# -Electrical Safety

In this presentation……
Section I
 Electrical hazards
 Electrical accidents – Statistics
 Humans & Electricity
 Electrical Safety Program elements
Section II
 Global Developments in Electrical Safety

(India) •42 % of total fires occur due to electrical sources (Source -OISD) • 8% deaths that occur in Indian factories are due to electricity .Electrical Accidents-Statistics • • 25% of all fires occur due to electricity (NFPA) • 411 deaths from job related electrical accidents per year (NIOSH) • Electrocution .the fifth leading cause of death (1982 .1990) NIOSH •About 12 deaths due to electrocution NCRB.

ELECTRICAL ACCIDENTS.10 year Period. Chemical Industry .

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Electrical Near-Misses & Accidents.Major Causes Working on live equipment w/o authorization or PPE Wiring mistakes coupled with failure of safe-energy conditions Leaving unsafe conditions .

Electricity and People A person usually offers a lesser resistance for the electricity The person forms a completed circuit when touching the ground Electricity always tries to travel to ground .

) – STATIC DISCHARGES – LIGHTNING – USING ORDINARY ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT IN HAZARDOUS AREAS .ELECTRICAL FIRES ….  ELECTRICAL FAULTS (Contd.

maintain a Earth Pit lay out .differentiation?  Carry out ER tests annually as per NFPA 70  Take action on high ER values  Identify all earth pits.Earthing  Most electrical equipments are designed with an earthing system  Earth all equipment with metallic body (TVs?)  Double & Single earthing.

100. not people  Use the right sensitivity ELCBs (30.Earth Leakage Circuit Breakers  ELCBs reduce the likelihood of fatal shocks  Detect small amount of leakage current and automatically switch off the power  Can be used with extension cords and portable tools  Fuses and circuit breakers protect equipment. 300 mA) .

Static Electricity  Created when materials rub together  Can cause shocks or even minor skin burns  Can damage sensitive electronic equipment  Reduced or prevented by: – Proper grounding – Anti-Static rubber matting – Bonding & earthing of equipment. pipelines .

Electrical Fire Protection Use Linear Heat Sensing cables in cable cellars along with smoke detectors Consider all major electrical fires in EMP Install master control switches outside all stores Maintain PFEs for electrical rooms Consider local flooding systems for critical panels/ switchgear panels .

 Post Accident Correction: – Working on live circuits not permitted – LOTO to be strictly enforced .Case Study  An electrician received a shock while trying to replace a tube light ballast in live power condition. He was not wearing rubber gloves. Current entered his right hand through his little finger and exited through his left hand.  He touched a live conductor.

Equipment Operators Never tamper with electrical interlocks Do not repair electrical components of your machine Properly shut off machinery before operation Obey warning signs and follow safe procedures Follow PTW procedures strictly .

Electrical Preventive Maintenance  Identification of critical Electrical Equipment  Emergency lighting  Fire Alarm System  Protection Supply DC System  UPS System. Battery Banks  Electrical Maintenance Procedures to be aligned with NFPA 70 B .

Planning for EPM Personal Safety Equipment Failure Production Economics .

LP system.Electrical Preventive Maintenance  Implement EPM without slippage  Carry out all tests (ER. Thermography) . FA system for electrical rooms. etc. IR.)  Adopt NFPA 70 E / B for electrical maintenance  Adopt Risk Based maintenance  Use predictive maintenance tools (hotspot detector. DGA.simulation. Ultrasonic detectors. transformer protective devices. transformer oil.

‘All electrical accidents are preceded by rise in temperature & sound’ .

ELECTRICAL SAFETY AUDIT A systematic approach to critically analyze the existing Electrical Procedures and Practices from safety point of view .

Global Developments in Electrical Safety .

Use of RCCBs mandatory in residential buildings) •Many industries are re-aligning their Electrical practices based on international standards (NFPA.Present Status . finer details are yet to be understood by many •More ES workshops / seminars are conducted in India •Statutory regulations are enforced strictly (Karnataka.ES-India •ES Awareness is slowly growing •Use of RCCBs in the rise. etc. Delhi .) . IEEE.

Evolvement of ES Standards / organizationsUnited States •NFPA . NEMA. Chicago (1990) •NESF(1994). CPSC . NFPA. from IEEE •NIOSH (Research example: development of voltage detector that will signal the person if he gets close to live power)-1970 • OSHA (1970) •NFPA 70 E & B (1979) -approved by OSHA •Electrical Trauma Centre.NEC (1897) •NESC (1913). by UL.

ES Products. ...

ES Auditing Techniques • Electrical Risk Assessment using SemiQuantitative Risk Ranking (SQRR) technique •Emergency Lighting Risk Assessment • Benchmarking against applicable standards: •NFPA 780 Lightning Protection •NFPA 70 M Electrical Preventive Maintenance •NFPA 70 E Personal Safety from Electrical Safety .

long term implementation . Low Risk . Risks that could result in immediate threat to life & property.Mainly improvement measures. F&E hazards. probability High Risk.Maintenance flaws. Immediate correction Medium Risk . Shock hazards.Electrical Risk Assessment (SQRR Technique) Risk Ranking based on severity.Operational issuescorrection at the next available opportunity.Statutory Non-compliance.

RCCB Tripping How do we solve this problem in India ? Bypass it !!! .

furse. 2004 . 1956 (2000 rev.in)  Lightning Protection Risk Assessment:www.ES related Information  Indian Electricity Rule.): (MoP.nic.http://powermin.safteng.org  Free safety Power Point presentations: http://siri.org/  Electrical Accidents: http://www.nesf.com  National Electrical Safety Foundation: www.net:  IEEE IAS ES WS –Delhi Dec. CEA web site.

Lightning Protection  API RP 2003.Static Electricity  OSHA CFR 1926-Personnel Electrical Safety .Standards & Codes  NFPA 70 E & B.NEC  IEEE 1584.Static Electricity  API RP 500.Arc Flash  NFPA 70.Arc Flash Protection  NFPA 77.E-Safety & Maintenance  NFPA 780.HAC  OSHA 29 CFR.part 1910.

lightning in flammable atmospheres .Summary  Electricity will try to reach ground even if it means going through a person  Earthing has an important role in ES  Always inspect power tools and cords and do not use them if damaged  Do not attempt to repair electrical equipment unless trained and qualified  Understand effects of Lightning.it could save your life!  Major fires. explosions occurred due to ESD .