# CHE433 THERMODYNAMICS

Therefore 2 . Total differential of z: Or can be written as where Taking the partial derivative of M with respect to y and of N with respect to x.Consider a function that depends on two (or more) variables: Where x and y are the two independent properties and z represents any other property.

Reciprocity relation Cyclic relation Demonstration of the reciprocity relation for the function z + 2xy  3y2z = 0. 3 .

Estimate the change n the specific volume of the gas using (a) dz   z  dx   z  dy    x  y    y  x (b) the ideal gas relation at each state 4 .Consider an ideal gas at 400 K and 100 kPa. As a result of some disturbance. the conditions of the gas change to 404 K and 96 kPa.

verify (a) the cyclic relation and (b) the reciprocity relation at constant v.Using the equation of state P(v-a) = RT. 5 .

Helmholtz function Gibbs function Differentiating. T. Maxwell relations 6 . The four Gibbs relations are of the form: Maxwell relations are limited to simple compressible systems. They are obtained from the four Gibbs equations by exploiting the exactness of the differentials of thermodynamic properties. v. and s of a simple compressible system to each other are called the Maxwell relations.The equations that relate the partial derivatives of properties P.

7 .Verify the validity of the last Maxwell relation for steam at 400oC and 3 MPa.

Using the Maxwell relations. determine a relation for  s v T for a gas whose equation of state is  P  a v 2 v  b  RT 8 .

which depends on the temperature only and is independent of the specific volume. Psat  f Tsat  Hence. the pressure is the saturation pressure.  P T v   dP dT sat  dP   s        dT sat  v T For an isothermal liquid vapor phase change process (quality.Consider the third Maxwell relation During a phase change process. x = 0 to x = 1)  sg  s f  s fg  dP        dT v  v v fg  sat  g f  From dh  Tds  vdP dP  0 at saturation state h fg  dP  Therefore. h fg  Ts fg and Clapeyron equation T in Kelvin    dT Tv   sat fg 9 .

10 . It is applicable to any phase change process that occurs at constant T and P. In general form: The slope of the saturation curve on a P-T diagram is constant at a constant T or P. where the subscripts 1 and 2 indicate the two phases.The Clapeyron equation can be used to determine the enthalpy of vaporization hfg at a given temperature by simply measuring the slope of the saturation curve on a P-T diagram and the specific volume of saturated liquid and saturated vapor at the given temperature.

Clapeyron-Clausius equation 11 . hfg can be treated as constant. At low pressures v g v f and thus v fg  v g Treating vapor as an ideal gas v g  RT P Substituting these equations into the Clapeyron equation  Ph fg   dP     2  dT  sat  RT sat h fg  dT   dP  or     2  P sat R  T sat For small temperature intervals.The Clapeyron equation can be simplified for liquid–vapor and solid–vapor phase changes by utilizing some approximations. Integrating between two saturation states h fg  1 1   P2  ln       P1  sat R  T1 T2  sat The Clapeyron–Clausius equation can be used to determine the variation of saturation pressure with temperature. It can also be used in the solid–vapor region by replacing hfg by hig (the enthalpy of sublimation) of the substance.

Compare your results to the tabulated hfg value.Determine the hfg of refrigerant-134a at 10oC on the basis of (a) the Clapeyron equation and (b) the Clapeyron-Clausius equation. 12 .

Estimate the saturation pressure Psat of methyl chloride at 33oC and 43oC. At 38oC. 13 .05390 m3/kg.A table of properties for methyl chloride lists the saturation pressure as 805 kPa at 38oC. this table also lists hfg = 360 kJ/kg and vfg = 0.

uitm. 0192368303/0355436333 norasmah@salam.edu. UiTM SHAH ALAM.my 14 .PREPARED BY: NORASMAH MOHAMMED MANSHOR FACULTY OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING.