otot dan tulang
[Blok 7: Lokomosi]

Rifana Cholidah


a place of many metabolic activities
Three types of muscle: skeletal, cardiac, smooth
The main function: to turn chemical energy into
mechanical energy  through the breaking down
of ATP
Changes in muscle metabolism during prolonged
activities: metabolic rate, relative rate of utilization
of glucose and fatty acids as fuel
Main function as locomotion and heat production,
also to provide protein reserves for
gluconeogenesis during fasting


Structure of muscle     Contains light (l-band. anisotropic) band Center of the I-band: darker Z-line Center of A-band: lighter H-zone with the central M-line Sarcomere:  From Z to Z-line  M-line . isotropic) band and dark (A-band.

. extending from Z-line)  A-band (thick. actin filaments. myosin filaments.Continued.  I-band (thin. extending from M-line)  Darker straining regions of the A-band: the region of overlap of actin and myosin .

Fast-glycolytic muscle:  White in appearance  Low blood flow  Low mitochondrial density  Decreased myoglobin content .Mucle energy metabolism   Based on ATPase activity and the source of ATP synthesis: anaerobic and aerobic Mucle types related to muscle function Striated (skeletal) muscle is divided into: 1.

Slow-oxidative fibers: o Well perfused with blood o Rich in mitochondia and myoglobin o Ability in sustaining low-intensity contraction for long periods o Slow muscle uses fatty acid oxidation for ATP production o The characteristic of cardiac muscle in similar with slow-oxidative skeletal muscle .2. Fast glycolytic fibers: o Increased glycogen store o Lower fat content o Depends on glycogen and anaerobic glycolysis for short burst contraction o Not capable of sustaining long contractions compared to slow-oxidative fibers 3.

actin (thin) „n myosin (thick filaments) o Myosin head has ATPase activity  hydrolyzes ATP .Muscle contraction  Membrane ion flux  Calcium release and re-uptake  ATP hydrolysis and synthesis:  Maintenance of ion gradients  Restoration of intracellular Ca levels  Actual process of muscle shortening o Muscle shortening: sarcomere depends on the interaction of filamentous protein.

Continued…     Thick filaments is made up from myosin protein Thin filaments:  Mainly actin  Tropomyosin and troponin family Muscle contraction (shortening)=  ATP is available  Calcium is present ATP availability depends on:  Synthesis from ADP by the creatine phosphate  Production from aerobic „n anaerobic metabolism .

: actin : troponin : tropomyosin .

Energy supplies 1. high intensity contraction:  Depends on ATP stores  an additional reserve of the high-energy storage compound (creatine-P)  ATP rapidly during the 1st minute as glycogenolysis is activated  During the first stages of exercise:  Muscle glycogenolysis  Followed by both anaerobic and aerobic glycogenolysis as the major source of energy  Calcium entry into muscle to formulate Ca2+ --calmodilum complex  activates phosphorylase kinase . Short-duration.

Low intensity. long duration contractions  Availability and utilization of O2 as the limitation for sustaining continuous PA  Low intensity of PA.2. O2 is readily available  Aerobic oxidation of lipid is the main source of ATP synthesis  Art the higher work intensities O2 can become limiting  the work rate of the muscle decreases  Adaptation to regular vigorous PA involves increasing muscle mass and oxygenation .

    During the first 15-30 minutes of exercise. there is a gradual shift glycogenolysis and aerobic glycolysis to aerobic metabolism of fatty acids In many cases. the glycogen reserves in muscle are sufficient to support the energy needs of muscle during exercise for about 1 hour Exercise continues  epinephrine activates hepatic gluconeogenesis to provide an exogenous source of glucose for muscle Lipids gradually become the main source of energy in muscle during long-term exercise .

a continuing basal level of glycogen and CHO metabolism in muscle is required CHO metabolism is important as a source of pyruvate Increasing the availability of circulating glucose from gluconeogenesis or CHO ingestion Increased the utilization of fatty acids . Long-term muscle performance       Ex: marathon runner Glycogen is the storage form of glucose in skeletal muscle For the sufficient availability of ATP.3.

Bone .

Fungsi tulang  Memberikan rangka tubuh  Melindungi organ-organ vital  Pergerakan  Menjaga keseimbangan elektrolit dan asam-basa  Produksi sel darah .

Struktur tulang .

Bone Metabolism The factors .

A. Nutrisi     Calcium (Ca) Phosporus(P) Magnesium Zinc . Hormonal      Vitamin D Parathyroid hormone Estrogen Thyroid hormone Insulin B.

Lifestyle Factor   Physical activity Smoking: Menopause yang lebih awal  Penurunan BMD Alcohol consumption:  Meningkatkan osteoporotic fracture   .

Calcium         Salah satu mineral yang penting untuk tulang 1200gram pada org dewasa (1-2% BW) Metabolisme Ca  Vit D. & PTH Bersama dg P. sebagian kecil di colon . calcitonin.u di usus halus. Ca membentuk “insoluble salt” (hydroxyapatite)  tulang dan gigi Kedua mineral ini sangat penting utk bone strength rigiditas dan struktur Keseimbangan Ca dan P Ketersediaan Ca:  Dietary Ca  Absorpsi Ca Absorpsi t.

Phoshorus .

     Penting untuk mineralisasi tulang Kurangnya P dapat menyebabkan gangguan mineralisasi tulang 80% dari total body P terdapat dijaingan tulang dan gigi 85% P ditemukan dalam bentuk kristal hydroxyapatite P homeostasis sangat dipengaruhi oleh bone formation .

Summary     ATP produced in muscle is important to maintenance ion gradient. high intensity of muscle activity Slow oxidative muscle: anaerobic tissue . restoration of Ca level and the contractile process Fast glycolytic muscle: depends on glycogen and anaerobic glycolysis for short. depends on glycogenolysis and glycolysis. uses fat as the main source During the initial phases. then gradually converts to fat metabolism for long-term energy production .

Thanks  Any questions .

New Zealand Spring 2012 .