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Online Privacy &

Cyber-ethics
SIDDHANT PRAKASH PARDESHI
2012A3PS200G
Prepared for Dr. Reena Cheruvalath in fulfillment of partial requirements of the course
HSS F343 Professional Ethics

Our World, Our Lives, Our Data: Online

News & Knowledge

Our information database

Communication

Dedicated Channels

Miscellaneous

E-Commerce

Encyclopedias

E-mail

Online Shopping

Journals

VOIP

Internet Banking

Blogs

Video Calling

Travel Reservation

Collaboration

Social Media Services

Database Management

Learning

Social Networking

Cloud Computing

Sharing & Hosting

Photo & Video Sharing

Stock Market Trading

Discussion Forums

Professional Networking

Entertainment

Privacy: Defined
When it comes to privacy and
accountability, people always demand
the former for themselves and the latter
for everyone else.
- David Brin

Data Privacy
Data privacy is that aspect of information
technology (IT) that deals with the control an
organization or individual over what data
in a computer system can be shared with
third parties.
- Margaret Rouse (whatis.com)

Online Privacy: A Necessity?


Why?

Information Confidentiality

Why Not?

Research

Personal Media

Adverse effects of drugs

Corporate Data

Smart Grid

National Security

Traffic Control

Human Behaviour

Right to Privacy: A human right

UDHR, 1948

Liberty, Freedom

Protection

Law Enforcement

Counter - Terrorism

Freedom vs Protection: The Balance

Key Concept: Ethical decision making

Approaches

Rights

Justice

Utilitarian

Common Good

Discussion:

Do all people have an equal need for privacy?

Are some people more vulnerable than others?

Case Study: Facebooks Beacon System


What

Provided for Targeted


Advertising by sharing
users activities with their
friends
Exchanged users data
with external websites like
Blockbuster Online
Conflicted with
Facebooks mission
statement to ensure users
have jurisdiction over their
own private information

When

Launched on November 6,
2007

Shut down in September,


2009 due to a class action
lawsuit involving a 9.5
million USD settlement.

Why

Breached Federal Wiretap


and video-rental privacy
laws

Commercialized users
private data

Improper Terms of Service

Behavioral Targeting of
users

Case Study: Facebooks Ethical Decision


Utilitarian
Approach
Options

Max Points

Justice
Approach

Rights
Approach

Virtue
Approach

Score

Score

Score

Score

Score

TOTAL

Keep Beacon

10

11

Modify Beacon

10

10

10

34

Cancel Beacon

10

29

Source: Case Study by George Washington School of Business

Cyber-ethics: Code of Fair Information


Practices for Organizations

Based on 5 principles outlining the requirements for records keeping systems.


1.

There must be no personal data record-keeping systems whose very existence is secret.

2.

There must be a way for a person to find out what information about the person is in a record and how
it is used.

3.

There must be a way for a person to prevent information about the person that was obtained for one
purpose from being used or made available for other purposes without the person's consent.

4.

There must be a way for a person to correct or amend a record of identifiable information about the
person.

5.

Any organization creating, maintaining, using, or disseminating records of identifiable personal data
must assure the reliability of the data for their intended use and must take precautions to prevent
misuses of the data (Harris, 2003).

Implemented in 1973 by the U.S. Department of Health, Education and Welfare

Microsofts Cyber-ethics Dos & Donts


for Users
Do

Dont

1.

Use the Internet for communication

1.

Be a cyberbully

2.

Report cyberbullying

2.

Encourage cyberbullies

3.

Use the Internet for research and


information

3.

Use copyrighted information as your


own

4.

Enjoy music, videos and games on the


Internet

4.

Download or share copyrighted


information

5.

Shop, bank and pay bills online

5.

Share personal information online

6.

Use the Internet to expand your social


and business networks

6.

Lie

Conclusions

The Internet is the most prominent network of computers and has become a
fundamental part of life in the modern world.

It is necessary to respect users privacy while ensuring a balance between Freedom


and Protection.

Corporates must adhere to Privacy Laws while designing their terms of service and
not violate their customers human right to privacy in any way.

Ethical Decision Making is essential to ensure adherence to Ethics and Laws.

Both Companies as well as users can follow Ethical guidelines in the form of Codes
of Ethics that must be well formulated.

References

Batchelor, Nikki and Houston, Daniel: Facebook Case Study. George


Washington School of Business, 2013.

Warren and Brandeis, "The Right To Privacy"

http://www.scu.edu/ethics-center/privacy/balance/

http://www.microsoft.com/security/online-privacy/cyberethicspractice.aspx

http://www.wired.com/2012/09/beacon-settlement-approved/

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Facebook_Beacon

http://epic.org/privacy/consumer/code_fair_info.html