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Lectures 3 & 4

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Data Structures & Algorithms Analysis in C++ (MAW): Chap. 2 Introduction to Algorithms (Cormen, Leiserson, & Rivest): Chap.1 Algorithms Theory & Practice (Brassard & Bratley): Chap. 1

Algorithms

• An algorithm is a well-defined computational procedure that takes some value or a set of values, as input and produces some value, or a set of values as output. • Or, an algorithm is a well-specified set of instructions to be solve a problem.

Efficiency of Algorithms

• Empirical

– Programming competing algorithms and trying them on different instances

• Theoretical

– Determining mathematically the quantity of resources (execution time, memory space, etc) needed by each algorithm

Analyzing Algorithms

• Predicting the resources that the algorithm requires:

• Computational running time • Memory usage • Communication bandwidth

**• The running time of an algorithm
**

• Number of primitive operations on a particular input size • Depends on

– Input size (e.g. 60 elements vs. 70000) – The input itself ( partially sorted input for a sorting algorithm)

Order of Growth

• The order (rate) of growth of a running time

– Ignore machine dependant constants – Look at growth of T(n) as n→∞

Θ notation

• Drop low-order terms • Ignore leading constants • E.g.

– 3n3 + 90n2 – 2n +5 = Θ (n3)

Mathematical Background

Mathematical Background

• Definitions: – T(N) = O(f(N)) iff ∃ c and n0 ∋

T(N) ≤ c.f(N) when N ≥ n0

– T(N) = Ω (g(N)) iff ∃ c and n0 ∋

T(N) ≥ c.g(N) when N ≥ n0

– T(N) = Θ (h(N)) iff T(N) = O(h(N)) and

T(N) = Ω (h(N))

Mathematical Background

• Definitions: – T(N) = o(f(N)) iff ∃ c and n0 ∋

T(N) < c.f(N) when N ≥ n0

– T(N) = ω (g(N)) iff ∃ c and n0 ∋

T(N) > c.g(N) when N ≥ n0

Mathematical Background

• Rules: – If T1(N) = O(f(N)) and T2(N) = O(g(N)) then

a) T1(N) + T2(N) = max( O(f(N)),O(g(N)) b) T1(N) * T2(N) = O(f(N) * g(N))

– If T(N) is a polynomial of degree k, then T(N) = Θ (Nk) – Logk N = O(N) for any constant k.

More …

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 3n3 + 90n2 – 2n +5 = O(n3 ) 2n2 + 3n +1000000 = Θ (n2) 2n = o(n2) ( set membership) 3n2 = O(n2) tighter Θ (n2) n log n = O(n2) True or false:

– – – – n2 = O(n3 ) n3 = O(n2) 2n+1= O(2n) (n+1)! = O(n!)

**Ranking by Order of Growth2 k
**

1 n n log n 2n n n (3/2)n (n)! (n+1)!

**Running time calculations
**

• Rule 1 – For Loops

The running time of a for loop is at most the running time of the statement inside the for loop (including tests) times the number of iterations

•

**Rule 2 – Nested Loops
**

Analyze these inside out. The total running time of a statement inside a group of nested loops is the running time of the statement multiplied by the product of the sizes of all the loops

**Example 1: sum = 0; for (i=1; i <=n; i++)
**

sum += n;

Running time calculations: Examples

Example 2:

sum = 0; for (j=1; j<=n; j++) for (i=1; i<=j; i++) sum++; for (k=0; k<n; k++) A[k] = k;

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