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KULIAH-03

Agregat (batuan)

Aggregate is the term used to describe rock used for road making and
refers to an assembly of discrete particles (i.e. pieces of rock).

. keawetan dan kualitas lapis perkerasan ditentukan oleh sifat agregat dan hasil campuran antara agregat dengan material lain. Daya dukung. (ASTM 1974) Agregat merupakan komponen utama perkerasan jalan 90-95% berat. ataupun berupa fragmenfragmen. berupa massa berukuran besar. Klasifikasi agregat:  Berdasarkan proses terjadinya  Berdasarkan proses pengolahannya  Berdasarkan ukuran butirnya.    Suatu bahan yang terdiri dari mineral padat. atau 75-85% volume.

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and deposition Cooling and Solidification (crystallization) SEDIMENTARY ROCK Heat and pressure (metamorphism) Melting Magma (molten rock) METAMORPHIC ROCK . transport. and deposition IGNEOUS ROCK Cementation and compaction Heat and pressure (metamorphism) Weathering. transport.Sediment Rock Cycle Each type can be formed from any other Weathering.

sedimentary rocks mudstone igneous rocks granite slow solidification high pressure and temperature metamorphic rocks slate and marble magma melt . igneous rocks basalt volcano transportation and deposition Rocks rise to the surface by uplift and erosion.Weathering breaks down rocks. sea Magma rises to the surface where it cools rapidly.

limestone
limestone

chalk

sandstone

sandstone

Sandstone is …

…an orangey-coloured rock which looks like lots of sand grains stuck together. It
is quite soft.

Limestone is …

…a grey/white rock which is mostly made from crushed sea shells. Limestone
often contains fossils.

.Chalk is … …a white or grey powdery rock with very fine grains. Chalk often contains fossils.

Sedimentary rocks consist of layers of lots of small particles and are often porous.What are the properties of sedimentary rocks? Sedimentary rocks often have layers showing the deposition of sediment at different time periods. Sedimentary rocks consist of lots of small grains. . Sedimentary rocks often have fossils trapped within them. These grains may be weakly held together so the rocks are often porous and may be soft and crumbly.

(2) Mengandung fosil. Tersusun dari fragmen butiran hasil transportasi. Berlapis (stratification). (4). (3) Memiliki struktur sedimen. Ciri-ciri batuan sedimen adalah: (1). .

Why are sedimentary rocks near the surface younger than sedimentary rocks deeper down? .

dead creatures may become trapped within the sediment and give rise to fossils. slow water cementation pressure sedimentation fast-flowing water  Weathering creates small rock fragments which are transported to the sea where they are deposited (sink) and form a sediment. the pressure of layers above and the effects of salts cement the sediment together. mudstone and limestone are formed.  At this stage. .  Over millions of years. This is how sedimentary rocks like sandstone.Some sedimentary rocks are formed by the cementation of sediment.

These limestone rocks at Punakaiki in New Zealand are known as the Pancake Rocks. How were they formed? .

Sedimentary rocks can also be formed from minerals which are left behind when water evaporates. evaporation dissolved minerals  Certain minerals are dissolved in seas and lakes. common in the UK.  Over millions of years these seas or lakes dry up.  Chalk and limestone.  As the water disappears. precipitation . the dissolved minerals precipitate. can be formed in this way.

marble slate .

a hard smooth rock made from sedimentary limestone or chalk in conditions of strong heat and low pressure. ...Marble is … .

Slate is … …a grey rock with fine grains made from sedimentary shale in conditions of low temperature and low pressure. . Slate can be split into thin sheets.

How are the properties of metamorphic rocks different from sedimentary rocks? Metamorphic rocks often have layer structures of crystals caused by the effect of heat and pressure. This may give rise to wavy or zig-zag patterns within the rock. Metamorphic rocks sometimes show distortions caused by the movements that led to their formation. Metamorphic rocks contain regular layers of crystals that sometimes have a wavy or zig-zag arrangement. . Metamorphic rocks are usually denser and harder than sedimentary rocks.

granite basalt pumice .

.Granite is… …a hard grey rock consisting of large crystals that are randomly arranged.

Pumice is … …a pale grey rock made up of very small crystals and is porous and extremely light. .

Basalt is … …a dark glassy rock which has very fine crystals and often forms as columns of rock. .

Igneous rocks consist of randomly arranged interlocking crystals. The size of the crystals depends on how quickly the igneous rock solidifies.What are the properties of igneous rocks? Igneous rocks contain interlocking crystals which are held together very strongly and make the rock hard. Igneous rocks never contain fossils. . The crystals in igneous rocks have a disorderly arrangement.

. intrusive igneous rocks are formed. magma bursts through the surface causing volcanic extrusive eruptions.  When magma cools below the surface. intrusive igneous rock magma  When magma cools above the surface.igneous rock Igneous rocks are formed when magma cools and solidifies. extrusive igneous rocks are formed. Sometimes.How are igneous rocks formed? Deep in the ground is molten rock called magma.

There is time for large crystals to grow as the magma solidifies.How is the size of crystals in igneous rocks determined by the rate at which magma cools and solidifies?  Magma above the Earth’s surface cools quickly. This is how extrusive igneous rocks like pumice and basalt are formed. This is how extrusive igneous rocks like granite are formed. .  Magma below the Earth’s surface cools slowly. Only small crystals are formed as the magma solidifies.

A mineral is a nonliving solid found in nature.  But. aren’t rocks nonliving and found in nature too??  Then what is the difference between a rock and a mineral?  .

. Also. such as sand and pebbles. some rocks are made of other things.   Rocks are made up of one or more minerals!!! The reason why some rocks have more than one color. is because they contain more than one mineral. in addition to minerals.

. The Mohs Hardness Scale was designed for us to use as a scale to determine the strength of rocks and minerals.

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syenit dll. Dapat ditemui di permukaan bumi karena proses erosi.1. karena pengaruh cuaca mengalami pendinginan dan membeku. diorit. . andesit. fumice dll. mengalami pendinginan dan membeku pelan-pelan di dalam bumi.obsisian. ▪ Agregat beku luar (Extrusive igneous rock): dari magma yang keluar ke permukaan bumi ada saat gunung berapi meletus. Umumnya bertekstur kasar: granit gabbro. Agregat beku (igneous rock)  Berasal dari magma yang mendingin kemudian membeku  Dibedakan atas: ▪ Agregat beku dalam (intrusive igneous rock): dibentuk dari magma yang tidak dapat keluar ke permukaan bumi. Umumnya bertekstur halus: batu apung.

sisa hewan dan tanaman yang mengalami pengendapan dan pembekuan dalam waktu lama.2. Agregat sedimen (sedimentary rock)  Berasal dari campuran partikel mineral.  Merupakan lapisan-lapisan di kulit bumi atau hasil endapan di danau/laut  Contoh: batu lempung. batu bara . batu gamping.

3.  Berdasarkan strukturnya dibedakan atas: ▪ Agregat metamorf yang masif (marmer. kwarsit) ▪ Agregat metamorf yang berlapis (batu sabak) . Agregat metamorfik = batuan malihan (metamorphic rock)  Berasal dari batuan beku atau sedimen yang mengalami perubahan bentuk akibat perubahan tekanan atau temperatur tinggi di kulit bumi.

Berdasarkan tempat asalnya   Pitrun: diambil dari tempat terbuka di alam Bankrun: agregat dari endapan sungai .1.  Bentuk partikelnya ditentukan berdasarkan proses pembentukannya:    Erosi akibat aliran air di sungai: partikelnya bulatbulat dengan permukaan licin Degradasi di bukit: partikelnya bersudut dengan permukaan kasar. Agregat alam (agregat siap pakai)  Agregat yang dapat digunakan dalam bentuk dan ukuran sebagaimana diperoleh di lokasi asalnya.

sehingga diperoleh:  Gradasi sesuai dengan yang diinginkan  Bentuk bersudut. Agregat besar dari gunung atau sungai harus dipecah dahulu sebelum digunakan dengan menggunakan tenaga manusia atau stone crusher).2. .  Bertekstur kasar. sehingga punya gesekan yang baik. Agregat yang melalui proses pengolahan . diusahakan berbentuk sudut.

200 (0.1.200.75 mm) ASTM Agregat halus (fine aggregate) Butiran yang lolos saringan mo.075 mm) ASTM .4 (4. Agregat kasar (course aggregate) Butiran yang tertahan di atas saringan no. 4 dan tertahan di atas saringan no. 1. 1. ASTM Agregat pengisi (filler aggregate) bagian dari agregat halus yang minimum 75% butirnya lolos saringan no.

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   To provide the good performance for base and sub-base course from the traffic loading and ground water. To prevent the pavement failure due to concentrated high stress from the wheel loading. . To minimize the cost of pavement construction.





Strength & Toughness
Particle Shape
Porosity
Surface Texture
Surface Chemistry
Surface Coatings
Specific Gravity

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Ukuran lubang saringan menurut AASHTO .

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Contoh hasil analisa saringan: .

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termasuk ke dalam zone berapa. • Cek benda uji berikut.Buat grafik gradasi zone I. dan IV menurut BS. maka benda uji termasuk agregat zone A . Catatan: apabila grafik gradasi benda uji berada pada rentang gradasi zone A. III. II.

Jenis gradasi agregat: 1. Gradasi baik (well graded) Gradasi jelek (poorly graded) .gradasi timpang = gradasi senjang (gap graded) .gradasi seragam = gradasi terbuka (uniform graded) . 2.

Gradasi baik (well graded) disebut juga gradasi rapat (dense graded) .

Gradasi baik (well graded) disebut juga gradasi rapat (dense graded) .

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Ukuran maksimum agregat: Semua lapis perkerasan lentur membutuhkan agregat yang terdistribusi dari besar sampai kecil. Semakin besar ukuran maksimum agregat yang digunakan. Batasan ukuran maksimum yang digunakan dibatasi oleh tebal lapis yang diharapkan. akan semakin banyak variasi ukuran dari besar sampai kecil yang dibutuhkan. .

. (tetapi sifat kurang baik) karena:  Usaha pemecahan partikel lebih sedikit.Ukuran maksimum agregat: Penggunaan agregat dengan ukuran besar menguntungkan. sehingga kebutuhan aspal menjadi sedikit. sehingga biaya lebih murah  Luas permukaan yang harus diselimuti aspal lebih sedikit.

menunjukkan ukuran saringan terbesar dimana agregat yang tertahan saringan tersebut sebanyak < 10% . dapat dinyatakan dengan menggunakan: a) Ukuran maksimum agregat: .merupakan ukuran satu saringan yang lebih besar dari ukuran nominal maksimum b) Ukuran nominal maksimm agregat: .menunjukkan ukuran saringan terkecil dimana agregat yang lolos saringan tersebut sebanyak 100% .Ukuran maksimum agregat.

 Semakin mudah terjadi segregasi. maka:  Untuk mendapatkan agregat bergdarasi baik dibutuhkan butir-butir yang terdistribusi dalam rentang yang lebih besar. .  Tebal lapis perkerasan minimum = 2 x ukuran maksimum agregat Jika agregat terlalu besar. yaitu pemisahan butir-butir berukuran besar dan kecil.

Contoh: .

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Alat uji abrasi Los Angeles .

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Macam-macam bentuk agregat: .Bentuk dan tekstur agregat mempengaruhi stabilitas dari lapis perkerasan yang dibentuk oleh agregat tersebut.

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Tekstur permukaan agregat: .

Tekstur permukaan agregat: .

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Macam berat jenis (specific graffity) .

Macam berat jenis (specific graffity) .

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1. Metcalf .

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2. Fuller & Thompson .