Building Construction

Materials

or concrete material. •Brick are produced in numerous types. sand and lime. and have an additional ingredient of a mechanical binder such as straw. collectively known as brickwork. . brick contains the following ingredients: Silica (sand) – 50% to 60% by weight Alumina (clay) – 20% to 30% by weight Lime – 2 to 5% by weight Iron oxide – ≤ 7% by weight Magnesia – less than 1% by weight • Basic categories of brick are Fired. used in masonry construction. and are produced in bulk quantities. •Chemically set bricks are not fired but may have the curing process accelerated by the application of heat and pressure in an autoclave. Non-Fired and Chemically set Bricks •Fired brick are one of the longest lasting and strongest building materials sometimes referred to as artificial stone and have been used since circa 5000 BC. are known by the synonyms mud brick and adobe. •Standard Dimension of a brick is 9”X41/4 “ X23/4 “ •Normally.BRICKS NATURE: •A brick is a block or a single unit of a kneaded clay-bearing soil. • Non. and sizes which vary with region and time period. materials. fire hardened or air dried.Fired bricks have a history older than fired bricks. Fired brick are the most numerous type and are laid in courses and numerous patterns known as bonds.

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easy to use. •"Timber" is the term used for construction purposes. floors or storage solutions and furniture. keeping strength while bending. which shed their leaves in the fall and are relatively slow growing. There are many differing qualities to the different types of wood.Wood and Wood Composites NATURE •Wood is a living material composed of Cellulose. such as boards. Raw wood (a log. minimal maintainence alternative to wood. and sometimes other fibrous plants. and is incredibly strong when compressed vertically. split) in the forms of minimally-processed logs stacked on top of each other. Softwoods are usually derived from evergreen trees growing in the temperate zone. •Wood Composites are the new developments alternative to woods which have a content of wood and additional materials which are relatively cheaper. It is a generic building material and is used in building just about any type of structure in most climates. staircases. which have sharp slim needle leaves and seeds that grow in cone. used for construction purposes when cut or pressed into lumber and timber. and light-frame construction. windows. trunk. doors. which forms the cells and the lignin that binds cells together. Softwoods contain a large amount of natural resin and are slightly faster growing than hardwoods. This means specific species are better suited for various uses than others. planks and similar materials. And growing conditions are important for deciding quality. from external wall and roof coverings to structural lumber. •Wood can be very flexible under loads. bole) becomes timber when the wood has been "converted" (sawn. •Wood is a product of trees. •Every home contains wood in some capacity. Hardwood are the products of deciduous trees. timber frame construction. hewn. even among same tree species. •Wood is generally classified as Hardwood and Softwood. . to suit the modern day living.

Wood and Wood Composites WOOD WOOD COMPOSITES Hardwood Plywood Softwood Chipboard Laminated Board MDF Willow Laminated Flooring Melamine Coated Wood Hardboard Veneer .

COST: .Wood and Wood Composites WOOD: HARDWOOD PROPERTIES: • Derived from Deciduous trees. in a wide range of standard and special lumber sizes and lengths. contract and change colour as they age. so their lumber is stronger. SPECIFICATIONS: •Sawed or planed. •They also expand. USE AND MAINTAINENCE: •Outdoors for furniture and structures. and for surface finishes. denser and homogeneous. •Indoors for exposed structural elements. they grow slowly than softwood. fixtures such as stairs treads and doors and furniture. furniture and craft ranges. •They are used as a building and joinery material. •AVAILABILITY: •Direct from lumberyards and home improvement retailers. flooring. in knotty or plain grades. sealing with the weatherproof varnish.

western hemlock and western red cedar. varnish or exterior grade paints. •Softwoods will expand and contract with heat and moisture: they can also lighten or darken. flooring and trim. landscaping and decking. •AVAILABILITY: •Direct from lumberyards. •Indoors uses are furniture. •Most commonly used softwood trees are spruce. COST: . USE AND MAINTAINENCE: •Outdoors uses include furniture.seal with weatherproof stains. making them good for acoustic and thermal insulation. SPECIFICATIONS: •Sawed or planed.Wood and Wood Composites WOOD: SOFTWOOD PROPERTIES: • Derived from Coniferous trees. Douglas fir. Also widely used in prefabricated components as doors and window frames. they are available in a number of forms and sizes. in a wide range of standard and special lumber sizes and lengths. in knotty or plain grades. as well as being popular choice for furniture and surface finishes. •They are used as a building and joinery material. Softwoods can be turned on a lathe to make balustrades or bought as composite blockboards for bookshelves and panelling. ponderosa pine. •They have lower density than hardwoods.

•It is easy to work with using conventional tools and machines. decking or framing material. •Ply is very strong against the impact and in cross and diagonal tension.Wood and Wood Composites WOOD COMPOSITES: PLYWOOD PROPERTIES: •Manufactured from sheets of cross-laminated wood veneer. nailed. 1/6”-1” (4-25mm). •It is effective for kitchen counters. COST: . •It is highly stable when exposed to moisture. drilled. usually reverting to its original thickness when dry. •AVAILABILITY: •Direct from lumberyards and home improvement retailers. layers that create dramatic edges when sanded and shaped. •It can be sawed. Some grades upto 4X10ft (1220X3000mm) or in thickness greater or less than standard. plywood has been used as a structural. glued and finished and used for shelving. SPECIFICATIONS: •Standard sheets 4X8 ft (1220X2440mm) in incremental thickness. sanded. USE AND MAINTAINENCE: •Traditionally. which are pressure bonded under heat with waterproof resin adhesive. furniture and panelling.

•It is effective for kitchen counters. glued and finished and used for shelving. •Some can be treated to make them flame retardant or moisture. layers that create dramatic edges when sanded and shaped. nailed. •All grades except those specially treated are susceptible to moisture. USE AND MAINTAINENCE: •All but •It can be sawed.resistant. becoming waterlogged before swelling and breaking down. furniture and panelling. •It is characterised by a rough surface to the sides and edges.Wood and Wood Composites WOOD COMPOSITES: PARTICLE BOARD PROPERTIES: •Manufactured from wood chips that are pressure bonded together under heat using synthetic resin adhesives. 1/6”-1” (4-25mm). Some grades upto 4X10ft (1220X3000mm) or in thickness greater or less than standard. COST: . •Particle Board is strong in tension and durable against the impact. drilled. sanded. SPECIFICATIONS: •Standard sheets 4X8 ft (1220X2440mm) in incremental thickness. •AVAILABILITY: •Direct from lumberyards and home improvement retailers.