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Cyclone Hudhud

What are Cyclones?

"Cyclone" is an intense whirl in the
atmosphere with very strong winds circulating
around it in anti-clockwise direction in the
Northern Hemisphere and in clockwise
direction in the Southern Hemisphere.
Word "Cyclone" is derived from the Greek,
word "Cyclos" meaning the coils of a snake.

Cyclones are intense low pressure areas - from
the centre of which pressure increases
The amount of the pressure drop in the centre
and the rate at which it increases outwards
gives the intensity of the cyclones and the
strength of winds.

Cyclone Hudhud
Very Severe Cyclonic Storm Hudhud was the one of
the two strongest tropical cyclones of 2014 within the
North Indian Ocean, as well as the most
destructive tropical cyclone in the basin since Nargis in
2008. Hudhud originated from a low pressure system
that formed under the influence of an upper-air
cyclonic circulation in the Andaman Sea on October 6.
Hudhud intensified into a cyclonic storm on October 8
and as a Severe Cyclonic Storm on October 9. Hudhud
underwent rapid deepening in the following days and
was classified as a Very Severe Cyclonic Storm by the

Shortly before landfall near Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh, on
October 12, Hudhud reached its peak strength with three minute
wind speeds of 175 km/h (109 mph) and a minimum central
pressure of 960 mbar (28.35 inHg). The system then drifted
northwards towards Uttar Pradesh and Nepal, causing widespread
rains in both areas and heavy snowfall in the latter.[1][2]
Hudhud caused extensive damage to the city of Visakhapatnam and
the neighbouring districts of Vizianagaram and Srikakulam of
Andhra Pradesh. Damages are estimated to be at
least 70000 crore (US$11 billion),[3] with assessments still
underway.[4] At least 109 deaths have been confirmed, a majority of
them from Andhra Pradesh and Nepal, with the latter experiencing
an avalanche due to the cyclone.

The name Hudhud, suggested by Oman, refers
to the bird Hoopoe.[5] The bird is known as the
"hudhud" in the Quran, and appears in
the story of Sulayman (Solomon)

Meteorological history
Under the influence of an upper-air cyclonic
circulation, a low-pressure area formed over
the Andaman Sea on October 6.[7] It slowly
consolidated and was upgraded to a depression
by the India Meteorological Department (IMD) on
October 7. While over open waters, the
depression continued to encounter a favorable
environment, and a tropical cyclone formation
alert (TCFA) was issued by the Joint Typhoon
Warning Center (JTWC), followed by IMD
upgrading the storm into a deep depression.[8][9]

In the early hours of October 8, the JTWC started
issuing its advisories for the system as it recorded
tropical storm winds at the storm's centre.[10] The
IMD later reported that the deep depression
made its first landfall over Long Island, Andaman,
and had reached cyclonic storm intensity, naming
it Hudhud.[11] After entering the Bay of Bengal,
Hudhud continued to intensify the following day,
and was upgraded to a severe cyclonic storm.

On October 11, Hudhud underwent rapid intensification and
developed an eye at its center. In the following hours, the storm
reached its peak intensity with a minimum central pressure of
950 mbar (28.05 inHg) and three-minute average windspeeds of
185 km/h (115 mph). Maintaining intensity, it made landfall over
Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh at noon of October 12,
near 17.7N 83.3E. The maximum wind gust recorded by the High
Wind Speed Recorder (HWSR) instrument of the Cyclone Warning
Center in Visakhapatnam was 260 km/h (160 mph). Measured by
the Doppler weather radar stationed in the city, the storm's eye was
66 km (41 mi) in diameter. The strength of the winds disrupted
telecommunication lines and damaged the Doppler radar, inhibiting
further observations.[14]

Early on October 10, the JTWC classified the
storm as a Category 1 tropical cyclone after it
formed a microwave eye feature and was
located in an environment favorable for
further intensification with moderate wind
shear.[12] The IMD upgraded Hudhud to a very
severe cyclonic storm later the same day, and
the JTWC further upgraded the storm to a
Category 2 tropical cyclone

Bringing extensive damage to the coastal
districts of Andhra Pradesh, Hudhud gradually
weakened as it curved northwards over land.
The storm continued its weakening trend and
was last noted as a well-marked low pressure
area over east Uttar Pradesh on October

Preparations and impact

In light of the storm, the National Disaster

Response Force (NDRF) mobilized 35 teams in
Andhra Pradesh and Odisha.[16] The East Coast
Railway cancelled 38 trains on October 12
when the cyclone made landfall.

Andaman and Nicobar Islands

On October 8, while Hudhud was gaining
cyclonic storm intensity, the authorities closed
schools and cancelled ferry services in and
around the Andaman Islands. Fishermen were
warned about the storm. The Andaman Trunk
Road, one of the major roads traversing the
island, was shut down after trees were
uprooted due to the storm's force. Landslides
were reported on the island, causing some
power and communication lines to fai

Andhra Pradesh
An alert was sounded in nine out of thirteen
districts of Andhra Pradesh where standing
crops including paddy, groundnut, sugarcane,
and pulses were yet to be harvested. Over
700,000 people, including 500,000 people in
Andhra Pradesh, were evacuated and put up
in relief camps. The local government made
arrangements to shift half a million people in

The Odisha government had placed 16 districts
under high
alert: Balasore,Kendrapara, Bhadrak, Jagatsinghp
ur, Puri, Ganjam, Mayurbhanj, Jajpur, Cuttack,Khu
rdha, Nayagarh, Gajapati, Dhenkanal, Keonjhar, M
alkangiri and Koraput.
At the time of the storm's landfall, strong winds
and heavy rainfall commenced in southern
Odisha districts, leading to disruption in power
supply. Wind speeds reaching 90 km/h (56 mph)
were predicted in the region

Relief fund
The Prime Minister of India, Narendra Modi,
announced 1000 crore as aid for affected
areas in Andhra Pradesh

Criteria followed to classify cyclones

As adopted by Meteorological Department of

Mechanism of cyclones

Mechanism of cyclones
A full-grown cyclone is a violent whirl in the
atmosphere 150 to 1000 km across, 10 to 15
km high.
The central calm region of the storm is called
the "Eye". The diameter of the eye varies
between 30 and 50 km and is a region free of
clouds and has light winds.
Around this calm and clear eye, there is the
"Wall Cloud Region" of the storm about 5O km
in extent, where the winds, thick clouds with
torrential rain, thunder and lightning prevail.
Away from the "Wall Cloud Region", the wind
speed gradually decreases.

Once the cyclones reach higher latitudes they
often change their direction and move north and
then north-east (south and south east
hemisphere). The process is known as
When two cyclones exist near to each other, they
inter-act and move anti-clockwise with respect to
each other.
In India, when cyclones recur they get broken up
over the Himalayas and their further eastward
movement ceases.

Cyclone Map of India

The principal dangers of a cyclone

Gales and strong winds

damage installations, dwellings, communication systems, trees.,

etc. resulting in loss of life and property.

Torrential rain

may cause river floods

Storm surges or high tidal waves

A storm surge is an abnormal rise of sea level near the coast

caused by a severe tropical cyclone
as a result, sea water inundates low lying areas of coastal
regions drowning human beings and live- stock, eroding
beaches and embankments, destroying vegetation and reducing
soil fertility.

What is Storm Surge?

Surge prone coasts of India

Vulnerability to storm surges is not uniform along Indian
East coast of India are most vulnerable to high surges
i) North Orissa, and West Bengal coasts.
ii) Andhra Pradesh coast between Ongole and
iii) Tamil Nadu coast, south of Nagapatnam.
The West coast of India is less vulnerable to storm surges
i) Maharashtra coast, north of Harnai and adjoining
south Gujarat coast and the coastal belt around the
Gulf of Bombay.
ii) The coastal belt around the Gulf of Kutch.

How to avoid the catastrophe?

Effective Cyclone Disaster Prevention and
Mitigation Plan requires:
A Cyclone Forecast - and Warning Service.
Rapid dissemination of warnings to the
Government Agencies, Marine interests like the
Ports, Fisheries and Shipping and to General
Organisations to construct Cyclone Shelters in the
cyclone-prone areas and ready machinery for
evacuation of people to safer areas.
Community preparedness at all levels to meet the

Cyclone warning
Two Stage Warning Scheme
The first stage warning known as the "Cyclone
Alert" is issued 48 hours in advance of the
expected commencement of the adverse weather
over the coastal areas.
The second stage warning known as the "Cyclone
Warning" is issued 24 hours in advance.
Both cyclone "Alert" and "Warning" messages are
passed to the AIR stations for repeated broadcast.

CYCLONES - Do's & Dont's

Before the Cyclone season:
Check the house; secure loose tiles, carry out
repair works for doors and windows
Remove dead woods or dying trees close to the
house; anchor removable objects like lumber
piles, loose tin sheds, loose bricks, garbage cans,
sign-boards etc. which can fly in strong winds
Keep some wooden boards ready so that glass
windows can be boarded if needed
Demolish condemned buildings
Keep some dry non-perishable food always ready
for emergency use

CYCLONES - Do's & Dont's

When the Cyclone starts
Listen to the radio about weather warnings
Keep monitoring the warnings. This will help you
to prepare for a cyclone emergency.
Pass on the information to others. Believe in the
official information
Ignore rumours and do not spread them; this will
help to avoid panic situations.

When the Cyclone starts

Believe in the official information When a cyclone
alert is on for your area continue normal working
but stay alert to the radio warnings.
Remember that a cyclone alert means that the
danger is within 24 hours. Stay alert.
If your house is securely built on high ground take
shelter in the safer part of the house. However, if
asked to evacuate do not hesitate to leave the
Provide strong suitable support for outside doors.
Keep torches handy

When the Cyclone starts

Small and loose things, which can fly in strong winds,
should be stored safely in a room.
Leave early before your way to high ground or shelter gets
When your area is under cyclone warning get away from
low-lying beaches or other low-lying areas close to the
If you are to evacuate the house move your valuable
articles to upper floors to minimize flood damage.
Get extra food, which can be eaten without cooking. Store
extra drinking water in suitably covered vessels.
Make provision for children and adults requiring special

When the Cyclone starts

Be sure that a window and door can be opened
only on the side opposite to the one facing the
If the centre of the cyclone is passing directly over
your house there will be a lull in the wind and rain
lasting for half and hour or so. During this time do
not go out; because immediately after that very
strong winds will blow from the opposite
Switch off electrical mains in your house.
Remain calm

When Evacuation is instructed

Pack essentials for yourself and your family to last you
a few days, including medicines, special foods for
babies and children or elders.
Head for the proper shelter or evacuation points
indicated for your area.
Do not worry about your property
At the shelter follow instructions of the person in
Remain in the shelter until you have been informed to

Post-cyclone measures
You should remain in the shelter until informed
that you can return to your home.
Strictly avoid any loose and dangling wires from
the lamp posts.
If you are to drive, drive carefully.
Clear debris from your premises immediately.
Report the correct loss to appropriate authorities

When choosing a site for your house, consider the

In cyclonic regions close to the coast, a site above the likely
inundation level should be chosen. In case of non availability
of high level natural ground, construction should be done on
stilts with no masonry or cross bracings up to maximum surge
level, or on raised earthen mounds to avoid
flooding/inundation but knee bracing may be used.


No shielding from high

wind due to absence of

Shielding from high wind by

permeable barriers such as
strong trees

In hilly regions,
construction along ridges should be avoided
since they experience an increase of wind
whereas valley experiences lower speeds in

Damaging Effects of Cyclone on Houses

Due to the high wind
pressure and improper
connection of the
house to the footings it
can be blown away.

Damaging Effects of Cyclone on Houses

materials not
anchored can
be blown away


Light weight
verandah roofs
are more
susceptible to
damage due to
high wind speed.