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Presented By

P.SACHIN Kumar
III-ECE
B.I.T.INSTITUTE of TECHNOLOGY

Contents
Principle

Components
Working

Manufacturing
Process
Types

Pros and Cons

Introduction
An organic light emitting diode

(OLED) is a LED in which the


emissive electroluminescent layer
is a film of organic compounds
which emits light in response to
an electric current.

Principle

OLEDs emit light in a similar

manner to LEDs, through a process


called electro phosphorescence

Substrate (clear plastic, glass, foil)

Anode (transparent)
Organic layers - These layers are made of organic molecules

polymers.

or

Conducting layer
Emissive layer

Cathode (may or may not be transparent depending on the

of OLED)

type

Working
When voltage is applied, one layer
becomes negatively charged relative to
another transparent layer.
As energy passes, it stimulates organic
material between the two, which emits
light visible through an outermost layer
of glass.
The color of the light depends on the
type of organic molecule in the emissive
layer.
The more current, the brighter the light.

Manufacturing
The biggest part of manufacturing OLEDs is applying
the organic layers to the substrate. This can be done in
three ways:
Vacuum deposition or vacuum thermal evaporation

(VTE)

Organic vapor phase deposition (OVPD)

Inkjet printing
Laboratory set up of a high-precision inkjet printer for
making polymer OLED displays

Passive-matrix OLED
2. Active-matrix OLED
3. Transparent OLED
4. Top-emitting OLED
5. Foldable OLED
6. White OLED
1.

Each type has different uses.

1. Passive-matrix OLED (PMOLED)


They have strips of cathode and anode arranged perpendicular to

cathode strips.

The intersections of the cathode and anode make up the pixels

where light is emitted.

External circuitry applies current to selected strips , determining

which pixels get turned on and off.

PMOLEDs are easy to make, but they consume more power than

other types of OLED.

PMOLEDs are most efficient for cell phones, PDAs and MP3

players.

Even with the external circuitry, PMOLEDs consume less battery

power

2.Active-matrix OLED (AMOLED)


They have full layers of cathode and anode, but the
anode layer overlays a TFT array that forms a matrix.

AMOLEDs consume less power than PMOLEDs because


the TFT array requires less power
The best uses for AMOLEDs are computer monitors,
large-screen TVs and electronic signs or billboards

3.Transparent OLED
TOLEDS --when turned off, are

up to 85 percent as transparent as
their substrate.

A transparent OLED display can

be either active- or passive-matrix.

This technology can be used for

heads-up displays.

4.Top-emitting OLED

Top-emitting OLEDs have a

substrate that is either opaque or


reflective.
They are best suited to active-

matrix design.

Manufacturers may use top-

emitting OLED displays in smart


cards.

5.Foldable OLED
Foldable OLEDs have substrates made of

very flexible metallic foils or plastics, Can


also be attached to clothes

6.White OLED

White OLEDs emit brighter light than

fluorescent lights.

White OLEDs also have the true-color

qualities of incandescent lighting.

Their use could potentially reduce energy

costs for lighting.

Exciting displays -ultra-thin, flexible or transparent displays.


Low power consumption
Environmental friendly
Greater brightness
Better durability-can operate in a broader temperature range
Lighter weight can be freely suspended

Some more Advantages


OLEDs do not require backlighting like LCDs
OLEDs are easier to produce and can be made to larger sizes.
OLEDs have large fields of view, about 170 degrees.

OLED seems to be the perfect technology for all types of displays, but it also has some
problems
Water can damage easily
Lifetime - red and green OLED (23,000 to 2,30,000 hours), blue OLED (up to

14,000 hours)

Manufacturing: difficult up to now

References
Text books
A. Bernanose, P. Vouaux, J. Chim. Phys. 1953.
A. Bernanose, J. Chim. Phys. 1955.
Mark, Peter; Helfrich, Wolfgang (1962).
Kallmann, H.; Pope, M. (1960).

Helfrich, W.; Schneider, W. (1965).


Partridge, R (1983).

Web sites:
Wikipedia
howstuffworks.com
Electronicsforu.com

THANK q