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LASER DIODES

ECE 4124 OPTICAL COMMUNICATIONS
MUHAMMAD SYAHIRAN BIN SURAINI
1019271

Outline • Introduction • Theory operation • Characteristics • Applications • Conclusion .

laser printers. • It is also known as an injection laser or diode laser. remote-control devices. and intrusion detection systems. . compact disc (CD) players. • Laser diodes are used in optical fiber systems. is a semiconductor device that produces coherent radiation in the visible or infrared (IR) spectrum when current passes through it.Introduction • It is an electrically pumped semiconductor laser in which the active medium is formed by a p-n junction of a semiconductor similar to that found in a light-emitting diode.

Theory operation . The photons thus generated will be in phase with the previous photons. Fig 1. Laser beam is available from the semiconductor region. the emitted photons reflect back and forth and creates more electron-hole pairs.Theory operation • A population of Inversion Electrons is • • • • produced by applying a voltage across its p-n junction. The p-n junction of laser diode has polished ends so that. This will give a Pencil Beam and all the photons in the beam are Coherent and in phase.

• The laser diode should be operated clear of this point to ensure reliable operation over the full operating temperature range as the threshold current rises with increasing temperature. • It can be seen that there is a threshold current below which the laser action does not take place. Fig 2 Laser diode L/I characteristics .Characteristics • Laser diode L/I characteristic • used to determine the current required to obtain a particular level of light output at a given current.

• Changes in temperature affect the bandgap. • Laser diode far-field beam pattern • The light emanating from the diode itself is not collimated. . It is therefore unwise to allow the laser diode to be reverse biased. • Typical values are 30° and 12° for the two angles of the elliptical cone. The wavelength is normally specified in nm nanometres. and hence the gain frequency profile of the junction.• Reverse voltage specification • Laser diodes are easily damaged by reverse voltages. • Laser diode wavelength specification • It will determine many of the applications for which the laser diode can be used. but it is typically in the form of an oval cone of light.

Applications Fig 3. The appropriate diode laser product line associated with a specific diode laser application. .

• Hardening and Heat Treatment • diode lasers can be used to harden the material in much localized areas. so that only the stress zones of a part are hardened. Fig 4. thus used in steel and cast iron for tool manufacturing. The result of hardening .

• Plastic Welding • laser combines the advantages of non-contact welding. One of example of using plastic welding-car remote . with the ability of a measurable setting path. without forming fluff or excess melting. Fig. 5.

6. laser brazing is used for joining the visible. external parts of vehicles. Brazing used in automotive industry . for example trunk lid. • In the automotive industry. roof seams.• Brazing • For joining of metal components. doors or C pillars. Fig.

through commercial applications to hash industrial environments. • Laser diodes are able to provide a cost effective solution while being rugged and reliable and offering a high level of performance. .Conclusion • Laser diodes are used in all areas of electronics from domestic equipment.