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Document study on Mathematics difficulties (MD) relevant to early identification and early intervention. screening measure for early detection of potential difficulties in Math

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Interventions for

Students With

Mathematics Difficulties.

by

Chair:

Azmer Asraf

Co-chair:

Mohd Fazli Bin Zubir

**Russel Gersten, Nancy C. Jordan, and
**

Jonathan R. Flojo

** Document study on Mathematics difficulties (MD)
**

relevant to early identification and early

intervention.

MD are not stable over time

Reading difficulties (RD) related to slower progress in

Mathematics.

Introduction

** MD demonstrate problems with automatics retrieval
**

of basic arithmetic combinations.

Indicator of potential MD:

Magnitude comparison

Sophistication of counting strategies

Fluent identification of numbers

Working memory

** Key finding on diverse approaches
**

concerning on:

Objectives

nature of MD

role of number sense

screening measure for early detection of

potential difficulties in Math

early intervention and instruction

The Nature of Mathematical Difficulties Geary et al. Longitudinal study – observation study. (2000) MD not stable over time Longitudinal study over 2 to 5 years – math proficiency Explore on : relationship between MD & RD : various type of MD . Reveal the nature and types of MD extent to change over time.

& Mertz. Pellegrino.Arithmatics Combination (AC) Groups : Low mastery of AC Fully mastery of AC IQ/gender/Income level constant constant Observation: (number combination) Increased at steady rate No progress *Major finding: Deficits in the retrieval of basic combinations . Goldman. 1988): students (elementary grade) unable to automatically retrieve on arithmetic facts (such: 4+3=7) Fluency and Mastery of Arithmetic Combinations • Jordan et al. & Brandsford. 1988. (2003): 2 group of students Tested variety of math test . Hesselbring. Goin.

(2003): sophistication of counting strategies used. Maturity and Efficiency of Counting Strategies Groups (students) : Low mastery Fully mastery Observation: Counting strategies Use fingers Verbal counting Mental manipulation on math proficiency Not proficient Proficient Siegler and Shrager (1984): children use different strategies (unsophisticated / matured) repeated used of strategies & memory store: information can be easily retrieve. . Jordan et al.

low level Ended . (1990) studying counting strategy used by students with MD in the first grade. Geary et al. the finding is divided into 3 groups as below: Maturity and Efficiency of Counting Strategies Began & Ended Average level Began . importance for understanding methods for early screening.average level Began & Ended low level Rarely do mistakes Perform at the same rate as average Make more mistake (even use both finger & verbal) No MD No MD Having MD student having MD tend to understand counting as a rote. .

(2001). Jordan. Jordan et al. (1997): Children with MD (adequate readers) show a different pattern of cognitive deficits than children with MD + RD. Jordan & Montani. Kaplan and Hanich (2002): MD & RD = performance < 35% study the performance in reading & mathematics on Woodcock-Johnson Psycho-educational BatteryRevised: Grouped: MD only MD + RD RD only TA Started 22% 21% 60% 68% Results Rapid growth lowest Same level as MD Better than others • • • • RD – negative influence on child development MD+RD perform lower than MD at rate below 15% Math abilities not influence reading growth Gender & ethnicity has no influence .(2003). Mathematic Difficulties (MD) and Reading Difficulties (RD) Hanich et al..

Bereiter & Scardamalia. 1981. The characteristics of good number sense: Fluency in estimating and judging magnitude. Okamoto & Case. Greeno. Dehaene. 1991.1996): focuses on concept of number sense Number Sense Case: number sense difficult to define but easy to recognize. Ability to recognize unreasonable results Flexibility when mentally computing Ability to move among different & appropriate representations . 1997.

Harris and Graham (1992): children need differentiated instruction in math • Okamoto (2000): Number Sense 2 factors in children’s mathematics proficiency: Counting Quantity discrimination • Case et al. Number sense can be enhance thru informal or formal instruction prior to entering school. (1992) Number sense = conceptual structure that relies on many link among mathematical relationship & principles. Case. ..

• Okamoto & Case. (1996): Number Knowledge Test: Assess the students depth understanding of math (Table 1. (2002): Assess student’s number sense to predict their performance in arithmetic. Gersten. Flojo. et al. Measures on: (refer Table 2) Quantity discrimination (magnitude comparison) Counting knowledge Number identification Working memory Number Knowledge Test (NKT) the best predictor in the set of measures of SAT-9 (Stanford Achievement Test-Ninth Edition) Procedures and Problem Solving. . pg 298) Early Detection of MD and Potential Screening Measures Baker.

Implications • Early intensive intervention (Fuchs. Hasselbring et al. • The used of technology. 1999. Karns. 1994) Increased fluency and accuracy with basic arithmetic. Case & Siegler. & Katzaroff.. Hamlett. Siegler (1988): Children can derive quickly with minimal cognitive effort. . (1988): design a computer program – mix combination of arithmetics (fluency/retrieval) • Instruction and guidance in strategy. aspects of number sense the need for differentiated intervention. development of more mature and efficient counting strategies. Griffin.

Development of fluency and proficiency with basic arithmetic combinations and the increasingly accurate and efficient use of counting strategies. • Understand the specific skills. . strategies. • Further advances in development valid measures for screening and early detection will need to be refined. Early mathematical intervention. Conclusions • Teachers need to be aware – students who have not mastered basic combinations. and predict subsequence problems in becoming proficient in mathematics.

Q &A By : Mohd Fazli Bin Zubir .

Question 1 What are the objectives of this study? .

The role of number sense in young children. .The objectives of this study are : The nature of mathematics difficulties. Valid screening measures for early detection of potential difficulties in mathematics. Early intervention and instruction.

Question 2 What are the four series of measures of specific skills and proficiencies developed by Geary et all (2000)? .

. Working memory. Number identification. Counting knowledge/strategies.The four series are : Measures of quantity discrimination (magnitude comparison).

Question 3 What is the method of study use to determine a child’s growth in the past research? Describe it? .

The method is : Longitudinal study – research study that involve repeated observation of the same variables over long period of times/decades. .

What are the Number Knowledge Test? .Question 4 Okamoto and Case (1996) were developed the Number Knowledge Test.

. the concept of “bigger than” and the strategies they use in counting.The Number Knowledge Test is : An individually administered measure that allows the examiner not only to appraise children knowledge of basic arithmetic concepts and operations but also to assess their depth of understanding through a series of structure probes that explore students’ understanding of magnitude.

Question 5 Hanich (2001) and Jordan (2002) had examined certain group of childrens’ achievement growth in reading and mathematics. What are the types of group? .

Mathematics difficulties (MD) only The types of group are : Mathematics difficulties (MD) and reading difficulties (RD) Reading difficulties (RD) only Typical achievement (TA) .

Question 6 What is the parameter (percentile) the children will have mathematics difficulties (MD) and reading difficulties (RD) problem? .

.The percentile is : Below 35th percentile.

What are the two groups of Question 7 children that was tested for children development in from grade two to grade three based on Jordan et all (2003)? .

The groups are : Low mastery & high mastery of arithmetic combination .

7? .Question 8 What are the finding from question no.

. whereas children with low combination mastery made almost no progress over the 2 year period.The finding is : Children who possessed combination mastery increased at steady rate on timed number combinations.

Question 9 Based on the article. give your opinion on the factor that might cause the children to have mathematics difficulties (MD)? .

. Low working memory because lack of attention from teacher. Some opinions are : No implementation of counting strategies (tradisional). Insufficient exposure on early identification of arithmetics.

what would be your approach to help students overcome their mathematics difficulties (MD)? .Question 10 Based on your experienced.

Some approaches are : Games ICT Demonstration .

Math is Fun THANK YOU .

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