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- Introduced by : Taha Safi

Ahmad Habbas
Essa Qaisi
AbdEl Rahman Alnatour

- Supervised by : Dr. Sameh Al-Sqoor

- Date: Mon (15-12-2014)

Contents : Introduction
Pitot tube

Flow measurement is an everyday event.
The world market in flowmeters was estimated to be
worth $2500 million in 1995, and is expected to
grow steadily.
The value of product being measured by these
meters is also very large. For example, in the U.K.
alone, it was estimated that in 1994 the value of
crude oil produced was worth $15 billion.
It is somewhat surprising that both the accuracy and
capability of many flowmeters are poor in
comparison to those instruments used for
measurement of other common process variables
such as pressure and temperature.

For example, the orifice plate flowmeter, which was
first used commercially in the early 1900s and has
a typical accuracy of 2% of reading, is still the
only flowmeter approved by most countries for the
fiscal measurement of natural gas.
Although newer techniques such as Coriolis
flowmeters have become increasingly popular in
recent years, the flow measurement industry is by
nature conservative and still dominated by
traditional measurement techniques.
Fluid motion in a pipe can be characterized as one of
three types: laminar, transitional, or turbulent.

Principles of Fluid Flow in Pipes

* In laminar flow , the fluid travels as parallel layers
(known as streamlines) that do not mix as they
move in the direction of the flow.
* If the flow is turbulent, the fluid does not travel in
parallel layers, but moves in a haphazard manner
with only the average motion of the fluid being
parallel to the axis of the pipe.
* If the flow is transitional , then both types may be
present at different points along the pipeline or the
flow may switch between the two.
* In 1883, Osborne Reynolds performed a classic set
of experiments that showed that the flow
characteristic can be predicted using a
dimensionless number, now known as the
Reynolds number.

Principles of Fluid Flow in Pipes

The Reynolds number Re is the ratio of the inertia
forces in the flow to the viscous forces in the flow and
can be calculated using:

If Re < 2000, the flow will be laminar.

If Re > 4000, the flow will be turbulent.
If 2000<Re<4000, the flow is transitional
The Reynolds number is a good guide to the type of flow

Pitot tube:
Pitot tubes are tools used for
measuring the pressure and
the speed of flow of the gas
fluid in tube.


Modern version (modify):

Henry Darcy from France

Henry Pitot from France


Working principle:
Keep the tool in the direction parallel to the
direction of the force, where the tube is
filled with fluid, and then the pressure can
be calculated by the Bernoulli equation.

Application of Pitot Tubes in Daily

* Measuring air speed and the speed of motion
of the aircraft.
* Application of the aircraft altimeter. Altimeter
used to measure the height of a point from the
surface of the sea.

Advantages of pitot tube: process losses.
2.economical to install.
3.some types can be easily removed from th
pipe line.
1.have poor accuracy.
2.unsuitability for dirty or sticky fluids.
3.sensitivity to upstream disturbances.

Advantages & Disadvantages


The purpose of this presentation is

to develop a better understanding
of rotameter, its working and its
use on domestic and industrial

Rotameter-Variable area
* What is rotameter ?
A device used to measure fluid
flow, in which a float rises in a
conical vertical tube to a height
dependent on the rate of flow
through the tube.

1-Graduated tapered metering
glass tube.


* Safety-shielded glass tube are
in general use for measuring
both liquids and gases.
* Metal tubes are used where
opaque liquids are used or
temperature or pressure
requirement is quite high.

* Plastic tubes are also used in

some rotameter designs due to
their lower cost and high
impact strength.

* Floats may be constructed of metals of various
densities from lead to aluminum or from glass or
* Stainless-steel floats are common ones.
* Float shapes and proportions are also varied for
different applications.
* For small flows floats are spherical in shape.

Different floats:

* Fluid enters the tapered tube, some
of the fluid strikes directly the float.
Some of the fluid passes from sides.
* Two forces are acting in this case:
- Upthurst Force (Buoyancy)
- Weight of the float
*Annular space increases due to
increase in area of the tube.
* When equilibrium is established the
float comes to rest.

Measurement of flowrate:
* The flowrate is measured
directly from calibrated
* The reading is noted
generally from ending point
of cap of the float.

-No external power or fuel.
-Relatively low cost
-Good rangeability
-Good metering small flows
-Manufactured of cheap materials.

-Impact of gravity.
-Must be mounted vertically.
-Accuracy of rotameter (0.5 to 10)%
-Generally limited to small pipe size.

Rotameter is used:
* To measure the flow of gases and air at
low flowrates.
* When cost is the main consideration.
* When high accuracy is not required.

Venturi meter

* The pressure recovery is much better for the
venturi meter than for the orifice plate.
* The venturi tube is suitable for clean, dirty
and viscous liquid and some slurry services.
* Pressure loss is low.
* Typical accuracy percent is i of full range
available in very large pipe size *
*Viscosity effect is high

* High cost
* Not useful below 76.2mm pipe size
* More difficult to inspect due to its