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High Voltage Distribution SystemA Lasting Solution For The ILLs of

the Last Mile of the Power Chain

High Voltage Distribution System


Distribution is called the last mile in the power supply chain
being closest to the consumer.
Its quality controls / governs the consumer satisfaction
However it is the most neglected segment of the power sector for
many years due to paucity of funds
Major challenge of reforms process is the up gradation of
Distribution system
-To maintain the Standards of performance fixed by the
Regulator.
--To achieve the targets set Under National Electricity policy.
-- To meet the stipulations of various codes like Supply Codes,
Grid code etc., in all its functioning

High Voltage Distribution System


National Electricity Policy stipulates achieving the
following targets, among others, by 2012
- Extension Power supply of quality , continuity and reliability
to all areas including rural areas as per the standards fixed
by the respective Commission, meeting the demand in full,
all at affordable price.
- Bringing down AT&C losses to 15.5%
Both the targets are of a very tall order, requiring adopting
of every conceivable method of system improvement.

High Voltage Distribution System


Parameters for assessing supply quality
Voltage
Frequency,
Harmonics
Parameters for assessing Reliability
Power Cuts No Supply Periods
Interruptions - Frequency & Duration
---Measured variables
Number of interruptions
Duration of interruptions

NORMS FOR TECHNICAL LOSSES


REVIEW OF SYSTEM LOSSES
SYSTEM COMPONENTS
TRANSMISSION
SUB TRANSMISSION
HIGH VOLTAGE DISTRIBUTION
LOW VOLTAGE DISTRIBITION
TOTAL

EXISTING
LEVELS
4
4
6
8
22

INTERNATIONAL NORMS
MAX. TOLERABLE TARGET LEVEL
4.00
2.00
4.50
2.25
5.00
3.00
2.00
1.00
15.50
8.25

Source: World Bank Energy Department Paper No 6-July 1982 on


"Energy Efficiency:Optimization of Electrical Power Distribution System losses"

Objectives of a power utility


Supplying of Power of quality, continuity and
Reliability
Extending supply network to all parts in the area
under its jurisdiction
Meeting the demand in full
Operating plants and network at Optimum
efficiency
Keeping the losses at bare minimum
Providing effective consumer services
Supplying power at affordable price

PRESENT STATUS OF DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM


Power supply for few hours on any day.
Number of interruptions even during the hours of supply due to
the bad condition of net work.
Poor quality of power supply with low voltages
Growing consumer dissatisfaction.
Poor revenue realization
Comparatively higher losses.
Financial status which permits only little investment in the system
improvement.
Achieving targets set in NEP by 2012, against the above back
ground, calls for drastic changes in the set up.

Low Voltage Distribution System


The two widely prevalent distribution practices in
vogue across the world are:
Low Voltage Distribution System (LVDS):
It is based on European practice.
A Three phase transformer of considerable capacity,
say 63kVA and above, is installed and a large group
of loads are fed through longer LV lines .
This system is best suited to meet the concentrated
loads of high load density.

Low Voltage Distribution System


This system is widely adopted in our power sector despite
the contrasting status, particularly in rural areas, of
scattered loads with low load density.

This has resulted in system losses well beyond the tolerable


limits, poor Voltage profile and host of other ills, many a
times compounding in nature

Problems of Existing Distribution


As Power is drawn through longer L.T. lines with higher current,
there is increased power and energy losses
Higher voltage drop in lengthy LT lines resulting in Low Voltages at
consumer end.
Frequent motor burning outs due to low voltage at consumer end and
consequent expenditure on repairs
Higher rate of transformer failures due to commonly ocuring defects
in L.T. network and over loading increased expenditure on repairsincreased interruptions to the consumer.
For any transformer failure large number of consumers getting
affected.
For any delays in replacing failed transformers , damages to standing
crops

Problems of Existing Distribution


As more number of consumers are connected under each
transformer , more fluctuations.
Higher possibilities for theft of energy by direct hooking to the
bare L.T. lines, running in remote areas
More number of interruptions due to the defects in the lengthy
L.T net work. lesser reliability
As bare L.T network has only fuse protection ,without any
breaker, Chances for accidents are more by coming in to contact
with snapped bare wires.
Poor quality of supply resulting in lesser end use efficiency
The above drawbacks are automatically call for adopting a
different distribution system devoid of these defects

High Voltage Distribution System (HVDS):


It is the best remedy for all the prevailing ills in the existing Low
Voltage Distribution System (LVDS)
It is based on North American practice.
A Three phase or single phase HV line is taken as near to a small
group of loads as possible, and a distribution transformers of smaller
capacities , single phase or three phase transformer as the case may
be , are installed to feed a small group of loads through AB cables
and service wire , such that the length of the LV lines is minimum or
is eliminated altogether.
To the extent LV lines are permitted, they are with insulated AB
cables only
This system is best suited to meet the scattered loads of low load
density.

Different Types of High Voltage


Distribution System
There are three types of High Voltage distribution system in vogue:
Phase Neutral HVDS (PN-HVDS)
Phase Phase HVDS (PP-HVDS)
Phase-Ground HVDS (PG HVDS)

Phase-Neutral HVDS

Phase-Neutral HVDS
It is widely adopted in North America.
Under this system:
- the main line from substation is three-phase 4 wire (3 phases +
Neutral)
-- laterals are single-phase 2 wire line or two-phase 3-wire line or
three-phase 4-wire line depending upon the loads and feeding
arrangement.
Unique feature of the system lies in providing the neutral right
through the system, viz from substation to all nodes on the network.
Single-phase Loads: 11 KV single phase line (phase neutral) branch is
extended from main line and 1 No. 6350/230-0-230 V distribution
transformer is erected to feed single phase loads as shown in Part (A)
of Fig.

Phase-Neutral HVDS
Three-phase loads: Three alternative arrangements for feeding three
phase loads are described.
11 KV two-phase 3-wire branches are extended from the main line
and 2 Nos. of single-phase 6350/230-0-230 V distribution transformer
is connected, star on HV side and open delta on LV side to feed threephase loads, as shown in part (B) of Fig. Effective capacity of the
transformer bank is 86.6% of the total capacity of 2 transformers. Ie.
. if 2 No.s 10 kVA, transformers are used ,maximum 3 ph. load that
Can be fed is 17.32 kVA
11 KV three-phase, 4-wire line is extended and 3 Nos. 6350/230-0230 V single phase transformers are connected, star- delta to feed
three-phase loads as shown in Part (C)of Fig.
Existing 11 KV three-phase 4-wire line is extended and three-phase
Delta/Star distribution transformer is used as shown in part (D) of Fig.

Phase - Phase HVDS

Phase - Phase HVDS


Three-Phase loads: Three alternate arrangements for feeding threephase loads are described.
11 KV three-phase 3-wire branches are extended from main line and 2
Nos. of single phase 11000/230-0-230 V distribution transformer is
connected HV side/ LV side V-V (Open delta ) to feed three phase
loads as shown in Part (F) of Fig. Effective capacity -86.6%
11 KV three-phase 3-wire line is extended and 3 Nos. 11000/230-0230 V single phase distribution transformer are connected delta on
HV side and delta on LV side, as shown in Part (G) of Fig.
11 KV three-phase, 3-wire line is extended and existing three-phase
11000/415V delta / star distribution transformer is used as shown in
Part (H) of Fig.

Phase - Ground HVDS


It is similar to Phase- Neutral HVDS in all respects except
that ground is used as return path and neutral wire is not
provided all along the system.
The transformer HV neutral or star point on HV side (when
more than one transformer is used) is earthed solidly at
every location, and thereby ground is used as return path.
This system is used in certain parts of North America and
Australia.
Since ground forms return path, soil resistivity plays a key
role.
Good quality of earthing is required for the safety of

Phase - Ground HVDS


It is unsuitable to Indian conditions due to technical and practical reasons
like :
Since ground is used for return path of the current, the soil resistivity
of the area plays a vital role. The system may be hazardous in areas
where soil resistivity is high.
Good quality Earthing is required for the safety of personnel and
animals. The code of practice stipulates that the voltage rise ie., Load
current x and resistance of HV earthing system, at the point of
Earthing shall not exceed 20 V.
Providing effective Earthing and ensuring its maintenance throughout
the period at a number of locations in rural areas is beset with several
practical problems.
Interference with telecommunication lines.

Advantages under HVDS


All the ills of LVDS get eliminated under HVDS
a)Drastic Reduction in system losses, both Power and energy losses
(In S.ph.HVDS energy losses are 13% of that in LVDS)
b) Improvement in system voltage profile (In S.ph.HVDS vol.drop is
10% of that in LVDS)
c)Reduction in possibilities for theft of energy by direct hooking from
LT lines as the LV lines are virtually eliminated and even the short LV
lines required are of AB cable..
d) Reduction in transformer failures as there will be no over loading and
minimum or no LT line defects.
. Lesser interruptions, lesser delays in replacement of failed transformers
and lesser damage to standing crops .Better consumer satisfaction

Advantages under HVDS


e)Increase in end use efficiency causing better delivery of water,
drawing lesser current.
g)Sense of ownership of the transformer develops among the
consumers as the transformer caters to only two to three consumers)
Possibilities for fluctuations get reduced due to fewer consumers.
i) 11KV lines are controlled by breakers and LT lines are of AB
cables. Chances for accidents due to snapping of conductors get
reduced.
J) With increase in the reliability of supply and better end use
efficiency resulting in higher delivery of water, 2 crops are being
raised increasing productivity.
k) Improvement in voltage profile, brings down cases of consumers
motor burning out drastically.

Advantages under HVDS


l) Better socio economic development in rural areas.
m) In case of any failure of a transformer only 2to3 consumers

will be affected.
n) In view of reduction in losses, additional loads can be fed

with the same generation , without adding any new capacity.


o) schemes covering conversion of LVDS to HVDS are eligible for
Sale carbon emission reductions (CMRs) under Clean Development
Mechanism (CDM) . This additional benefit to the utilities will bring
down the Pay back period to a considerably lesser time frame
p) LT line maintenance is almost absent No tree cutting is required
for LT lines

Advantages of HVDS compared to LVDS


System is more reliable because:
The LV lines are short and insulated, avoiding all LV faults.
The faults on HT line comes to the notice of the operator immediately
due to the tripping of substation breaker.
The failure of transformer affects only a very small number of
consumers served by it.
Voltage fluctuations: The voltage drop on the LV line is negligible.
The additional drop due to extension of HV line up to consumer
premises is also negligible. Thus the voltage profile is very stable and
there is no need to use voltage stabilizer.
With least or No possibilities for theft of energy , load management is
comparatively easier

Advantages of S ph. HVDS compared


to LVDS
The important drawbacks of LVDS and the way in which these are
automatically solved by adopting popular Phase Neutral HVDS are:
Line Losses: The loss in Sph.HVD system for the distribution of the
same amount of power is less than 1% as compared to that of LV line.
In fact it is lesser than the losses under 3 ph. HVD system
Voltage Drop: The voltage drop for distribution of same quantum of
power is less than 1% as against that in LVDS and this ensures proper
voltage profile at all customer points.
System Power Factor : The single phase motors can be used for all
Agricultural services. The single phase motors have built in capacitors
essentially required for starting the motors.
Thus system power factor is always maintained high with good
capacitive compensation at theload end

Advantages of S ph.HVDS
Capital cost is less as Transformer, surge arrestor requiring 1 No.
Instead of 3, protection system cost less in sph.HVDS
compared to 3 ph. system
Protection requirements are simpler
For cost effectiveness new villages with lesser load demand can be
electrified through S ph. HVDS, which can be converted in to 3
ph. HVDS once the load picks up
Thus if Existing LVD systems are converted in to HVD systems
taking due care of the System improvement aspects in respect of
33 and 11kV Systems, HVDS will prove to be a boon for
otherwise tottering Distribution networks.

CAPITAL COST
HIGHER INVESTMENT ON TRANSFORMATION EQUIPMENT
LARGER CAPACITY DUE TO LOW DICERSITY
HIGH COST/KVA DUE TO SMALL CAPACITY OF TR

LOWER

INVESTMENT ON LINES

SMALL SIZE CONDUCTORS ARE ADEQUATE DUE TO


LOW CURRENTS
LESS NUMBER OF CONDUCTORS

OPERATING COST.
HIGHER TRANSFORMATION LOSSES DUE TO HIGHER NO.OF. DTrs
NO LOAD LOSSES PER KVA CAPACITY
LOWER LINE LOSSES DUE TO LOW CURRENTS HANDLED
QUALITY OF SUPPLY
BETTER VOLTAGE PROFILE
LOWER SYSTEM LOSSES
BETTER RELIABILITY
PREVENTS DIRECT TAPPING OF LINES
LOAD MANAGEMENT IS EASIER

PROBLEMS AND SOLUTIONS fOR


PROBLEM
1

SOLUTION

Voltage bandwidth limited Bandwidth can be


to 10 %
extended up to 20%
with a AVB online
Maintenance of large ADOPT cast resin dry
for maintenance
number of Transformers . technology
free operation and reliability
These units are 25% costlier
than oil filled units.

Reconfiguration
network

of

HVDS requires running of


continuous neutral wire from
substation.
Line
strengthened
with
intermediate supports and stays

. Capacitive

Provide online switched


capacitor banks with automatic
SF6/VACCUM switches for
maintenance free operation and
switching on and off capacitor
with load.

compensation

Sectionalisation
of
distribution feeder .

primary

Provide
automatic
VACCUM/SF6
line
sectionalisation on the SPUR
lines which sense the voltage on
and off sequence generated by
circuit breaker at the substation
and isolate the faulty section
automatically.

Sphase motors

Indigenous manufacturing
capacity for high efficiency
and high power factor motors
developed.

High transformation losses

No load losses constitute


50% of total system losses
Use of metal AMORPHOUS
ALLOYS for TR core which
reduces losses by 80% is very
attractive in the long run as
cost of AMORPHOUS metal
is expected to come down
with increased production
immediately
load
management of pump sets
can be adopted by

Strategy for implementation


The strategy for implementation of high voltage distribution system can
be broadly divided into two parts.
First part relates to extension of HVDS to meet new loads. This
ensures that the new distribution system built is energy efficient.
Second part relates to conversion of existing LV distribution system
to HVDS.
The two parts are inter dependent and can be executed simultaneously.

Part-I of Strategy
The important problems likely to be encountered under this part are
investigated and appropriate solutions are presented.
Manufacture of small capacity single phase transformers which are
robust and fail proof.
Integration of new HVDS with existing LVDS.
Running of continuous neutral wire.

Part -II of Strategy


Part II relates to making the existing distribution system energy efficient
by conversion to HVDS.
The work involved in this phase is :
Conversion of existing low voltage lines to single-phase 2-wire HV
line.
Replacement of existing three-phase distribution transformers of
considerable capacity with small capacity single-phase transformers
Replacing all LT Guy insulators of Stay sets by HT Guy insulators

Discussion
HVDS is technically superior and provides ready solution to the
problems of distribution system.
Capital investment required for building new HVDS is 16.5% lower
than that of LVDS. The Peak Power loss and energy losses of HVDS
are 33% and 18% lower than that of LVDS respectively.
Capital investment required to restructure the existing network as
HVDS is marginally cheaper than restructuring the network as LVDS.
The peak power loss and energy losses of restructuring HVDS are
lower by 25% and 27% respectively compared to that of LVDS.
The peak power losses and energy losses reduction by restructuring as
HVDS are 80% and 66 % respectively.
Restructuring of existing distribution network as HVDS is highly
viable as the pay back period is about 18 months.

Conclusions
Phase neutral HVDS is identified as the best system among the
different HVDS schemes.
HVDS effectively tackles the problems faced by the utilities in the
existing LVDS.
The strategy proposed for implementation of HVDS and its
integration with the existing network is found to be technically
feasible and financially viable.
The cluster based algorithm proposed for restructuring the existing
LVDS as HVDS is an effective tool for large scale restructuring of the
existing network.
The restructuring of existing LVDS as HVDS is practically feasible
and financially viable.

Summing up, the recommendation is that the utilities should adopt


HVDS in place of the prevailing LVDS; extend it to all new
extensions; also restructure the existing network as HVDS
simultaneously. This is the only technically feasible and least cost
solution approach for reduction of losses in Low Voltage network.

CASE STUDY

Case Study 1-HVDS 1 Ph

In order to propogate the concept and as a technology demonstration the


following Two schemes are formulated.

H V D S SCHEMES
WARANGAL
NALAGONDA
1.Noofpumpsets

7000

3200

2. Year of sanction

1993-94

1997-98

3. Cost of the projects

Rs 8.0 cr

Rs 8.4 cr

4. Pay back period

3 years

3 years

5. Achivements

2500 nos

1100 nos

6. Financed by

OECF(Japan)

DFID( U K )

REASONS

FOR POOR

PROGRESS

1. Conversion of 3 ph motors to 1 ph motors.


2. Unauthorized pump sets
3. Higher H P
4. Industrial services above 10 HP
5. Local mechanics
EVALUATION REPORT M/S EEEC BANGLORE
OBSERVATION AND FINDING
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Over all losses reduced from 20% to 4%.


Voltage level has improved substantially
P.F increased to 0.91 from 0.7
No of pump sets increased to 36% from 25%
Possibility of theft of energy reduced
Pay back periods are in line with anticipated results.

SUGGESTIONS
To go for 3 HVDS by providing small capacity DTR ie 10 / 15 / 16 KVA
ADVANTAGE
1.Loss reduction is same in both cases
2.Pay back period is faster
3.Consumer involve is avoided
4.All benefits relating to s HVDS conversion ie
Better Voltage
Reduction in interruptions and Break do wns
Theft of energy controlled
Reduction in DTR failures
Loss reduction etc

SI No.

Item

LVDS

1.

Distribution Transformer

1.

2.

Line

LT 3 phase 4 wire line


(3phase one 1 neutral)

11KV line (3wires)LT


line with AB cable
having 4 core cable

3.

Length of the line

LT-3.6mm

HT(11kv)-2.6km & LT
AB cable-1km
( both are cases of
conversion from LT
Line)

4.

NO. of agriculture loads


(Pumpsets)

39Nos.

39Nos.

5.

Connected Load

179.5 HP

179.5 HP

6.

Crop pattern

Rice and Sugarcane

Rice and Sugarcane but


2 crops

No 100 KVA
11kv/415V

HVDS

11 NOS 15 kVA
11kV/415 V
distribution Trs

(a)

No. of days of study

13 days

15 days

(b)

Input

4290 Units

5310 Units

(c)

Output

3490.4 Units

5019.8 Units

(d)

Loss of units

799.06 Units

290.8 Units

(e)

%Line losses

18.63%

5.47%

(f)

Voltage at tail end

350V

420V

Table C: Cost benefit Analysis


Line losses before conversion
:18.63%
Line losses before conversion
:5.47%
Connected load
:179.5HP
No. of units fed into LT network per annum
(approximately 900 units/H.P)
:161550
5) (a) Line losses under LVD System (units)
:30097
( b)Line losses HVD System (units)
:8837
6) a) Savings in losses (units) by conversion to
HVDS (units)
21260
b) Hence with the same input energy, additional units
available for sale after meeting the load demand
of 179.5HPagl.loads
:21260

HVDS construction Practices


HVDS conversion can be in two ways
A)Erecting a new HVDS network altogether, transferring the
loads to the new system and dismantling the old system, as is
being adopted in Rajasthan where a large portion of LVDS is
already converted in to HVDS .
Push-fit covers for meters and armoured cabels for service wires
are used to curb thefts.
Where only 1 or 2 services are to be fed, Meters and capacitors
are located in a separate compartment on the backside of the
transformer.
This method permits free flow of work and reduces interruptions
to the consumer during conversion.
But it is costly and suffers from right of way problems.

B) By converting LT 3ph. 4wire into 11kV line to the extent


required.
No new lines are needed to be laid to execute this new concept.
Re- configuration and modification of the existing lines is done,
using the materials that are already in use except for a few items.
ie converting existing LT lines in to 11kV (HT) lines by replacing
only insulators, suspension and tension hardware and x arms,
introducing new stay sets where required etc.
Existing poles are continued except for introducing 9.01 mt poles
in the new transformer locations, for obtaining standard
clearances.
If the existing conductors are of adequate size, 3 out of 4 are
used dismantling the fourth n is carriedout during the hours when
there is no supply in agricultural feeders. ,.

Using polymer insulators for 11kV line extension, for easy


installation and puncture proof life
This method is less costlier and involves no right of way
problems. As adopted in APSPDCL, Constructio

Specific steps needed to derive benefits in full


The new system also requires certain steps to be taken to make it
work successfully.
With increased transformers their maintenance requires
additional attention, particularly in remote areas. Better to use
Fail proof / Cast Resin transformers.
Perfect Earthing of transformers is essential to lessen
transformer failures and accidents, as these locations cannot be
revisited frequently.
HT line shall be maintained systematically, particularly in case of
tree trimming, as even a momentary fault will trip the feeder.

Each transformer shall be provided with drop out switches to


localize the unavoidable interruption.
Measures to prevent theft of oil or winding from transformers or
transformer itself, shall be adopted.
It is equally important to upgrade and strengthen the up stream
systems ie., 11kV and 33 kV systems adequately, to reap the
benefits of change in full.
In either case, survey of existing 3 phase or single phase motor
loads has to be carried out ( using tongtester and measuring load
current of each motor
This is required to ensure that small capacity transformers being
installed under HVDS do not get over loaded and fail

Erecting New Line


Route survey to be conducted ( Preliminary walk over fallowed by
detailed survey)Route shall be as close to the loads it has to feed as
Possible, as short as possible ,avoiding difficult country side,natural
hazards, higher transportation costs etc
Transportation of RCC/PCCpoles:
a) Generally heavier and stronger on the longer axis than shorter axis.
This shall be considered
b)Un loading from trucks and trailers shall be by using suitable skid
boards(Not to be dropped).Preferable to use chain pulley block and a
beam arrangement.
c) Shall not be dragged on rough surfaces.Use Small carts

Pole locations
A) spans shall be limited by the tensile strength of the conductor,
wind pressure .
In a given length span shall be uniform with horizontal grade to the
extent possible
Not to be located along the edges or cuts
Cut points for a section, geneally not longer than 1,6 km (10 poles/
km for HT and 15 poles/ km for LT)
Right of way shall be identified and tree and vegetation clearance
shall be carried out

HTLine Erection
Pit marking and digging
Erection of poles and concreating
Providing of Stays with guy insulators
Mounting x arms, insulators
Paying out and Stringing the conductor
Sagging and tensioning the conductor
Providing earthing and gaurdings
Testing and commissioning
Pit- 1.2mtx o.6mt
poles to be erected with its longer axis in the direction of the line.
Planting depth for pole 1/6 th of the pole length

Each pole shall be raised on a base plate or RCC padding for better
load distribution on the ground below
For smooth sliding an inclined trench of a length of 15.2cm
Wx10.2cm L is made adjacent to the pit and a piece of MS channel
is placed on the other side in an inclined position so that pole can
smoothly slipped in to the pit
Using a Bipod and 3 ropes pole is erected and kept in vertical position
using manila ropes. Verticality checked with spirit level, earth filling
in the balance pit and ramming is done. In Swamp locations poles are
concreted up to pit level
Stay sets with 7/3.15 mm stay wire and turn buckle rod of 16mm dia
ae erected to prevent tilting of poles. Most commonly used is anchor
guy

.
Guy is used at angle locations, Dead ends, Tee offs, steep geadients
and where wind pressure is more than 50 kg/Sq.m Guy insulator kept
at a level of 3.5mts .Stay rod shall project 2mts. above ground level
(A type for LT line and C type for 11kV line)
At 35 to 40 inclined. After concreting and backfilling the balance 7
days are allowed for settling
X-arms and insulators are fixed
Conductor drum or conductor shall not get damaged while transport,
paying out.
Conductor is passed through Wooden or Aluminium rollers or snatch
block
Mid point joint through compression crimping o if helical fittings are
used manually

Conductor is pulled using come along clamp, tensioned and passed on


to the insulator after Sag tensioning as per the Chart
Sag d= WI/2T
I= half the Span, T= tension in the conductor
W= w+ww., w= wt. of the unit length of conductor acting
vertically
Ww= Wind pressure on the conductor
Up to 33kV sag is checked by sighting
Pin binding with tie wire
Soft annealed Aluminium wire so that may not be brittle and injure
the conductor
Length of wire 1mt to 3 mt(33kV) required for a complete

Constuction Practices
Metal supports Facto
Lattice type& compound type- not less than 1.5
Mechanically processed concrete pole- 2.0
Hand moulded concrete pole --------------- 2.5
Lattice & compound type -- not less than 1.5
( under broken wire condition)
Minimum factor of safety for Guard wire,
stay wireand bearer shall not be less than 2.5, based on
Ultimate strength of the wire
Minimum FS for a conductor shall be 2 based on its Ultimate
strength

For calculating F.S.:


Max. wind pressure as specified by the State govt.
For cylindrical bodies, the effective area shall be taken as 2/3 of the
projected area exposed to wind pressure
For lattice or compound structures the wind pr. On the lee side shall
be taken as one half of the wind pressure on the windward side
Factor safety shall be calculated on the the crippling loads for the
supports used as struts and up on the Elastic limit of the tension
members
Max. and Minimum temperatures as specified by the State govt.
Not withstanding any thing stated above, in locations susceptible for
ice accumulation loadings to be stated by govt.

Conductor tension at 32degC without external load shall not exceed


the following % of the ultimate tensile strength of the conductor
Initial unloaded tension- 35%
Final unloaded condition 25%
Conductors having a cross section of a triangular shape like
conductors composed of 3 wires, final unloaded tension at 32C shall
not exceed 30% of the ultimate tensile strength of the conductor

Rule 82: When conductors forming part of circuits of different


voltages are to be erected on the same support, proper clearance
between circiuits of different voltages shall be ensured.
Once a line is commissioned , if any building / structure is to be
erected/ extended fouling the clearances, corrective action shall be at
the cost of building / structure owner.
Cost shall include a) cost of the material giving credit for depreciated
cost b) cost of retrieved material giving credit C) Cost of labour d)
supervision charges@ 15% of wages and e) any other charges
involved

TYPE

Voltage level

Ground clearance in mts

Across the street

Low and medium voltage lines

5.8

High voltage lines

6.1 mts

Low and medium voltage lines

5.5

High voltage lines

5.8.mts

Low and medium voltage and high


voltage lines up to 11kV bare

4.6

Along the street


Else Where

Low and medium voltage and high


voltage lines up to 11kV(Insulated)

4.0

High voltage lines above 11kV

5.2

Extra high voltage lines


Provided minimum clearance across or
along

5.2 + 0.3 mt for every 33 kV


6.1

Min. CLEARANCES in mts AT LINE


CROSSINGS
Line
volt.

22kV

33kV

66kV

110kV

132kV

220kV

250V
11kV

2.44
2.44

2.44
2.44

2.44
2.44

2.75
2.75

3.05
3.05

4.58
4.58

22kV
33kV

2.44
2.44

2.44
2.44

2.44
2.44

2.75
2.75

3.05
3.05

4.58
4.58

66kV
110kV

2.44
2.75

2.44
2.75

2.44
2.75

2.75
2.75

3.05
3.05

4.58
4.58

132kV
220kV

3.05
4.58

3.05
4.58

3.05
4.58

3.05
4.58

3.05
4.58

4.58
4.58

Rule 87: When two lines cross


It shall be as nearly at right angle as possible
As near to the support as possible
Support in the lower line shall not be erected below the upper line
Rule 88:Guarding at crossings :
Every guard wire is to be connected with earth at each point at which
its electrical continuity is broken.
Every guard wire shall have an actual breaking strength of not less
than 635.02 kgs and if made of Iron or steel it shall be galvanized
Every guard wire or cross connected system of guard wire shall have
enough current carrying capacity so that they shall not melt or fuse
before the live line wire is rendered dead or removed

CLEARANCES of OH LINE &


Service Wire AS PER RULE 77
Rule 89: No service line or tapping shall be taken of from any over
headline except from the point of support
Rule 90: Earthing
All metal supports and metallic fittings attached there to shall be
permanently & efficiently earthed.
A continuous earth wire shall be secured fastened to each pole and
connected to the earth at 4 points per every 1.609 km
Each stay wire shall be earthed efficiently or a guy insulator shall be
provided in it at a height not less than 3 mts from the ground
Spacing between the 4 points shall be equal to the extent possible
Alternatively each pole and metallic fittings attached there to shall be
efficiently earthed.

Metallic bearer wires supporting insulated low/ medium voltage


service lines shall be efficiently earthed/ insulated
Each stay wire shall be earthed unless guy insulator is placed at a
height not less than 10 from the ground
Rule 91 Safety devices
Every over head line laid along/ across the street shall have a
protective device to render it harmless when it brakes,
Every over head line Shall be fitted with an anti- climbing device to
prevent unauthorized persons climbing the poles/towers
Rule 92: Every over head line Shall be fitted with a device to
protect the line from lightning by diverting the surge to the earth
connected to earth mat

The earthing lead from a LA shall not pass through any metallic pipe
but taken directly to an earth electrode in a separate earth pit
Guard wire shall be earthed at each point where its electrical
continuity is broken
Guard wire minimum breaking strength-635 kgs
To be galvanized if made of iron or steel
Guard shall have sufficient capacity not to melt or fuse till the live
wire in contact is removed

1/6th of the pole height be buried in the pit.


Base plate shall be provided underneath the pole for uniform
distribution of load on a larger area.
Pole shall be earthed through earths and combined earth resistance
shall not be more than 5 ohms
Danger boards to be fixed at a conspicuous position as per IS 2551 on
every motor, generator, transformer, Electrical equipment, pole

THANK YOU