Slide 9.


Chapter 9
Product policy 1:
Physical, service and symbolic attributes
Usunier & Lee, Marketing Across Cultures, 4E

© Pearson Education Limited, 2005

Slide 9. 2005 . 4E © Pearson Education Limited. Marketing Across Cultures. firms which customize perform better (Samiee & Roth.2 Product policy: adapt or standardize Levitt’s (1983) thesis on the globalization of markets  Standardize as much as feasible   a lot can be done Customize when needed around a standard core product  Coca Cola or McDonald's  In global industries (more standardization opportunities). firms which standardize show superior performance  Within an industry (similar world markets & opportunities). 1992)  A down-to-earth approach based on product attributes Usunier & Lee.

2005 . 4E © Pearson Education Limited. Marketing Across Cultures.3 Standardization: Product element  78% product quality  48% design & features  72% brand name  45% pre-sales service  71% image   67% performance 43% after sales service & warrantees  54% size & colour  42% delivery & install  52% packaging & style Usunier & Lee.Slide 9.

etc. spices. cover odours.  Number of persons.  Feminine/Masculine. … A Perfume :  Physical base: scents based on flowers. fruits. gas mileage.4 Levels of product attributes A car :  Steel+plastics+length+weight. animals scents  Deodorize. economy. etc. woods. 4E Symbolic Attributes Service Service Attributes Attributes Physical Physical Attribute Attributes © Pearson Education Limited. level of comfort  Luxury. 2005 . Marketing Across Cultures. sporty. Old/young. dynamism. etc.Slide 9. Usunier & Lee.

colour.Slide 9.5 Product attributes  Physical attributes (size. weight. origin)  Ambiguous: consumers have confused attitudes    A liking for domestic goods based on nationalism A penchant and even fascination for foreign cultures and goods National identity symbols intermingle with symbols of exoticism Usunier & Lee. Marketing Across Cultures. brand. 4E © Pearson Education Limited. 2005 .)   Service attributes are difficult to standardize:     The greatest potential for economies of scale Delivery differs widely Performed in direct relation to local customers More dependent on culture Symbolic attributes (interpretive attributes. etc.

4E © Pearson Education Limited.6 Table 9. 2005 .1 Factors influencing adaptation or standardization of product attributes Usunier & Lee.Slide 9. Marketing Across Cultures.

hygiene regulations. ETSI and ISO New production methods allow for a better compromise between customized products and large-scale manufacturing operations    different products based on common parts lagged differentiation international product design Usunier & Lee. basic differences in consumer taste CEN.7 Physical attributes  Compulsory adaptations   The trend towards international standardization   climate.Slide 9. Marketing Across Cultures. technical standards. 2005 . 4E © Pearson Education Limited. CENELEC. usual sizes and packaging.

4E  Environmental factors  Technical expertise  Labour costs  Literacy  Climate  Remoteness  Performance © Pearson Education Limited. 2005 .Slide 9.8 Service Attributes  Elements  Repair & maintenance  Installation  Instructions  Waiting time  Guarantees  Spare parts availability  Return of goods Usunier & Lee. Marketing Across Cultures.

and post-process Usunier & Lee.Slide 9.9 Service attributes  Difficult to standardize  Differences in delivery  Limited potential for pure economies of scale  Some potential for economies related to learning   international transfer of knowledge is a key issue Delivery processes vary cross-culturally    Level of performance Style of personnel in contact and attitudes in customer interactions Culture and waiting time: pre-. in. 4E © Pearson Education Limited. 2005 . Marketing Across Cultures.

.000 times..  How many unsafe plane landings per month?  How many babies dropped at birth per year?  How many cheques taken from the wrong accounts every hour?  How many parts missing from every new car?  How many times your heart fails to beat each year? 32. 2005 . 4E © Pearson Education Limited..Slide 9.10 What does 99% quality mean?  How many hours of safe drinking water per month? 7 of 720 hours.. Marketing Across Cultures. Usunier & Lee.

4E Functional Quality How it is done © Pearson Education Limited.Slide 9. 2005 .11 Gronroos’s Service Quality Model Expected service Service Quality Perceived service Image Technical Quality What is done Usunier & Lee. Marketing Across Cultures.

that they care about the customers' problems. 2005 . keeping commitments. Marketing Across Cultures. Assurance Service employees use knowledge and courtesy to convey sense of trust and confidence. personnel. and sales literature. treat customers with respect. Adapted from Zeithaml.12 Dimensions of Service Quality Tangibles Physical appearance of business. 4E © Pearson Education Limited.Slide 9. Reliability Performing the promised service dependably and accurately over time. Parasuraman. Delivering Quality Service: Balancing Customer Perceptions and Expectations. Responsiveness The willingness to help customers and provide needed services promptly. and Berry (1990). Resolving problems quickly and answering questions intelligently and honestly. Empathy Service employees convey to customers that the customers are important. Usunier & Lee.

Marketing Across Cultures.13 Cultural dimensions and automated service High Being Affectivity Strong preference for personnel in contact Neutrality High Doing Like the machine but would like personnel also Do not like the Strongest preference machine but do not for purely automated like people either service Usunier & Lee. 2005 .Slide 9. 4E © Pearson Education Limited.

4E © Pearson Education Limited.14 Categories of symbolic attributes  Symbolic associations related to physical attributes   Meanings related to the brand name   product/corporate Connotative meaning of product-design and aesthetics   colour of a product. Marketing Across Cultures.Slide 9. its shape... 2005 .. and they take origins into account    manufacturing origin (made-in) country of design country suggested by the brand name Usunier & Lee. Functional? Easy-to-use? Modern? Luxurious? Consumer perceptions of product origin    if they are searching for this information. it is available.

. Lemon scent suggests freshness in the USA  Death in Turkey Blue is the most masculine in USA A candy wrapped in blue or green is probably a mint in the USA  Red suggests good fortune in China   in many Asian countries it is white Brazil it is purple Mexico yellow Ivory Coast dark red  7 is unlucky in Ghana. An owl is bad luck in India. Kenya and Singapore.. numbers. even smells have meanings  Black is not universal for mourning         Red is in the United Kingdom or France  Yellow is more feminine in many other parts of the world   it is associated with illness in the Philippines 4 in Japan is like our 13 West Pink is the most feminine in USA  In Africa it would be wrapped in red. p. 2005 .15 Symbolism: In every culture. 63 Usunier & Lee.  In Japan a fox is associated with witches.Slide 9. Marketing Across Cultures. our colour for cinnamon. 4E © Pearson Education Limited. things. 1986. Source: Copeland and Griggs. like our black cat.

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