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Firmansyah Nur Budiman

Lab. Transmisi & Distribusi

Jurusan Teknik Elektro & Teknologi Informasi FT UGM

Complex Number

A A A (cos j sin )

B B B (cos j sin )

A.B A B

A A

B B

Polar form

Rectangular form

A

A (cos j sin )

Complex Number

Example of Use:

Load 1:

TL light

220 V, 40 W, pf = 0.4

Load 2:

Induction motor

220 V, 200 W, pf = 0.7

Find I, I1, I2!

Complex Number

V 2200 V

0

Load 1:

cos 0.4 66.4

Load 2:

0

40

I1

0.45 A

220 0.4

200

I2

1.3 A

220 0.7

I1 0.45 66.4 0

I 2 1.3 45.6 0

I I1 I 2

I (0.18 j 0.42) (0.91 j 0.93) 1.73 50.9 0

Complex Power

Complex power: S P jQ VI *

Apparent power: S P 2 Q 2

where P V I cos

Q V I sin

of complex power, or S S

Impedance

Individual passive components:

Impedance

Combination:

Impedance

1

Y

Z

1

B

X

X = reactance [Ohm]

B = suseptance [Mho, Siemens]

Three-phase System

Single-phase electricity:

Three-phase electricity:

Three-phase System

Voltage & current:

van (t ) VM cos t

ia (t ) I M cos(t )

ib (t ) I M cos(t 1200 )

ic (t ) I M cos(t 2400 )

Important properties:

V AN VBN VCN 0

I A I B IC 0

Three-phase System

Advantages:

(1) Three-phase motors, generators, and

transformers are simpler, cheaper, and more

efficient.

(2) Three-phase transmission lines can deliver

more power for a given weight and cost.

(3) The voltage regulation of 3-phase

transmission lines is better.

Three-phase System

Instantaneous power:

VM I M

p (t ) 3

cos

2

10

ia(t)

va(t)

0

-5

-10

0

90

180

270

Angle (degree)

360

450

540

180

270

Angle (degree)

360

450

540

50

pa(t)

40

30

20

10

0

90

50

10

va(t)

pa(t)

ia(t)

pb(t)

40

30

0

20

-5

10

-10

0

90

180

270

Angle (degree)

360

450

540

90

50

10

ib(t)

270

Angle (degree)

360

450

540

180

270

Angle (degree)

360

450

540

ptotal(t)

vb(t)

180

40

30

0

20

-5

10

-10

0

90

180

270

Angle (degree)

360

450

540

90

50

pa(t)

40

pb(t)

pc (t)

30

20

10

0

120

240

Angle (degree)

360

480

240

Angle (degree)

360

480

100

75

ptotal(t)

50

25

0

0

120

Power in single-phase circuit:

S1 VLN I

Power in three-phase circuit:

S1 3 VLN I

Example

The 3-phase generator shown is connected to

three 20 load resistors. If the effective

voltage in each phase is 120V, calculate:

(a)Power dissipated in each resistor

(b)Power dissipated in 3-phase load

(c) Peak power Pm dissipated in each

resistor

(d)Total 3-phase power compared to Pm

Wye Connection

Wye Connection

Voltage relationship:

Examples

A 3-phase 60Hz generator, connected in wye,

generates a line (line-to-line) voltage of 23900V.

Calculate:

(a) Line-to-neutral voltage

(b) Voltage induced in individual winding

(c) Time interval between positive peak voltage

of phase A and positive peak voltage of

phase B

(d) Peak value of line voltage

Examples

A 3-phase generator generates a line voltage of

865V, and each load resistor has an impedance

of 50. Calculate:

(a)Voltage across each resistor

(b)Current in each resistor

(c) Total power output of generator

Delta Connection

I a I b I c 3 I1 3 I 2 3 I 3

Summary

Examples

Three identical impedances are connected in

delta across a 3-phase 550V line. If the line

current is 10A, calculate:

(a) Current in each impedance

(b) Value of each impedance

Examples

A manufacturing plant draws a total of 415kVA

from a 2400V(line-to-line) 3-phase line. If the

plant power factor is 87.5% lagging, calculate:

(a) Impedance of the plant, per phase

(b) Phase angle between line-to-neutral voltage

and line current

(c) Phasor diagram for the plant

Homeworks

(1) A 3-phase motor connected to a 600V line draws

a line current of 25A. Calculate the apparent

power supplied to the motor!

(2) A 3-phase heater dissipates 15kW when

connected to a 208V, 3-phase line.

a) What is the line current if the resistors are

connected in wye?

b) What is the line current if the resistors are

connected in delta?

c) If the resistors are known to be connected in

wye, calculate the resistance of each

Homeworks

(3) Three 15 resistors and three 8 reactors are

connected as shown below.

a) Active, reactive, and apparent power

supplied to the 3-phase load

b) Voltage across each resistor

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