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Hofstede’s Cultural Dimensions

• Individualism-collectivism

• Masculinity-femininity
• Power distance
• Uncertainty avoidance
• Long-term versus Short-term Orientation
• Indulgence versus Restraint

Hofstede’s Cultural Dimensions (cont’d) • Work-related value dimensions • Most influential effort to group by cultural values • Surveyed over 116.000 employees in more than 40 countries • Created maps of pairs of dimensions .

e. Asian vs Latin American collectivism ..Individualism-Collectivism • Self-perception as individual or part of a group • Most widely studied • Most complex • Dimensions different across cultures – i.

clan.Individualism-Collectivism (cont’d) Individualism Collectivism • High value on autonomy • High value on group • Individual achievement • Loyalty • Privacy • Devotion – Family. organization • Conformity .

Masculinity-Femininity Describes Importance of Achievement versus Relationships • Success • Equality of genders • Assertive acquisition of money/power • Caring for disadvantaged • achievement • harmony .

Power Distance Acceptance of differences in power High-Power Distance Low-Power Distance • Accept position • Avoid concentration of authority • Follow authority • Concentrated & centralized authority • Hierarchical • Decentralized • Fewer layers of management .

Uncertainty Avoidance Reaction to ambiguous events Low Uncertainty Avoidance High Uncertainty Avoidance • Embrace unpredictable • Threatened by ambiguity • Less adherence to rules. or hierarchies • Risk taking desirable • Need stable & predictable workplace • Reliance on rules . procedures.

Long-term versus Short-term • People in a culture with long-term orientation look to the future and value thrift. • In short-term orientation people value the here and now. they accept change more readily and don’t see commitments as impediments to change . persistence and tradition.

Indulgence versus Restraint • Indulgence is the degree to which it is alright for people to enjoy life. have fun. • Restraint is the extent to which there are social norms governing the gratification of basic human desires and people behaviour. . and fulfill natural human desires.

Cultural Maps • Individualism-Collectivism & Power Distance • Uncertainty Avoidance & MasculinityFemininity • Uncertainty Avoidance & Power Distance .

Individualism-Collectivism & Power Distance • Large power distance and collectivism – Asia and Latin America • Small power distance and individualism – Northern Europe and Anglo countries .

Culture Map for Power Distance and Individualism .

Uncertainty Avoidance & MasculinityFemininity • Achievement oriented-weak uncertainty avoidance & masculine values • Security Motivation-high uncertainty avoidance & masculinity • Social Motivation-feminine values & high uncertainty avoidance .

Culture Map for Uncertainty Avoidance and MasculinityFemininity .

Uncertainty Avoidance & Power Distance • Family-large power distance & weak uncertainty avoidance • Pyramid of People-large power distance & strong uncertainty avoidance • Well-Oiled Machine-small power distance & strong uncertainty avoidance • Village Market-small power distance & low uncertainty avoidance .

Culture Map for Power Distance and Uncertainty Orientation .

Limitation of Hofstede’s Dimensions • Missing countries – Estimates values • Ignores differences within clusters .

000 managers – Over 10-year period – From 28 countries • Bipolar cultural dimensions .Trompenaars’s Alternative Dimensions • Focus on values and relationships • Survey of – 15.

Trompenaars’s Alternative Dimensions (cont’d) • Outer-directed—Inner-directed • Universalism—Particularism • Neutral—Emotional • Specific—Diffuse • Achievement—Ascription • Individualism—Communitarianism .