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GROUP 04

CONTENTS
1. Overview
2. Stages of building design process
3. Site selection
4. Site analysis
5. Building regulations
6. Bubble diagrams
7. Needs analysis
8. Building plans
9. Structural designs
10. A sample case study
11. Case study analysis
12. Building design : past , present and future
13.Summary

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Building design is not a simple plan or a drawing It consists of broadly based Architectural Engineering Technical applications All building projects require the service of a building designer .

resources and energy as well • Building design influence how efficiently organization of people work • The durability of the construction is also depends of the design process . To complete the construction with in the budget proper design is very important • Inferior design can waste time.• Budget is a very important factor for a construction.

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Client Architects Building engineers Draftsperson Building surveyor .

Client gives the brief idea of the building and his satisfactions for the budget Architect is a person trained in planning designing and supervising of the construction of a building Building engineers typically include electrical mechanical and structural engineers A drafts person or documenter is one who has attained a certificate or diploma in drafting Building surveyor trained much like architectural technologies .

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which show the general arrangement of rooms and of the site. known as schematic design. The owner approves these sketches before proceeding to the next phase. Some architects also prepare models to help visualize the project.The architect prepares a series of rough sketches.  14 .

Outline specifications are prepared listing the major materials and room finishes.  Floor plans show all the rooms in correct size and shape.The architect prepares more detailed drawings to illustrate other aspects of the proposed design. 15 .

16 . the architect prepares detailed drawings and specifications. which the contractor will use to establish actual construction cost and build the project.  The drawings and specifications become part of the building contract.Once the owner has approved the design.

The architect can help you prepare bidding documents as well as invitations to bid and instructions to bidders.The owner selects and hires the contractor. 17 . The architect may be willing to make some recommendations. In many cases. owners choose from among several contractors they've asked to submit bids on the job.

and generally keep the owner informed of the project's progress. 18 . schedules and procedures. The architect can make site visits to observe construction. The contractor is solely responsible for construction methods. While the contractor will physically build the home or the addition. review and approve the contractor's application for payment. the architect can assist the owner in making sure that the project is built according to the plans and specifications. techniques.

 The architect can help bring your project to a close by ensuring that it is complete and ready for use. or for later alterations and modifications. You now have a working relationship with your architect. You may wish to retain the same firm to assist with start-up. and no one knows your building better. 19 . to review operations at a later date. for tenant related services. and that the contractor is entitled to final payment.

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1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) determining that a potential action requires a site selection appointing a selecting official (or site board) chartering a team (staff) to support the selecting official identifying site requirements developing recommendations for the selecting official selecting the site 21 .

• Ecological factors • Biological and operational factors • Economic and social factors 22 .

water supply water quality climate hydrological characteristics soil characteristics land 23 .

species to be cultured resources and availability of stocking materials type of project (i) small-scale rural project (ii) large-scale rural project system of culture adopted (i) extensive (ii) semi-intensive (iii) intensive 24 .

 operational method (i) monoculture (ii) polyculture (iii) integrated  production target  estimated size of area required 25 .

availability of land and land values.development plans for the project area  ownership. as well as unit power cost  availability of construction materials  availability of supplementary feeds  availability of suitable transport facilities  political realities  26 . as well as any legal restrictions relating to land  availability of electricity. land regulations and rights. telephone or radio connections.

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A well-executed site analysis forms the essential foundation for a cost-effective. › impacts on the community and adjacent properties › project budget. . Evaluation of an existing or potential site in relation to › the development program › environmental impact. and schedule. environmentally sensitive. and rational approach to project development.

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water. NATURAL PHYSICAL FEATURES › Soil type. on the site or any within 40 meters from the site. rocks. Bearing capacity.. valleys › Drainage pattern. curb cuts. electricity. capacity and location of utilities  Ex: Gas.  MANMADE FEATURES › Buildings. creek. paving patterns . and possibility of floods › Location of any watercourses. sewer. stream etc. walls . › Any areas of land degradation.power poles  UTILITIES › Type. ponds and pools. trees. wetlands. telephone .

 LOCATION › State maps and city maps showing the location of the site including travel times  NEIGHBOURHOOD CONTEXT › Presents immediate surroundings for 3-4 blocks beyond the site boundary › Existing projected uses. legal description of the property . any zoning etc. present owner and present government jurisdiction also have to taken in to account . that have an impact on the project Covenants and restrictions. buildings .

 Site analysis Report contains Property maps Geotechnical maps and findings Site analysis recommendations Clear statement of the impact of the findings Recommendations on the proposed building program Photographs of surrounding areas and any significant features of the site are included in the statements › › › › › .

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 .  These are imposed to ensure safety of the public and the users.Regulations are embodied within the laws of a country.  But buildings can be designed under a person’s own requirements  Because regulations are not about the restrictions. but about the limitations.

ramps and guarding Provided with safety glass where appropriate Safe from dangerous electrical wiring Energy efficient .         Structurally stable Safe in the event of a fire Weather resistant Constructed with adequate sound insulation Provided with healthy ventilation Constructed with safe stairways.

extension or alteration of a building  Change of buildings use  Internal structural alterations  Loft & garage conversions  Forming a structural opening IE .New window or through room  Installing cavity wall insulation  Underpinning a house  Installing a WC  .Building a new home  Erection.

.  That means regulations in Colombo are not same as those in another area.  These regulations change from area to area. Building Regulations can be categorized into two as follows :  Planning regulations  Building regulations.

5 6.0  Maximum length (m) 50. Streets should be in accordance with the regulations. Minimum width (m) 3.0 100.0 4.0 9.0 --------- Maximum No: of lots 4 8 20 ---- sizes of streets to residentials Max Dwelling units per lot 2 2 4 ----- Shape of the edges of the building should be taken in to consideration .Planning regulations   Activity should with in the UDA declared areas.

 Building regulations  Yard or space in and around the building accordance with the approved way.2m  area of a habitable room – 8 square meters  Light and ventilation. › Kitchen  area .  For further details refer “The Gazette of the Democratic Socialist Republic Of Sri Lanka” .5m^2  min width .  Sizes of areas inside the building should comply with regulations.

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 This is a planning tool that allows groups or particularly important items to be represented simply and quickly when starting basic space planning. .

BED ROOM KITCHEN DINING ROOM BATHROO M LIVING ROOM BED ROOM .

Bubble diagrams can be drawn to allocate both ‘indoor’ and ‘outdoor’ spaces. (Eg : Living room . bed rooms . . It is drawn to separate the space into our decided categories. bathrooms etc ) Bubble diagrams show the relationship between the spaces.Bubble diagrams are important in the design stage of a building.

but it helps clarify which rooms need to be next to which other rooms . Heavier lines indicate strong relationships. It doesn’t necessarily translate directly to a floor plan.Bubbles indicate the spaces.

ponds etc) Indicate all entrances with bubbles.  Connect the bubbles showing the relationship.   Size of the bubbles must be roughly in a proportionate scale to the actual space . Mark with bubbles the spaces required. (Eg : play area .

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 It is done based on some factors › Size of the land › How close to be to the street › Size of the front yard  Manage the space of the front yard and back yard accordingly.  place the house with a bubble in the plan .

Mark the main entrance with a bubble.  Draw bubbles for living room .  . bed rooms .  Mark other entrances with smaller bubbles.  Join them with the arrows if needed. kitchen etc.

 Bubble diagrams can be drawn for two storied houses also. .

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51 . The important thing is to get to know the needs and understand the people who are going to use it and design the building according to their requirements and wishes .

A quiet reading area A bedroom facing morning sun A play room near kitchen A bedroom with an easy accessible washroom Sleeping room on main floor Washroom with grab bar in bath 52 . For whom this house is designed for. Family members Friends Frequent visitors  What do the need.

Factors which should be considered:  Use (For what)  Who (People who will use it)  Approximate space (Rough Dimension)  Light (amount of light required) 53 .

 Sound ( For TV lobby . bedroom )  Proximity ( which other spaces should be nearby .)  Features (Special arrangements . family washroom to be near the bedrooms etc. high or low ceilinged areas ) 54 . open area .

 Fire simulation  Security  Watersupply 55 .

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 When we design the plan . First of all we have to get the approval for the plan from the municipal council. . it is important to consider client’s ideas .  After draw a rough plan. we can get the plan drawn by a qualified architect. considering above facts . needs and also the natural location of the land.

 The technical officer at the municipal council inspects the house plan and he/she will give the approval if it is suitable.  If the client is satisfied . the form given by the municipal council should be filled and the plan can be drawn.Also there should be a cost estimation report. plan of the house .  Thereafter some related documents are required to be presented to the municipal council.( A copy of the above form .  . etc ).

.(Eg : how to firming up the walls of the house). We can use the buble diagrams for the next designing steps.

we can develop house exteriors and designs.Using indoor bubble diagrams.  For a bubble diagram. site map and needs analysis. So you can choose a better plan for your house as you wish.  . you may have different plan sketches.

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Mainly deals with loads on the structure.It is very important in a building . We have to consider the aesthetic view also not only for the support. Structural design is to support these loads. 62 .

Basic requirements Strength Load and resistance Allowable strength Empirical design Other requirements Load effects Equilibrium Stability Aesthetic view 63 .

Two types of loads •Dead load •Live load •Seismic load Dead load Dead loads are forces which are not moving. Roof Floors Built in furniture 64 .

Live loads live loads are loads which can move People Furniture – eg: Chairs 65 .

Number of columns Distance between two columns Length and width (strength) of column Lengths of the beams Strength of the beams 66 .

Beams design 67 .

Column design 68 .

detailing and preparation of schedule. 69 .Stages in structural design Structural planning Analysis of forces and loads Methods of analysis Member design Drawing.

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7.00   Requirements: › The client requested a house plan for a family of 3 people.000. 71 . So there has to be 3 bed rooms. a pantry and a dining room.Net dimension of the site: 10 perch  Net dimensions of the house: 1500 square feet  Net estimated cost: Rs. a kitchen. two toilets (with a guest toilet included). a veranda.000.

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it was determined that the soil type was hard laterite.  Thus a rubble foundation with a plinth beam is recommended for the single storied house.Land location – Mt. Ja Ela Based on the soil analysis of the land. Waligampitiya.  73 . Calvary Road.

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 This is a commercial building › Located in Galle Road.Rawathawatte.59 perches and total floor area is 53582 sq Ft  Distances to nearest train station and bus stop are 1km and 25m respectively  79 .Moratuwa It is a 5 storied buildings and each floor has above 5units  Area of land is 91.

Private hospital  Channeling centre  Educational buildings  Private school/Technical colleges  Place for private tuition class  IT school  Super market in part of ground or first floor and balance for shopping and roof terrace for a restaurant cultural centre  80 .

Site conditions Original site conditions Surrounding Climate Soil type Wind Availability of water 81 .

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 Basics
Influenced on geographical features
and weather
Materials are mainly chosen on ease
of access

• Basic in shape
• Huge spaces
and ventilation
systems to
tackle heat
• Clay and rubble
were main
materials

Design is based
on geography
Symmetry and
elevation have
often been
utilized in the
architectural
expression of
religious devotion
or political power.

Protection was one of the main aspect of designing of such places Protective barriers and broad palace walls are intentionally kept there for extra protection .

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although there are occasionally specialist projects where it may be more appropriate for the design team to be led by another consultant.  The design will tend to be led by the architect. other than on very straight-forward projects. as buildings became more complex. building design has proved too complex for any one individual to undertake alone.Whilst historically. and increasingly. for example the services engineer on a highly-serviced building.  . so specialist designers emerged. buildings tended to follow set patterns that could be repeated without a great deal of consideration or instruction.

The tallest building in the world. Height in comparison to other sky scrapers .

Iraq .The design of Burj Khalifa is derived from patterning systems embodied in Islamic architecture The spiral minaret at the Great Mosque of Samarra.

A self sustaining house Designers take all possible measurements to make least impact on nature .

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This is a tall glass pyramid 180 metres tall. It will use natural lighting and aims to generate four times less carbon dioxide usage that that of buildings with an equivalent size .

Every possible action will be taken to reduce the negative effects on nature Solar power would be the main energy source Waste would be re-cycled as possible .

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101 .  A building’s design is the primary factor that determines its ongoing resource use. engineering and technical applications to achieve a targeted goal of a constructional process. Building design process is a combination of architectural.  All the main stages of building design process should be completed properly for a successful constructional project.

preparing costruction documents.  Ecological. temprature. preparing rough sketches. biological.  . hiring contractors. contruction administration are very importatnt stages of completing a building design process. sun path and soil type which will be very important during the design process. design development.Deciding what to build.  Site analysis grasp the features of the site such as location. echonomic and social factors should be considered when selecting a land for the construction.

 Building plan and the structural design are important because buildings tie up a lot of resource mass for several decades.Building regulations should be followed to make sure the safety of people. It influence how efficiently organizations of people work.  Buildings must last longer than most products.  .

Colosseum in ancient Rome are examples for them. Pyramids in Egypt. Poland) Olympic Stadium (Montreal. Canada) . The Crooked House (Sopot. Edinburgh Castle in Scotland.• There was great history of building design in the world. • There are amazing costructions in the modern world.

Lotus Temple (Delhi. India) National Theatre (Beijing. China) .

.Future building designs may consist of new concepts. modern technologies and new building materials.

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THANK YOU… 110 .

A.A.G. 5. 13.N. GUNATHILAKA P.J. 6.M. 10.L.ISURU T. 12. 11.D.V.JARATHNE D.S.A. HEWAWASAM K. 2.S. HASALANKA H. 1. 8. IRAJ E. INDRACHAPA K. 3. HERATH H.H. 9.P 111 .U. 4.JAYANTH W.G.A.H.I.A.JANURSH Y.M.D.GROUP MEMBERS. HENDAWITHARANA S. HIRISHANTH N. 7. GOMES P.