EARTH AND ECOSYSTEMS

• BASIC COMPONENTS OF THE ENVIRONMENT
o VARIOUS SPHERES OF EARTH
o INTERNAL STRUCTURES OF THE EARTH

ECOSYSTEM
o STRUCTURE AND FUNCTIONS OF THE ECOSYSYTEM
o ECOLOGICAL SUCCESSION
o THREATS TO MAJOR ECOSYSTEM

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• Environment is the sum total of all living and non-living factors that compose the surroundings of man.0 • DEFINE ENVIRONMENT Environment is defined as the surroundings in which an organization operates including air. water. 2 . fauna. humans and their inter relations” – ISO Definition. flora. • Environment can be defined as the natural surroundings of that organism which directly or indirectly influences the growth and development of the organism. land and natural resources.1.

CLASSIFICATION OF ENVIRONMENT Atmosphere Physical Environment Hydrosphere Lithosphere Flaura ENVIRONMENT Biological Environment Fauna Microbial Society Cultural Environment Economy Politics 3 .

COMPONENTS OF THE ENVIRONMENT Air. the British and American scientists put in two different manners. It is from this component system that the study of structure of ecosystem was evolved. 4 . Components of Environment as per British literature Here the components are classified in terms of biotic and abiotic based upon life. water and land are the components of environment.

Hydrosphere(Water) 2." Specifically. or air. "hydrosphere" (water). Each of these four spheres can be further divided into sub-spheres. water.1 VARIOUS SPHERES OF EARTH Everything in Earth's system can be placed into one of four major subsystems: land. the components of environment are listed as 1. Atmosphere(Air) 3. Biosphere(Flora/Fauna/Microbes) 1. they are the "lithosphere" (land). 5 . and "atmosphere" (air). living things. These four subsystems are called "spheres. "biosphere" (living things). Lithosphere(Land) 4.Components of Environment as per American literature As per American literature.

BIOSPHERE Biosphere is the total sum of all ecosystems. Biosphere may be treated as the atmosphere. 6 .S. in a closed and self regulating system.it is a bed of resources. activity.P and other compounds which are again re-circulated due to biological and chemical reactions like carbon cycles. Plants animals and microbes utilize the nutrients consisting of C. lithosphere and hydrosphere which influences and supports the entire biotic and abiotic life systems.N. in the nature. utilization and replenishment. or the zone of life on earth . nitrogen cycles etc.

HYDROSPHERE The hydrosphere contains all the solid. liquid. It ranges from 10 to 20 kilometers in thickness. and gaseous water of the planet. The remaining 3% is fresh water. 97% of the earth's water is in the oceans. under. Water bodies control the climate of a place. rivers. 7 . estuaries. and over the surface of a planet. fresh water biomes and even the moisture in the air. WATER CYCLE Hydrosphere water in physical geography describes the combined mass of found on. The hydrosphere extends from Earth's surface downward several kilometers into the lithosphere and upward about 12 kilometers into the atmosphere. ¾ of the fresh water is solid and exists in ice sheets . glaciers. This includes the oceans. lakes. this continuous movement of water in various stages is called as water cycle.

LOTIC SYSTEM LENTIC SYSTEM Aquatic life depends on: • Depth of water and intensity of light penetration • Dissolved oxygen and mineral salts • Temperature and solubility • Inorganic and organic chemicals LENTIC SYSTEM • Bottom deposits and water movement. 8 .

TROPOSPHERE Its is a space up to 20km from the surface of the earth. The troposphere has a great deal of vertical mixing of its constituent gases.ATMOSPHERE Dense and humid layers of atmosphere near the surface of the earth have high temperatures due to the radiations from the sun. rise. cloud formation. The air of our planet is 79% nitrogen and just under 21% oxygen. as a result of solar heat. the small amount remaining is composed of carbon dioxide and other gasses. As the Sun heats the Earth's surface. and water vapour. The temperature of the troposphere decreases with height. 9 . dust. Air movement. The upper boundary of this layer is called the tropopause. the air masses near the surface become warmer. and release heat.

STRATOSPHERE it lies between about 10 km and 50 km at moderate latitudes. Weather. 10 . The upper layers of the stratosphere are heated by the presence of an ozone layer that absorbs ultraviolet (UV) radiation from the Sun—radiation that would otherwise be harmful to living organisms on Earth. with no regular mixing of air and associated turbulence. mountain and valley breezes are examples of air movements in large and small scales. climate. land and sea breezes. rainfall etc influences the characteristics of life on earth. This layer is dynamically stable. Air movement is due to the following factors: • Movement of earth around the sun • Unequal temperatures in different parts of the earths surface • Differences in rate of heating and cooling of water and land surfaces • Local meteorological conditions Global air circulation or heat transport. but it starts at about 8 km at the poles.

Lithosphere consists of: • Metallic and non metallic minerals • Physio. It covers the entire surface of the earth. This crust is inorganic and is composed of minerals.LITHOSPHERE The lithosphere is the solid.chemical factors • Biotic and abiotic elements • Different landforms • Major biomes Water and temperature on the earth controls the following: • Climate • Soil characteristics • Nature and abundance of plant life • Aquatic life • Human activities 11 . rocky crust covering entire planet.

12 .Lithosphere Is basically the crust and the upper mantle or the asthenosphere.

is layered. 13 . It is composed of basalt rich oceanic crust and granitic rich continental crust. similar to the outer. These layers can be defined by either their chemical or their rheological properties. • The core which is approximately 7000 kilometers in diameter (3500 kilometers in radius) and is located at the Earth's center. • The mantle surrounds the core and has a thickness of 2900 kilometers.2 INTERNAL STRUCTURE OF THE EARTH The interior structure of the Earth. • The crust floats on top of the mantle.1.

Composition of the crust Types of crust • Oceanic crust • Continental crust Relation of crust with the mantle Isostacy 14 .