensite.

FCC > BCT

Time dependent diffusion


separation of ferrite and
iron carbide is not
necessary
Transformation begins at Ms
and ends at Mf.

If cooling stopped it will


transition into bainite and
Martensite.

ISAT 430

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Martensite hardness

Spring 2001

Dr. Ken Lewis

ISAT 430

The extreme hardness


comes from the lattice
strain created by
carbon atoms trapped
in the BCT

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Tempered Martensite

Spring 2001

Dr. Ken Lewis

Step 1 -- Quench in the


martensitic phase

Step 2 soak

Fine carbide particles


precipitate from the iron
carbon solution

Gradually the structure


goes BCT > BCC

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Quenching Media

The fluid used for quenching the heated alloy effects


the hardenability.
Each fluid has its own thermal properties
Thermal conductivity
Specific heat
Heat of vaporization

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These cause rate of cooling differences

Dr. Ken Lewis

ISAT 430

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Quenching Media2

Cooling capacities of typical quench media are

Spring 2001

Agitated brine
Still water
Still oil
Cold gas
Still air

Dr. Ken Lewis

5.
1.
0.3
0.1
0.02

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Other quenching concerns

Fluid agitation
Renews the fluid presented to the part
Surface area to volume ratio
Vapor blankets
insulation
Environmental concerns
Fumes
Part corrosion

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ISAT 430

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Surface Hardening

Refers to a thermo chemical treatment whereby


the surface is altered by the addition of carbon,
nitrogen, or other elements.
Sometimes called CASE HARDENING.
Commonly applied to low carbon steels
Get a hard wear resistant shell
Tough inner core

Spring 2001

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ISAT 430

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Surface Hardening2

The common procedures are:

Carburizing

Nitriding

Carbonnitriding

Chromizing and boronizing

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ISAT 430

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Carburizing

Heating a low carbon steel in the presence of carbon rich


environment at temperature ~ 900C

Carbon diffuses into the surface

End up with a high carbon steel surface.


Pack parts in a compartment with coke or charcoal
Gas carburizing

Uses propane (C3H8) in a sealed furnace


Liquid carburizing

Used NaCN, BaCl2


Thickness 0.005 in. to 0.030 in.

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Dr. Ken Lewis

ISAT 430

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Nitriding

Nitrogen is diffused in the surface of special alloy


steels at temperatures around ~510C.
Steel must contain elements that will form nitride
compounds.
Aluminum
Chromium

Forms a thin hard case without quenching

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Thicknesses 0.001 in 0.020 in.

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Chromizing

Diffuse chromium into the surface 0.001 0.002 in.


Pack the parts in Cr rich powders or dip in a molten
salt bath containing Cr salts.

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Boronizing

Performed on tool steels, nickel and cobalt based


alloy steels.
When used on low carbon steels, corrosion
resistance is improved.

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ISAT 430

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