Early Identification and

Interventions for
Students With
Mathematics Difficulties.
Azmer Asraf

Mohd Fazli Bin Zubir

Russel Gersten, Nancy C. Jordan, and
Jonathan R. Flojo

 Document study on Mathematics difficulties (MD)
relevant to early identification and early
 MD are not stable over time
 Reading difficulties (RD) related to slower progress in


 MD demonstrate problems with automatics retrieval
of basic arithmetic combinations.
 Indicator of potential MD:
Magnitude comparison
Sophistication of counting strategies
Fluent identification of numbers
Working memory

 Key finding on diverse approaches
concerning on:


nature of MD
 role of number sense
 screening measure for early detection of
potential difficulties in Math
 early intervention and instruction

The Nature of Mathematical Difficulties  Geary et al. Longitudinal study – observation study. (2000) MD not stable over time Longitudinal study over 2 to 5 years – math proficiency Explore on : relationship between MD & RD : various type of MD .  Reveal the nature and types of MD extent to change over time.

& Mertz. Pellegrino.Arithmatics Combination (AC) Groups : Low mastery of AC Fully mastery of AC IQ/gender/Income level constant constant Observation: (number combination) Increased at steady rate No progress *Major finding: Deficits in the retrieval of basic combinations . Goldman. 1988):  students (elementary grade) unable to automatically retrieve on arithmetic facts (such: 4+3=7) Fluency and Mastery of Arithmetic Combinations • Jordan et al. & Brandsford. 1988. (2003): 2 group of students Tested variety of math test . Hesselbring. Goin.

(2003):  sophistication of counting strategies used. Maturity and Efficiency of Counting Strategies Groups (students) : Low mastery Fully mastery Observation: Counting strategies Use fingers Verbal counting Mental manipulation on math proficiency Not proficient Proficient  Siegler and Shrager (1984):  children use different strategies (unsophisticated / matured)  repeated used of strategies & memory store: information can be easily retrieve. . Jordan et al.

low level Ended . (1990)  studying counting strategy used by students with MD in the first grade. Geary et al.  the finding is divided into 3 groups as below: Maturity and Efficiency of Counting Strategies Began & Ended Average level Began .  importance for understanding methods for early screening.average level Began & Ended low level Rarely do mistakes Perform at the same rate as average Make more mistake (even use both finger & verbal) No MD No MD Having MD  student having MD tend to understand counting as a rote. .

(2001). Jordan. Jordan et al. (1997): Children with MD (adequate readers) show a different pattern of cognitive deficits than children with MD + RD. Jordan & Montani. Kaplan and Hanich (2002):  MD & RD = performance < 35%  study the performance in reading & mathematics on Woodcock-Johnson Psycho-educational BatteryRevised: Grouped: MD only MD + RD RD only TA Started 22% 21% 60% 68% Results Rapid growth lowest Same level as MD Better than others • • • • RD – negative influence on child development MD+RD perform lower than MD at rate below 15% Math abilities not influence reading growth Gender & ethnicity has no influence .(2003). Mathematic Difficulties (MD) and Reading Difficulties (RD)  Hanich et al..

 Bereiter & Scardamalia. 1981.  The characteristics of good number sense:  Fluency in estimating and judging magnitude. Okamoto & Case. Greeno. Dehaene. 1991.1996):  focuses on concept of number sense Number Sense  Case: number sense difficult to define but easy to recognize.  Ability to recognize unreasonable results  Flexibility when mentally computing  Ability to move among different & appropriate representations . 1997.

Harris and Graham (1992):  children need differentiated instruction in math • Okamoto (2000): Number Sense  2 factors in children’s mathematics proficiency:  Counting  Quantity discrimination • Case et al.  Number sense can be enhance thru informal or formal instruction prior to entering school. (1992)  Number sense = conceptual structure that relies on many link among mathematical relationship & principles. Case. ..

• Okamoto & Case. (1996): Number Knowledge Test: Assess the students depth understanding of math (Table 1. (2002): Assess student’s number sense to predict their performance in arithmetic. Gersten. Flojo. et al. Measures on: (refer Table 2)  Quantity discrimination (magnitude comparison)  Counting knowledge  Number identification  Working memory Number Knowledge Test (NKT) the best predictor in the set of measures of SAT-9 (Stanford Achievement Test-Ninth Edition) Procedures and Problem Solving. . pg 298) Early Detection of MD and Potential Screening Measures  Baker.

Implications • Early intensive intervention (Fuchs. Hasselbring et al. • The used of technology. 1999. Karns. 1994) Increased fluency and accuracy with basic arithmetic. Case & Siegler. & Katzaroff.. Hamlett. Siegler (1988): Children can derive quickly with minimal cognitive effort. . (1988):  design a computer program – mix combination of arithmetics (fluency/retrieval) • Instruction and guidance in strategy.  aspects of number sense  the need for differentiated intervention.  development of more mature and efficient counting strategies. Griffin.

Development of fluency and proficiency with basic arithmetic combinations and the increasingly accurate and efficient use of counting strategies. • Understand the specific skills. . strategies. • Further advances in development valid measures for screening and early detection will need to be refined. Early mathematical intervention. Conclusions • Teachers need to be aware – students who have not mastered basic combinations. and predict subsequence problems in becoming proficient in mathematics.

Q &A By : Mohd Fazli Bin Zubir .

Question 1 What are the objectives of this study? .

 The role of number sense in young children. .The objectives of this study are :  The nature of mathematics difficulties.  Valid screening measures for early detection of potential difficulties in mathematics.  Early intervention and instruction.

Question 2 What are the four series of measures of specific skills and proficiencies developed by Geary et all (2000)? .

.  Working memory.  Number identification.  Counting knowledge/strategies.The four series are :  Measures of quantity discrimination (magnitude comparison).

Question 3 What is the method of study use to determine a child’s growth in the past research? Describe it? .

The method is :  Longitudinal study – research study that involve repeated observation of the same variables over long period of times/decades. .

What are the Number Knowledge Test? .Question 4 Okamoto and Case (1996) were developed the Number Knowledge Test.

. the concept of “bigger than” and the strategies they use in counting.The Number Knowledge Test is :  An individually administered measure that allows the examiner not only to appraise children knowledge of basic arithmetic concepts and operations but also to assess their depth of understanding through a series of structure probes that explore students’ understanding of magnitude.

Question 5 Hanich (2001) and Jordan (2002) had examined certain group of childrens’ achievement growth in reading and mathematics. What are the types of group? .

 Mathematics difficulties (MD) only The types of group are :  Mathematics difficulties (MD) and reading difficulties (RD)  Reading difficulties (RD) only  Typical achievement (TA) .

Question 6 What is the parameter (percentile) the children will have mathematics difficulties (MD) and reading difficulties (RD) problem? .

.The percentile is :  Below 35th percentile.

What are the two groups of Question 7 children that was tested for children development in from grade two to grade three based on Jordan et all (2003)? .

The groups are :  Low mastery & high mastery of arithmetic combination .

7? .Question 8 What are the finding from question no.

. whereas children with low combination mastery made almost no progress over the 2 year period.The finding is :  Children who possessed combination mastery increased at steady rate on timed number combinations.

Question 9 Based on the article. give your opinion on the factor that might cause the children to have mathematics difficulties (MD)? .

.  Low working memory because lack of attention from teacher. Some opinions are :  No implementation of counting strategies (tradisional). Insufficient exposure on early identification of arithmetics.

what would be your approach to help students overcome their mathematics difficulties (MD)? .Question 10 Based on your experienced.

Some approaches are :  Games  ICT  Demonstration .

Math is Fun THANK YOU .