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# Class 4

## Impedance & Three-phase System

Firmansyah Nur Budiman
Lab. Transmisi & Distribusi
Jurusan Teknik Elektro & Teknologi Informasi FT UGM

Complex Number
A A A (cos j sin )
B B B (cos j sin )
A.B A B
A A

B B

Polar form
Rectangular form

A
A (cos j sin )

Complex Number
Example of Use:
Load 1:
TL light
220 V, 40 W, pf = 0.4

Load 2:
Induction motor
220 V, 200 W, pf = 0.7
Find I, I1, I2!

Complex Number
V 2200 V
0

Load 1:
cos 0.4 66.4

Load 2:
0

## cos 0.7 45.6

40
I1
0.45 A
220 0.4

200
I2
1.3 A
220 0.7

I1 0.45 66.4 0

I 2 1.3 45.6 0

I I1 I 2
I (0.18 j 0.42) (0.91 j 0.93) 1.73 50.9 0

Complex Power
Complex power: S P jQ VI *
Apparent power: S P 2 Q 2
where P V I cos
Q V I sin

## Therefore, apparent power is the magnitude

of complex power, or S S

Impedance
Individual passive components:

Impedance
Combination:

Impedance
1
Y
Z
1
B
X

## Y = admittance [Mho, Siemens]

X = reactance [Ohm]
B = suseptance [Mho, Siemens]

Three-phase System
Single-phase electricity:

Three-phase electricity:

Three-phase System
Voltage & current:

van (t ) VM cos t

ia (t ) I M cos(t )

## vbn (t ) VM cos(t 1200 )

ib (t ) I M cos(t 1200 )

## vcn (t ) VM cos(t 2400 )

ic (t ) I M cos(t 2400 )

Important properties:
V AN VBN VCN 0
I A I B IC 0

Three-phase System
Advantages:
(1) Three-phase motors, generators, and
transformers are simpler, cheaper, and more
efficient.
(2) Three-phase transmission lines can deliver
more power for a given weight and cost.
(3) The voltage regulation of 3-phase
transmission lines is better.

Three-phase System
Instantaneous power:
VM I M
p (t ) 3
cos
2

10
ia(t)

va(t)

0
-5
-10
0

90

180

270
Angle (degree)

360

450

540

180

270
Angle (degree)

360

450

540

50
pa(t)

40
30
20
10
0

90

50

10

va(t)

pa(t)

ia(t)

pb(t)

40
30

0
20
-5
10
-10
0

90

180

270
Angle (degree)

360

450

540

90

50

10
ib(t)

270
Angle (degree)

360

450

540

180

270
Angle (degree)

360

450

540

ptotal(t)

vb(t)

180

40
30

0
20
-5
10
-10
0

90

180

270
Angle (degree)

360

450

540

90

50

pa(t)

40

pb(t)

pc (t)

30
20
10
0

120

240
Angle (degree)

360

480

240
Angle (degree)

360

480

100
75
ptotal(t)
50
25
0
0

120

## Power in Three-phase System

Power in single-phase circuit:

S1 VLN I
Power in three-phase circuit:

S1 3 VLN I

Example
The 3-phase generator shown is connected to
three 20 load resistors. If the effective
voltage in each phase is 120V, calculate:
(a)Power dissipated in each resistor
(b)Power dissipated in 3-phase load
(c) Peak power Pm dissipated in each
resistor
(d)Total 3-phase power compared to Pm

Wye Connection

Wye Connection
Voltage relationship:

## Vab Vbc Vca 3 Van 3 Vbn 3 Vcn

Examples
A 3-phase 60Hz generator, connected in wye,
generates a line (line-to-line) voltage of 23900V.
Calculate:
(a) Line-to-neutral voltage
(b) Voltage induced in individual winding
(c) Time interval between positive peak voltage
of phase A and positive peak voltage of
phase B
(d) Peak value of line voltage

Examples
A 3-phase generator generates a line voltage of
865V, and each load resistor has an impedance
of 50. Calculate:
(a)Voltage across each resistor
(b)Current in each resistor
(c) Total power output of generator

Delta Connection

I a I b I c 3 I1 3 I 2 3 I 3

Summary

Examples
Three identical impedances are connected in
delta across a 3-phase 550V line. If the line
current is 10A, calculate:
(a) Current in each impedance
(b) Value of each impedance

Examples
A manufacturing plant draws a total of 415kVA
from a 2400V(line-to-line) 3-phase line. If the
plant power factor is 87.5% lagging, calculate:
(a) Impedance of the plant, per phase
(b) Phase angle between line-to-neutral voltage
and line current
(c) Phasor diagram for the plant

Homeworks
(1) A 3-phase motor connected to a 600V line draws
a line current of 25A. Calculate the apparent
power supplied to the motor!
(2) A 3-phase heater dissipates 15kW when
connected to a 208V, 3-phase line.
a) What is the line current if the resistors are
connected in wye?
b) What is the line current if the resistors are
connected in delta?
c) If the resistors are known to be connected in
wye, calculate the resistance of each

Homeworks
(3) Three 15 resistors and three 8 reactors are
connected as shown below.

## If the line voltage is 530V, calculate:

a) Active, reactive, and apparent power
supplied to the 3-phase load
b) Voltage across each resistor