CHAPTER 8

USING GENERAL KNOWLEDGE
By: 1. Noor Haslinda Binti Mohd Idris MPP141041
2. Nurmayulis@Malina Binti Noordin MP131063
3. Ahmad Shahir Bin Muhamad MPP141042

The Structured Of Semantic
Memory
Semantic Memory :


-

encyclopedic knowledge, lexical or language
knowledge, conceptual knowledge

-

(organized knowledge about the world)

2

Background On Semantic Memory
Category : set of objects that belong
together.
Example : “fruit” represents a certain category
of food items

Concept : refer to our mental
representations of category

Example : we have a concept of “fruit”

These inferences allow us to go to beyond the
given information, to expand our knowledge

The Prototype Approach • Prototype : an abstract. idealized example • Prototype Approach : By personal experiences. Example : conclude Robin is a bird because it matches the prototype of bird. . we can decide whether an item belongs to a category by comparing it with the prototype.

• Share attributes in a family resemblance category Example : many students rated a car as a most prototypical vehicle. . • judged more quickly after semantic priming Example : we can see the name of colour before judging the pair of colours.Characteristics of Prototypes • supplied as examples of a category Example : many people judged robin to be in the “ bird” category.

“dog” SubordinateLevel: more specific categories Example : “Desk Chair”. “Collie” . Basic-level : moderately specific Example : “Chair”. “animal”. Example : “Furniture”.The Prototype Approach An object can be categorized at several different levels. Level Of Categorization Superordinatelevel : more general categories.

3) You decide that she fits into the category “ depressed person” because this description resembles the characteristics of 4 earlier exemplars. you read an article that described a woman’s psychological problem. 2)Then. .The Exemplar Approach • First learn some specific examples of a concept (exemplars) • then classify each new stimulus by deciding how closely it resembles those specific examples • Example : 1) You read 4 case studies which each case study described a depressed individual. but the article does not specify her disorder.

Network Models and Semantic Memory 8 .

apple .

.The meaning of a particular concept depends on the other concepts to which it is connected.

1. .Represents sentences and concepts with a propositional-network structure . Anderson’s ACT – R model .Attempts to explain a wide variety of cognitive processes.

Propositional Network Representing the sentences : Ali gave a brown wallet to Ana who is his wife. .

2.flows through networks that link together. . PDP -The Parallel Distributed Processing Approach Proposes that cognitive processes can be represented by a model.

• Example : 1. Rabbits like it. 3. 2. . It starts with a letter c. Type of vegetable. 4. It is orange.

. Make a default assignment based on information from other similar people or objects. Allow us to explain how human memory can help us when someone information is missing. 2.Advantage of PDP : 1.

SCHEMAS AND SCRIPTS .

Schema – generalized knowledge about a situation. an event or a person • Schema theories are especially helpful when psychologists try to explain how people process complex situations and events. .

Background on Schemas and Scripts • Schema theories propose that people encode „generic‟ information about a situation. then use this information to understand and remember new examples of the schema. .

A psychology professor’s office 19 .

.g. the desk.(e.. the chair) • If the information describes a minor event— and time is limited—people do not remember information that is inconsistent with the schema. the wine bottle) 20 . the hat.g. (e.Schemas and Memory Selection • If the information describes a minor event— and time is limited—people tend to remember information accurately when it is consistent with a schema.

• People seldom create a completely false memory for a lengthy event that did not occur • When the information describes a major event that is inconsistent with the standard schema. people are likely to remember that event 21 .

Schemas and Boundary Extension Boundary extension — our tendency to remember having viewed a greater portion of a scene than was actually shown Intraub and colleagues • see photo then draw replica of photo • Participants consistently produced a sketch that extended the boundaries beyond the view presented in the original photo • activate a perceptual schema 22 .

23 .

• Abstraction — a memory process that stores the meaning of a message but not the exact words • Verbatim Memory — word-for-word recall 24 .

Schemas and Memory Abstraction 1. The Constructive Approach Bransford and Franks (1971)  listen to sentences from several different stories  recognition test including new items  people convinced that they had seen these new items before (false alarm)  false alarms particularly likely for complex sentences consistent with the original schema 25 .

people pay attention to the aspect of a message that is most relevant to their current goals Murphy and Shapiro (1994) o correct recognition was higher for sentences from the sarcastic condition than for sentences in the bland condition o more false alarms for paraphrases of bland sentences than sarcastic sentences o more accurate in their verbatim memory for the sarcastic version than for the bland version 26 . Pragmatic view of memory .2.

Schemas and Memory Abstraction The Current Status of Schemas and Memory Abstraction • two approaches (Constructive and Pragmatic) quite compatible • in many cases we integrate information into large schemas • in some cases we know that specific words matter and pay close attention to precise wording 27 .

• Schemas and Inferences in Memory inferences—logical interpretations and conclusions that were not part of the original stimulus material 28 .

29 .Research on Inferences Based on Gender Stereotypes • Gender Stereotypes — widely shared sets of beliefs about the characteristics of females and males • Explicit Memory Task Dunning and Sherman (1997) read sentences followed by recognition-memory test "new" sentences consistent or inconsistent with gender stereotypes.

Bersick and McLaughlin (1997) ERP technique stereotype consistent sentences vs.Research on Inferences Based on Gender Stereotypes (continued) • Implicit Memory Tasks 1. stereotype inconsistent sentences change in ERPs for stereotypeinconsistent words but not for stereotypeconsistent words 30 . Using neuroscience techniques to assess gender stereotypes Osterhout.

and Greenwald (2002)  Implicit Association Test (IAT)—based on the principle that people can mentally pair related words together much more easily than they can pair unrelated words  Stereotype-Consistent pairings (male/math vs.2. male/arts) 31 . Using the Implicit Association Test to assess gender stereotypes Nosek. female/arts)  Stereotype-Inconsistent pairings (female/math vs. Banaji.

32 . We may indeed remember that we saw only a portion of an object. We frequently recall the exact words of a passage as it was originally presented.Conclusions About Schemas 1. 3. We often avoid making inappropriate inferences. We often select material for memory that is inconsistent with our schemas. 4. 2. rather than the complete object.

rather than integrated together. When we are recalling information from our real-life experiences—rather than information created by researchers—we may be more accurate. 33 .5. We may keep the elements in memory isolated from each other. 6.