# One-dimensional Flow

3.1 Introduction
P1

P2  P1

T1

T2  T1

1
u1

 2  1
u 2  u1

M1  1

M2 1

Normal shock
In real vehicle geometry, The flow
will be axisymmetric

One dimensional flow

The variation
of area
A=A(x) is

Neglect the
Y and Z flow
variation

Assume that the
dissipation occurs at
the shock and the flow
up stream and
downstream of the
shock are uniform

Translational rotational and vibrational
equilibrium

 The continuity equation
  
  u .ds   d
t 
s

 
  u.ds  0
s

L.H.S of C.V

 1u1 A  2 u2 A  0

1u1   2u2

(Continuity eqn for

The momentum equation

 ( u )
  

(

u
.
d
s
)
u

d

f
dv

pd
s
s
v t
v
s

  

  ( u.ds )u   pds
s

s

P1  1u1  P2   2u2
2

2

 Remember the physics of momentum eq is the time
rate of change of momentum of a body equals to the
net force acting on it.

( u1 A)u1  u2 Au2  P2 A  P1 A
 P1  1u1  P2  2u22
2

u )dv  v t   (e  2 )d  s  (e  2 )u.V Energy taken away from the system to the surrounding . The energy equation   u2  u2     v qd  s pu.ds  v  ( f .ds   2 2 u1 u2  Q  ( p1u1A  p2u2 A)   1 (e1  )u1 A  2 (e2  )u2 A 2 2 Q q 1u1A u12 u2 2 q  h1   h2  2 2 Physical principle of the energy equation is the energy is the energy is conserved 2 2 u1 u2  Q  p1u1 A  1 (e1  )u1 A  p2u2 A  2 (e2  )u2 A 2 2 Energy added to the C.

3.3 Speed of sound and Mach number Mach angle μ sin   at a 1   vt v M   sin 1 1 M Wave front called “ Mach Wave” Always stays inside the family of circular sound waves Always stays outside the family of circular sound waves .

1 2 a p  T a  da A sound wave. T  dT dissipative conduction are negligible) Wave front Continuity equation a  (   d )( a  da)  a  ad  da  dda a   da d . by definition. p  dp ie: weak wave   d ( Implies that the irreversible.

Momentum equation p  a  p  dp  (   d )(a  da) 2 dp  a 2 d  2a a   d 2 dp  2ada  a 2 d da a   d dp  a 2 d da   2 a 1 dp a 2  2 a d 2 a a2  dp d No heat addition + reversible a2  ( p )s   p  2 v   v  s    s p  a  ( )s   s Isentropic compressibility General equation valid for all gas .

       s p a  RT  For prefect gas. the isentropic relation becomes p  c   1  p  c   p  p p r 1  1    c   .For a calorically prefect gas. not valid for chemically resting gases or real gases Ideal gas equation of state P  RT a  aT  .

Form kinetic theory C 8RT 8RT C   8  1.9 m/s = 1117 ft/s Mach Number M 1 M 1 M 1 M V a The physical meaning of M Subsonic flow Sonic flow M 2 Kinetic energy Internal energy supersonic flow V2 V2 V2 V2 V2 V2 2 2 2 2 2 2  2  2  2 M  2   a  RT  (   1) RT     1 R T     1 CvT  (  1) e  1  1 .35  a  RT   3 a  C 4 a for air at standard sea level = 340.

3. T . a  rRT .4 Some conveniently defined parameters Inagine: Take this fluid element and Adiabatically slow it own (if M>1) or speed it up (if M<1) until its Mach number at A is 1. M * A P T  M * * * V a* For a given M and T at the some point A associated with Its values of T * and a * at the same point .

T0 total temperature or stagnation temperature P0 total pressure or stagnation pressure Stagnation speed of sound Total density a0  RT0  0  P0 / RT0 Note: T0 . are not sensitive to the reference coordinate (Static temperature and pressure) .0 are sensitive to the reference coordinate system T .In the same sprint. image to slow down the fluid elements isentropically to zero velocity .

3.5 Alternative Forms of the 1-D energy equation Q = 0(adiabatic Flow) 2 2 calorically u u h1  1  h2  2 2 2 prefect 2 2 r P1 u1 r P2 u ( )  ( ) 2 r  1 1 2 r 1 2 2 B a B aB A aA aA * * 2 2 2 a1 u a u  1  2  2 r 1 2 r 1 2 2 a2 u2   1 *2   a   1 2 2(  1) If the actual flow field is nonadiabatic form A to B → aA*  aB* Many practical aerodynamic flows are reasonably adiabatic .

Total conditions .isentropic u2 CpT   CpT 2 Adiabatic flow T0 u  1 u  1  1  1  1  1  M 2 T 2 RT 2 a 2 2 2 2 T0 r 1 2  1 M T 2 isentropic  P0   0   T0      P     T  r r 1 0   1 2 r 11  (1  M )  2 P0   1 2 r r1  (1  M ) p 2 Note the flowfiled is not necessary to be isentropic If not → T0 A  T0 B .  0 A   0 B If isentropic → T0 . P0 . P0 A  P0 B .  0 are constant values .

2 a2 u2 a   0 r 1 2 r 1 a* 2 T * 2 ( )   a0 T0 r  1 r  1.4 T*  0.528 P0 *  0.833 T0 P*  0.634 0 r 1 * a02 a  2(r  1) r 1 2   ( r 21 ) 0 * 1 r 1 * P P0  2    r  1   r r 1 .

a / u  a u r 1 *   a r  1 2 2r  1 2 2 2 2  M  2 1 r 1 M  2 r 1  1 r 1  a     2 2r  1  u  * 2 r  1  1  1 r  1 / M  r  1  *   2r  1  M  2 2r  1 2 *2 2 r  1 / M  (r  1) * or 2 M *2 M*  (  1) M 2  2  (  1) M 2 M* = 1 if M=1 M* <1 if M < 1 M* >1 if M > 1 r 1 r 1 If M → ∞ .

32 .EX.

p2 .6 Normal shock relations ( A discontinuity across which the flow properties suddenly change) The shock is a very thin region . u2 .S Continuity p1  1u1  p2   2u2 2 Momentum 2 adiabatic Variable :  2 . h2  C pT2 .O. T2 2 u u h1  1  h2  2 2 2 Energy 5 equations 2 Calorically perfect P2   2 RT2 . Shock thickness ~ 0 (a few molecular mean free paths) ~ 105 cm for standard condition) 1u1  2u2 1 Known 2 To be solved Ideal gas E. h2 .3.

a  u1u2 *2 M2 * 1  * M1 Prandtl relation Note: M1  1  M1  1  M 2  1  M 2  1 * * 1.This is a general result . not just limited to a calorically perfect gas .Mach number behind the normal shock is always subsonic 2.

M1  1 M2  1 2. M1   M2  Infinitely weak normal shock . ie: sound wave or a Mach wave r 1 2r 2  2 u1 u12 u12 (r  1) M 1 *2    *2  M 1  2 1 u2 u1u2 a 2(r  1) M 1 .  1M  2  r  1M 2 M *2 *2 M2  2 1 M 1* 2 1  [(r  1) / 2]M 1  2 rM 1  (r  1) / 2 2 M2 2 Special case 1.

2  2 u1 (r  1) M 1   1 u2 2  (r  1) M 12  u  P2  P1  1u12  2u22  1u1 u1  u2   1u12 1  2   u1  P2 1u12  2  r  1M12  1 1  r  1M12  P1 p1  P2 2r 2  1 ( M 1  1) P1 r 1 T2 p  h 2r 2  (r  1) M 1 2  ( 2 )( 1 )  2  [1  ( M 1  1)][ ] 2 T1 p1  2 h1 r 1 (r  1) M 1 2 .

1 P1 T1 M1  5 M1  5 are functions of M 1 only Real gas effects .  2 P2 T2 . . with γ=constant M 2.Note : for a calorically perfect gas .

lim M 2  M 1  r 1  0.378 2r lim M  2 r  1  6 1 r  1 lim M  P2  P1 lim M  T2  T1 1 1 1 .

. M 1  1 hold for is possible The 2nd law of thermodynamics s2  s1  0 s2  s1  Cp ln T2 P  R ln 2 T1 P1 M1  1 S 2  S1  0 M1  1 S 2  S1  0 M1  1 S 2  S1  0 Why dose entropy increase across a shock wave ? 2 u1   u Large ( y small) y Dissapation can not be neglected 1 u2 6 7 0(10 m ~ 10 m) entropy .M2 1 p1 T1 M 1  1.Mathematically eqns of Physically . . only M1  1  2 p2 T2 .

6 Ex 3.5 Ex 3.3.4 Ex.2 2 u u CpT1  1  CpT2  2 2 2 CpT01  CpT02 T01  T02 To is constant across a stationary normal shock wave s2 a  s1a  Cp ln T2 a P  R ln 2 a T1a P1a P s2  s1  Cp ln 1  R ln o 2 Po1 Note: 1 To ≠ const for a moving shock P02  f ( M 1 )only P01 s2  s1   R ln Po2 Po1 Po2  e ( s  s ) / R Po1 2 1 2. s2  s1  P02  P01 The total pressure Ex.7 decreases across a shock wave .3.

3.7 Hugoniot Equation u 2  u1 ( u1  2 1 ) 2 P1  1u1  P2   2u2  P2   2 ( 2 P2  P1   2     2  1  1  2 2 u u h1  1  h2  2 2 2 2 u2  2 P2  P1  1     2  1   2  h  e P  1 2 u1 ) 2 .

chemically reacting gas. real gas e  p v e   pav v  e  c.   p    s Acoustic limit is isentropic flow 1st law of thermodynamic with q  0 . f .1 1 1 1 e2  e1  ( P1  P2 )(  )   p1  p2 v1  v2  Hugoniot equation 2 1 2 2 It relates only thermodynamic quantities across the shock General relation holds for a perfect gas .

v1. v1  h  e  pv h  e  p2v2  p1v1   pv  p2v2  p1v1  1  p2  p1 v2  v1   v p 2 h v p  h  c.For a calorically prefect gas r  1 v1 ) 1 P2 r  1 v2  r  1 v1 P1 ( ) r  1 v2 ( In equilibrium thermodynamics . f    p  s dh  ds  udp  h     v  p  s . v  P2  f P1. any state variable can be expressed as a function of any other two state variable e  e p . v2   p2  f v2  Hugoniot curve the locue of all possible p-v condition behind normal shocks of various strength for a given P1 .

f      2 a 2  v  s Note P 0 v u1  a p  p    1u12       2 a 2 v  v  s p  p    v  v  s Isentropic line down below of Rayleigh line In acoustic limit (Δs=0) u1→a insentrop & Hugoniot have the same slope .For a specific u1 u1  2 P2  P1   2  P2  P1     v12  2  1  1  v2  v1   u  P P2  P1    1  v v2  v1  v1  2 Straight line Rayleigh line   12u12 ∵supersonic ∴  p  c.

.s as function (weak) shock strength for general flow Shock Hugoniot h h2  h1 1   (v2  v1 ) p p2  p1 2 v  v ( p. s   h  1   2h  h  h2  h1    p   2  p 2  . s ) 3       1 1   2  1   2 3   v1  v1    p   2  p   3  p  ... 2 2  p  s 3!  p  s  p  s  For fluids h  h p........ 2  p  s  p  s .

. 2  p  s 6  p  1  v  1   2v  1  v  2  v1p    p   2  p 3    sp 2  p  s 4  p  s 2  s  p 1    s   T1   2  s  2    1 1     3 4 p      2 p  0p     4 6  p  ..Coefficient For gibbs relation  h  1     v  p  s  Tds  dh   h    T  l  p dp   dh  vdp   2 h   v   2      p  s  p  s   3h    2v   3    2   p  s  p  s 1  v  1   2v  3 2 h  v1p    p   2 p  T1s  .

p  0 Let s  0 1   2  Ts   2  p 3  12  p  h For every fluid s  0   2v  p  0 if  2   0  p  s s  0 2   p  0 if  v   0  p 2   s p   2v   2   0  p  s “Normal fluid “ “Compression” shock “Expansion “shock p s=const u   2v   2   0  p  s s=const u .

friction and thermal conduction u1 u2 p1 p2 ρ1 ρ2 T1 T2 2. laser-heated wind tunnel 4.q 1. combustion (Fuel + air) turbojet ramjet engine burners.3.8 1-D Flow with heat addition q e. gasdynamic and chemical p1  1u1  P2   2u 2 2 2 +E.S leaser 2 u12 u h1   q  h2  2 2 2 Assume calorically perfect gas h  CPT 2 u22   u1   q   C pT2     C pT1    C p T02  T01  2  2  . A 1u1   2u2 3.O.

The effect of heat addition is to directly change the total temperature of the flow Heat addition To Heat extraction To P2  P1 1u1  2u2 2 2  P1M12  P2 M 22 P2 P 2  1  M 12   2 M 2 P1 P1 P 2 u  a M   M  PM 2  2 2 2 P2 1  rM 1  P1 1  rM 2 2 2 .

T 2 P2 1 P2 u2 P2 M 2  T2       T1 P1  2 P1 u1 P1 M 1  T1  u2 M 2 a2 M 2  T2      u1 M 1 a1 M 1  T1  1 2 1 2 1 2 T2 1  rM 1 2 M 2 2 ( ) 2) ( T1 1  rM 2 M1 2  T2  P2 M 2 1  rM 1 M 2    ( 2) P1 M 1 1  rM 2 M 1  T1  2  2 u1 M a M 1  rM 2 M 1   ( 1 )( 1 )  ( 1 )( ) 2 )( 1 u2 M 2 a2 M 2 1  rM 1 M 2 2  2 1  rM 2 M 1 2 ( ) 2 )( 1 1  rM 1 M 2 2 .

P 02 P01  P0 r 1 2  (1  M ) P 2 P P P 02 2 1 P2 P1 P01 r r 1 r r 1 r 1 2   1  M 2  1  rM 2 P  1 2   P01  1  r  1 M 2  1  rM 22  1    2 02 T02 T02 T2 T1  ( )( )( ) T01 T2 T1 T01 2 T02  1  rM 1     2  T01  1  rM 2  2  M2     M1  2 T0 r 1 2 1 M T 2 r 1 2   M2  1 2    1  r  1 M 2    2 T2 P2 s  s2  s1  C p ln  R ln T1 P1 .

. P1 T1 1 To facilitate the tabulation of these expression ...Given: all condition in 1 and q T02 q  C p (T02  T01) M2 T02 T01 P2 T2  2 . . .. let state 1 be a reference state at which Mach number 1 occurs.

3.4 . For γ=1.P1  P T1  T 1   P01  P0 T01  T0 * * * * * M1  1 M 2  M P 1   * P 1  M 2  T 2 1    M  * 2  T  1  M   1  1  M 2    2  *  M  1   P0 1    2    1M 2     * 1  M 2   1 P0  2 r r 1 T0   1M 2 2    2    1 M * 2 T0 1  M 2     T P s  s  C p ln *  R ln * T P * Table A.

Adding heat to a supersonic flow  M↓ q1  CP (T02  T01) q1  CP (T01  T0 ) * * q2  CP (T02  T0 ) * * q2  q1  q1 * * .

To gain a better concept of the effect of heat addition on M→TS diagram T P s  s  C p ln *  R ln * T P * P 1  P* 1  M 2  1       * 2 P 1  M P 1     P*  1     M 2  P   T  1   2  P  2 p 1   M  * M  *  * 2 T  1  M  P M P  2 P T  * M  * P T P  1    P*  1     * P    P   2 T T* .

 T P 21 P* ( * ) (1   )( )  1  * P  P  T  T P 2 P*  *  ( * ) (1   )( )  1 T P  P  P 2 P T ( * )  (1   )( * )  *  0 P P T T  1     4  *  P 1  T    * P 2 2 2    1    12  4 (T )  * ss T  1   T   ln *  ln  Cp T   2   Cp  * R rR  1 r 1  Cp .

0 Rayleigl line ds 0 dT  p  2  a   ds  0   ds0 dp  udu  0 Momentum eq. d du  0  u Continuity eq. du  ud  dp  duu  u 2d S  S* Cp u2  dp d ∴ At point A .T T* At point A B A 1. M=1 .

4  MB subsonic 2 0 M2  1 r 1 1  2 T  )   *  (  T  max  1  1 (1  r ) 2  4r .T T* B(M<1) T  d *  T   0 dM jump Heating A (M=1) cooling M<1 2M 1  r  1  rM 2 heating cooling M>1 2 2 2 2 4 1  rM   2rM S  S* Cp T 1 r 2 2  M ( ) * 2 T 1  rM   M 1  r   21  rM  2rM  0 1  rM  2 2 2 ds=(dq/T)rev →addition of heat ds>0 T is maximum * T  At point B lower m MB  1    1.

q 1 2 Supersonic flow M1>1 M (M2<M1) P (P2>P1) T (T2>T1) T0 (T02>T01) P0 u (P02<P01) (U2<U1) subsonic flow M1<1 (M2>M1) M1    1 2 M1    1 2 P 1   * P 1  M 2 T 2 1  2  M ( ) T* 1  M 2  1 1  M 2  ( ) * M 2 1   P0 1   2  (  1) M 2  1  [ ] * 2  1 P0 1  M T0 (  1) M 2  [2  (  1) M 2 ] * 2 2 T0 (1  M ) .

For supersonic flow Heat addition → move close to A M → 1 → for a certain value of q . M=1 the flow is said to be “ choked ” ∵ Any further increase in q is not possible without a drastic revision of the upstream conditions in region 1 .

X 3. then a series of pressure waves will propagate upstream .8 * .For subsonic flow heat addition → more closer to A . and nature will adjust the condition is region 1 to a lower subsonic M → m  decrease → for E. M →1 a certain value of q M  1 the flow is choked → If q > q * .

9 1-D Flow with friction Fanno line Flow . . .3.Analgous to 1-D flow with heat addition. all fluids are viscous.In reality .

d s  u  s  pd s   s  w.d s  2  4 L  p2  p1   2u2   u   0  wdx D dp  udu   2 2 1 1 4 1  w dx   w  u 2 f D 2 4f dP udu  1 dP du  dx    2 2   1 1 D u  rM P  u 2  u 2 2 2 dp d dT du dT     p  T u T L  1u1 A   2u2 A  p1 A  p2 A   D w d 2 dM du 1 dT    u  Ma M u 2 T Good reference for f : schlicting . boundary layer theory 0 .Momentum equation         s  u .

To = const  r  1M 2 dM T0 r 1 2 dT M 0  1 M   r 1 2 T 2 T 1 M 2 1 4 fdx 2 1 dM 2  2       1  M 1    1 M  2  M D M 2 M2    2    1 x2 4 fdx r 1 M x1 D   rM 2  2r ln  r  1 2   M  1 2   M1  r 1 2 2 M1 T2 T2 T0 2  ( r  1 ) M 1 2    T1 T0 T1 1  r  1 M 2 2  (r  1) M 2 2 2 2 1 .∵ adiabatic .

P2 M1  2  (r  1) M1     P1 M 2  2  (r  1) M 2 2  2 1 P02 M 1  2  (r  1) M 2     P01 M 2  2  (r  1) M 12   2 M 1  2  (r  1) M 1    2 1 M 2  2  (r  1) M 2  2 2 ( r 1) 2 1 2 [ 2 ( r 1)] Analogous to 1-D flow with heat addition using sonic reference condition. T r 1  T * 2  (r  1) M 2  P 1  r 1  P * M  2  (r  1) M 2   1  2  (r  1) M     * M  r 1  2 1 2 P0 1  2  (r  1) M     * P0 M  r 1  2 1 2 r 1 2r 1 .

M = 1 1 L*  0   2  4 fdx  1 r 1 M    ln 2 r 1 2  D rM 2 r 1 M    M 2 2 4 fL* 1  M   1  (r  1) M 2    ln  2 2 D M 2  2  (r  1) M  1 L  * 0 fdx L * F: average friction coefficient Table A.IF we define x  L* are the station where .4 .

s  s1  Cv ln Fanno line ds < 0 m 1 P m 2 T  T u  R ln  Cv ln  R ln T1 1 T1 u1 u  2CpT0  T  u2 h0  h  2 chocked s  s1 T r  1 T0  T  ln  ln C T1 2 T0  T1  ln T  ds > 0 At point P 1 r 1  0 T 2(T0  T ) u  2C p (T0  T ) C p (T0  T )  r 1 ln T0  T   const 2 2 u 2 1  T r 1 rR u 2  rRT  a 2  2 2 u r  1 u 2. M < 1 T low u high below P.M>1 . M  1 2 rR T high u low above P .

1-D adiabatic flow with friction Supersonic flow M1>1 M (M2<M1) P (P2>P1) T T0 (T2>T1) P0 u ρ unchanged (P02<P01) (u2<u1) Subsonic flow M1<1 (M2>M1) unchanged .