Cisco IOS File System and


Managing Cisco IOS Images


Verifying Memory Image Filenames wg_ro_a#show flash System flash directory: File Length Name/status 1 10084696 c2500-js-l_120-3.bin [10084760 bytes used. 6692456 available. 16777216 total] 16384K bytes of processor board System flash (Read ONLY) 4 .

Creating a Software Image Backup 5 .

Upgrading the Image from the Network 6 .

LAB Install TFTP server on a virtual machine Connect the machine to a Router To see the content of Flash file #show Flash To copy flash #Copy flash tftp supply IP address of TFTP Server and file name To copy running-configuration #copy running-config tftp supply IP address of TFTP Server and file name 7 .

Resolving Host Names To use a hostname rather than an IP address to connect to a remote device  Two ways to resolve hostnames to IP addresses – building a host table on each router – building a Domain Name System (DNS) server  8 .

0.0. try ping hostnames at a router prompt. 9 .Resolving Host Names  Building a host table  ip host host_name ip_address R1(config)#ip host com1 10.0.1 R1(config)#ip host com2 10.0.2  To view table R1#show hosts  To verify that the host table resolves names.

Password Recovery Normal Boot Sequence POST Bootstrap IOS Startup Running This setup is decided by configuration register value 10 .

and 1 are on.Configuration Register Decimal Bit Default 8 4 2 1 8 4 2 1 8 4 2 1 8 4 2 1 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 2102 This means that bits 13. To ignore NVRAM the 6th bit should be made ON When the 6th bit is turned on the value will be 2142 11 . 8.

Password Recovery Show version will give configuration register value Password is stored in NVRAM To by pass NVRAM during boot sequence we need to change the configuration register value To change the CR values press Ctr+Break and go to ROM monitor mode 12 .

Password Recovery Router 2500  o/r 0x2142 i Router 2600  confreg 0x2142 >reset 13 .

14 .

WAN vs LAN Distance between WAN and LAN WAN speed is less WAN is leased from Service provider 15 .

16 .  A network administrator designing a remote network must weight issues concerning users needs such as bandwidth and cost of the variable available technologies.Remote Access Overview  A WAN is a data communications network covering a relatively broad geographical area.

WAN Overview Service Provider  WANs connect sites  Connection requirements vary depending on user requirements and cost 17 .

A copper or fiber cable connects the CPE to the service provider’s nearest exchange or central office (CO). A central office (CO) is sometimes referred to as a point of presence (POP) This cabling is often called the local loop.WAN technology/terminology     Devices on the subscriber premises are called customer premises equipment (CPE). The subscriber owns the CPE or leases the CPE from the service provider. operated and managed by the customer. CPE (Customer Premises Equipment) are equipments located at the customer’s site. or "last-mile". 18 . they are owned.

and local loop begins. The local loop is the cabling from demarcation point to Central Office (CO). 19 .WAN technology/terminology A demarcation point is where customer premises equipment (CPE) ends.

such as V.  The customer devices that pass the data to the DCE are called data terminal equipment (DTE).  The DCE primarily provides an interface for the DTE into the communication link on the WAN cloud. 20 . The DTE/DCE interface uses various physical layer protocols.WAN technology/terminology  Devices that put data on the local loop are called data communications equipment (DCE). These protocols establish the codes and electrical parameters the devices use to communicate with each other.35.

or demodulated 21 . At the receiving end the analog signals are returned to their digital form.WAN Devices Modems transmit data over voice-grade telephone lines by modulating and demodulating the signal. The modulated signal can be heard as a series of whistles by turning on the internal modem speaker. The digital signals are superimposed on an analog voice signal that is modulated for transmission.

high-level data link control (HDLC) 22 .  A variety of different technologies are used.  These protocols use the same basic framing mechanism. and the mechanisms for transferring the resulting frames. such as ISDN.Data Link Encapsulation  The data link layer protocols define how data is encapsulated for transmission to remote sites. Frame Relay or Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM).WANs .

E1. video and data) 23 . E3 • DSL • SONET Circuit Switched • POTS • ISDN Switched Analog • Dial-up modems • Cable modems • Wireless  Packet Switched  • X.25 • Frame Relay •ATM Covers a relative broad area Use transmission facilities leased from service provider  Carries different traffic (voice. T3.WAN Technologies Overview Dedicated • T1.

048 Mbps – T3 = 44. and E series in Europe Uses time division multiplexing and assign time slots for transmissions – T1 = 1.Dedicated Digital Services Dedicated Digital Services provide full-time connectivity through a point-to-point link T series in U.544 Mbps E1 = 2.368 Mbps 24 .736 Mbps E3 = 34.S.

 All forms of DSL service are categorized as ADSL or SDSL and there are several varieties of each type.  Asymmetric service provides higher download or downstream bandwidth to the user than upload bandwidth.  Symmetric service provides the same capacity in both directions.  The two basic types of DSL technologies are asymmetric (ADSL) and symmetric (SDSL).Digital Subscriber Lines  Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) technology is a broadband technology that uses existing twisted-pair telephone lines to transport highbandwidth data to service subscribers. 25 .

there is a digital-to-analogue conversion at the client side. • With the download path.Analog Services • Dial-up Modems (switched analog) • Standard that can provides 56 kbps download speed and 33. 26 . • With the upload path.6 kbps upload speed. there is a analogue-to-digital conversion at the client side.

Cable Modems (Shared Analog)  Cable TV provides residential premises with a coaxial cable that has a bandwidth of 750MHz  The bandwidth is divided into 6 MHz band using FDM for each TV channel  A "Cable Modem" is a device that allows high-speed data access (Internet) via cable TV network.  A cable modem will typically have two connections because a splitter delivers the TV bands to TV set and the internet access bands to PC via a cable box  The splitter delivers the TV bands to TV set and the internet access bands to PC via a cable box 27 .

Wireless  Terrestrial Bandwidths typically in the 11 Mbps range Cost is relatively low Line-of-sight is usually required Usage is moderate  Satellite Can serve mobile users and remote users Usage is widespread Cost is very high 28 .

Circuit Switched Services  Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN)  Historically important--first dial-up digital service  Max. bandwidth = 128 kbps for BRI (Basic Rate Interface)  2 B channels @ 64kps and 1 D channel @ 16kps  B channels are voice/data channels. D for signaling B D B 29 .

Integrated Services Digital Network 30 .

32 .WAN Connection Types  Leased lines It is a pre-established WAN communications path from the CPE. No data can transfer before the end-to-end connection is established.  Circuit switching Sets up line like a phone call. allowing DTE networks to communicate at any time with no setup procedures before transmitting data. through the DCE switch. to the CPE of the remote site.

However. if you have constant data transfers. packet switching can save you a lot of money. Frame Relay and X.WAN Connection Types • Packet switching WAN switching method that allows you to share bandwidth with other companies to save money. then you will need to get a leased line. 33 . As long as you are not constantly transmitting data and are instead using bursty data transfers.25 are packet switching technologies.

 The choice of the encapsulation protocol depends on the underlying WAN technology and the communicating equipment.Defining WAN Encapsulation Protocols  Each WAN connection uses an encapsulation protocol to encapsulate traffic while it crossing the WAN link. 34 .

Defining WAN Encapsulation Protocols  Typical WAN encapsulation types include the following: Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) Serial Line Internet Protocol (SLIP) High-Level Data Link Control Protocol (HDLC) X.25 / Link Access Procedure Balanced (LAPB) Frame Relay Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) 35 .

 Bandwidth Determining usage over the WAN is important to evaluate the most cost-effective WAN service.Determining the WAN Type to Use  Availability Each type of service may be available in certain geographical areas. 36 .  Cost Making a compromise between the traffic you need to transfer and the type of service with the available cost that will suit you.

Max. WAN Speeds for WAN Connections WAN Type Maximum Speed Asynchronous Dial-Up 56-64 Kbps X. ISDN – BRI 128 Kbps ISDN – PRI E1 / T1 Leased Line / Frame Relay E3/T3 37 .25.

ATM Packet-switched Service Provider PPP. SLIP X. SLIP.Typical WAN Encapsulation Protocols: Layer 2 Leased Line HDLC.25. Frame Relay. HDLC Circuit-switched Telephone Company 38 . PPP.

25 and ATM • HDLC – Proprietary – cisco device default • PPP . PPP Multipoint .HDLC.Frame Relay. X.Open 39 .WAN Protocols LAN E0 S0 S0 Network Datalink WAN • • Physical Point to Point .

HDLC Command Router(config-if)#encapsulation hdlc • Enable hdlc encapsulation • HDLC is the default encapsulation on synchronous serial interfaces 41 .

An Overview of PPP PPP Encapsulation Link setup and control using LCP in PPP PPP is open standard HDLC is only for encapsulation PPP provides encapsulation and authentication PPP is made up of LCP and NCP LCP is for link control and NCP for multiple protocol support and call back 42 .

PPP LCP Configuration Options Feature Authentication How It Operates Protocol Require a password PAP Perform Challenge Handshake CHAP Compression Compress data at source. reproduce data at destination Error Detection Monitor data dropped on link Multilink Load balancing across multiple links Avoid frame looping Multilink Protocol (MP) 43 .

PPP Authentication Overview Dialup or Circuit-Switched Network PPP Session Establishment 1 2 3 Link Establishment Phase Optional Authentication Phase Network-Layer Protocol Phase Two PPP authentication protocols: PAP and CHAP 44 .

Selecting a PPP Authentication Protocol Remote Router (SantaCruz) PAP 2-Way Handshake Central-Site Router (HQ) “santacruz. boardwalk” Accept/Reject Hostname: santacruz Password: boardwalk username santacruz password boardwalk • Passwords sent in clear text 45 .

) Remote Router (SantaCruz) CHAP 3-Way Handshake Central-Site Router (HQ) Challenge Response Hostname: santacruz Password: boardwalk Accept/Reject username santacruz password boardwalk •Use “secret” known only to authenticator and peer 46 .Selecting a PPP Authentication Protocol (cont.

) Enabling PPP Enabling PPP Enabling PPP Authentication Enabling PPP Authentication  ppp encapsulation  hostname  username / password  ppp authentication  ppp encapsulation  hostname  username / password  ppp authentication 47 .) (The router that received the call.Configuring PPP and Authentication Overview Verify who you are. Service Provider Authenticating Router Router to Be Authenticated (The router that initiated the call.

Configuring PPP Router(config-if)#encapsulation ppp • Enable PPP encapsulation 48 .

Configuring PPP Authentication Router(config)#hostname name • Assigns a host name to your router Router(config)#username name password password • Identifies the username and password of authenticating router 49 .

Configuring PPP Authentication

Router(config-if)#ppp authentication
{chap | chap pap | pap chap | pap}

• Enables PAP and/or CHAP authentication


Configuring CHAP Example


hostname R1
username R2 password cisco
int serial 0
ip address
encapsulation ppp
ppp authentication CHAP


hostname R2
username R1 password cisco
int serial 0
ip address
encapsulation ppp
ppp authentication CHAP


Verifying HDLC and PPP
Encapsulation Configuration
Router#show interface s0
Serial0 is up, line protocol is up
Hardware is HD64570
Internet address is
MTU 1500 bytes, BW 1544 Kbit, DLY 20000 usec, rely 255/255, load 1/255
Encapsulation PPP, loopback not set, keepalive set (10 sec)
LCP Open
Last input 00:00:05, output 00:00:05, output hang never
Last clearing of "show interface" counters never
Queueing strategy: fifo
Output queue 0/40, 0 drops; input queue 0/75, 0 drops
5 minute input rate 0 bits/sec, 0 packets/sec
5 minute output rate 0 bits/sec, 0 packets/sec
38021 packets input, 5656110 bytes, 0 no buffer
Received 23488 broadcasts, 0 runts, 0 giants, 0 throttles
0 input errors, 0 CRC, 0 frame, 0 overrun, 0 ignored, 0 abort
38097 packets output, 2135697 bytes, 0 underruns
0 output errors, 0 collisions, 6045 interface resets
0 output buffer failures, 0 output buffers swapped out
482 carrier transitions
DCD=up DSR=up DTR=up RTS=up CTS=up

changed state to up Se0 PPP: Treating connection as a dedicated line Se0 PPP: Phase is AUTHENTICATING.Verifying PPP Authentication with the debug ppp authentication Command R1 •4d20h: •4d20h: •4d20h: •4d20h: •4d20h: •4d20h: •4d20h: •4d20h: •4d20h: •4d20h: changed Service Provider R2 %LINK-3-UPDOWN: Interface Serial0. by both Se0 CHAP: O CHALLENGE id 2 len 28 from ”left" Se0 CHAP: I CHALLENGE id 3 len 28 from ”right" Se0 CHAP: O RESPONSE id 3 len 28 from ”left" Se0 CHAP: I RESPONSE id 2 len 28 from ”right" Se0 CHAP: O SUCCESS id 2 len 4 Se0 CHAP: I SUCCESS id 3 len 4 %LINEPROTO-5-UPDOWN: Line protocol on Interface Serial0. state to up debug ppp authentication debug ppp authentication successful CHAP output 53 .

What is ISDN? Small office Digital PBX Provider network Telecommuter Home office Central site Voice. video 54 . data.

Integrated Services Digital Network  Telephone services -> Telecommunication services  Used for voice.Why ISDN? ISDN . data and video  55 .

PPP) Signaling information BRI D 2B PRI D 23 or 30B • BRI and PRI are used globally for ISDN 56 .ISDN Access Options Channel Capacity B 64 kbps D 16/64 kbps Mostly Used for Circuit-switched data (HDLC.

Interfaces and Devices TE1 ISDN Ready BRI Port 4W S/T interface 2W NT1 U interface TE2 Analog devices: phone. Serial port TA After connecting to TA it becomes TE1 I S D N S w i t c h 58 .

Interfaces and Devices Function Group – A set of functions implemented by a device or software Reference Point – The interface between two function group 59 .

Reference Points 60 .

1 255.1.2 Access List R1(config)#dialer-list 1 protocol ip permit R1(config)#int bri 0 R1(config-if)# dialer–group 1 R1(config-if)#dialer map ip E0 192.2 R1(config)#isdn switch-type basic-net3 R2 BRI ISDN Switch R1 BRI E0 192.0.2 name R2 20 R1(config-if)#no shut R1(config-if)#dialer idle-timeout 100 61 .0 0.0.2 Router(config)#hostname R1 R1(config)#username R2 password cisco R1(config-if)#int bri 0 R1(config-if)# ip address 10.0 R1(config-if)#enacapsulation ppp R1(config-if)#PPP authentication CHAP R1(config-if)#no shut Static Routes or default route R1(config)#ip route 0.1 192.0.168.

ISDN DDR configuration Commands Command Description iproute Global command that configure static route or default route username name name password Global command that configure CHAP username and password access-list Global command that creates ACL’s to define a subset of traffic as interesting dialer-list 1 protocol IP Global command that creates a dialer list that makes all IP traffic interesting or reference to ACL for subset dialer–group 1 Interface subcommand that references dialer list to define what is interesting dialer idle-timeout 100 Interface subcommand that settles idle time out values dialer string number Interface subcommand that define dial numbers int bri 0 Global command that selects BRI interface secret 62 .

it has an inherent delay (unlike Frame Relay) and requires large.25 networks  Store & Forward--Since X.  Frame Relay (Connectionless)  More efficient and much faster than X.25 (Connection-oriented)  Reliable--X.25 has been extensively debugged and is now very stable--literally no errors in modern X.25  Used mostly to forward LAN IP packets 63 . expensive memory buffering capabilities.25 stores the whole frame to error check it before forwarding it on to the destination.Packet Switched Services  X.

its a faster packet switching technology • In 1990 FR consortium was developed and extension added 64 .Frame Relay Basics • FR is WAN layer2 protocol • FR developed in 1984.

PVC or SVC     Data Link connection Identifiers (DLCI) number is the identification for VC. and Q.933A. can be one or multiple Trunk Line Virtual Circuit – an end to end connection between interface device . 16-1007 Committed Information Rate or CIR .Cisco.Terminology R1 FR Network R2 Frame Relay Network End Device Interface Device Encapsulate Data Access Line DCE – Dedicated FR Switches. 65 .agreed-upon bandwidth Frame Relay there are two encapsulation types: Cisco and IETF Local Management Interface (LMI) is a signaling standard used between your router and the first Frame Relay switch i . ANSI.

1/24 192.248 R1(config-if)#enacapsulation frame-relay R1(config-if)# frame-relay intf-type DTE R1(config-if)# frame-relay interface-dlci 100 R1(config-if-dlci)# exit R1(config-if)#framerelay map ip R2 S0 E0 DCE 192.3.168.LAB .168.1/24 100 192.168.9 100 R1(config-if)#no shut DCE 192.2/24 Frame Relay Switch Router#config t Router(config)#hostname FRSwitch FRSwitch(config)# frame-relay switching FRSwitch(config)# int s 1/0 FRSwitch(config-if)#enacapsulation frame-relay FRSwitch(config-if)# frame-relay intf-type DCE FRSwitch(config-if)# clock rate 64000 FRSwitch(config-if)# frame-relay route 100 int serial 1/1 200 FRSwitch(config-if)#no shut 67 .2/24 R1 Router#config t Router(config)#hostname R1 R1(config)# int s 0 R1(config-if)#ip address 200 192.3.3.Frame Relay FR Switch R1 S0 E0 192.