You are on page 1of 183

MICROBIOLOGY DEPARTMENT

INSPECTORATE INTERNATIONAL LIMITED


( Bureau Veritas Commodities Division)
World Leader in Commodity Inspection and Testing

- Copyright Bureau Veritas

Legionella control in the


University of Sheffield
FOOD SAFETY- Microbiological hazards

Legionella Awareness for


Departmental
representatives

- Copyright Bureau Veritas

Bureau Veritas Presentation _ Date

Program outline

Introduction
Food legislation
Food poisoning statistics
Food hazards
Bacterial food poisoning
Potentially hazardous foods
Causes of food poisoning

Prevention of food poisoning


Food handling controls
Conclusion
Assessment

- Copyright Bureau Veritas

Bureau Veritas Presentation _ Date

Introduction

Food safety is an important public health priority. Foodborne illness

(sometimes called "foodborne disease," "foodborne infection," or "food


poisoning) is a common, costlyyet preventablepublic health
problem.
.
Every person working in the food industry has a responsibility to prepare

food that is safe and suitable to eat.

This training presentation will assist you with this responsibility.

- Copyright Bureau Veritas

Bureau Veritas Presentation _ Date

Food legislation

- Copyright Bureau Veritas

Bureau Veritas Presentation _ Date

Food legislation

The Food Code has been developed to help the food industry and

the law-enforcement officers understand the ways and means to


meet the standards and objectives mentioned in the GCC, Federal
and Local regulations.
The Code also helps the Food Control Department determine

compliance with these standards and enhance consistency in the


interpretation and enforcement of regulations.

- Copyright Bureau Veritas

Bureau Veritas Presentation _ Date

Who has had food poisoning?

- Copyright Bureau Veritas

Bureau Veritas Presentation _ Date

Current food poisoning statistics in United states

CDC estimates that each year roughly 1 in 6 Americans

(or 48 million people) get sick


128,000 are hospitalized, and
3,000 die of foodborne diseases

A large majority of these cases stem from incorrect

food handling and hygiene practices within the food


industry

- Copyright Bureau Veritas

Bureau Veritas Presentation _ Date

Current food poisoning statistics in Australia

It is estimated there are:

14,800 food poisoning cases per day

5.4 million cases per year

14,700 hospital admissions per year

76 deaths per year

$3 billion per year in associated costs

60-80% of all reported cases come from commercial food premises.


It is also estimated that between 500,000 and 1 million cases of food
poisoning occur in Queensland per year.

- Copyright Bureau Veritas

Bureau Veritas Presentation _ Date

Causes of illness single food commodity outbreaks, 20032008

- Copyright Bureau Veritas

Bureau Veritas Presentation _ Date

10

Costs associated with food poisoning

Food business

Consumer/economy

Bad reputation

Productivity loss

Loss of revenue

Work absenteeism

Business closure

Medical expenses

Legal action and penalties

Hardship and suffering


Permanent disability
Death

- Copyright Bureau Veritas

Bureau Veritas Presentation _ Date

11

Categories of Contaminants

Chemicals

Microbiological

Bacteria

Virus

Protozoa

Helminths

bleach,
Causticsoda
Detergents
pesticides, etc

Physical
Metal
Wood
Glass
plastic, etc

- Copyright Bureau Veritas

Bureau Veritas Presentation _ Date

12

Hazards that can contaminate food

Food can be contaminated by the following three main hazard types:

Physical hazards (foreign objects) metal, wood, glass, plastic, etc.


Chemical hazards bleach, caustic soda, detergents, pesticides, etc.
Microbiological bacteria, viruses, moulds and parasites.

Food that is contaminated with any of these hazards is unsafe and


unsuitable to eat.

- Copyright Bureau Veritas

Bureau Veritas Presentation _ Date

13

Pathogens
micro-organism that cause disease
Several broad categories , including

Bacterial

Viruses

Protozoal

Zoom: Bacteria on the tip of a pin


- Copyright Bureau Veritas

Bureau Veritas Presentation _ Date

14

Size Comparison
Smallest
Virus
Bacteria
Protozoa
Helminth

Virus (0.02 to 0.2 micron)


Bacteria (0.2 to 5 microns)
Protozoa

Largest

4 to 20 microns

Helminth
40 to 100 microns

Pore size in a sand filter (1 micron)


- Copyright Bureau Veritas

Bureau Veritas Presentation _ Date

15

Bacteria

- Copyright Bureau Veritas

Bureau Veritas Presentation _ Date

16

7 Major Structures of a Bacteria Cell


1.

Capsule

2.

Cell wall

3.

Ribosomes

4.

Nucleoid

5.

Flagella

6.

Pilli

7.

Cytoplasm

17
- Copyright Bureau Veritas

Bureau Veritas Presentation _ Date

17

7 Major Structures of a Bacteria Cell


Capsule

keeps the cell


from drying out
and helps it
stick to food or
other cells
18
- Copyright Bureau Veritas

Bureau Veritas Presentation _ Date

18

7 Major Structures of a Bacteria Cell


Cell wall
Thick outer
covering that
maintains the
overall shape of
the bacterial
cell
19
- Copyright Bureau Veritas

Bureau Veritas Presentation _ Date

19

7 Major Structures of a Bacteria Cell


Ribosomes
cell part where

proteins are made


Ribosomes give the
cytoplasm of bacteria a
granular appearance in
electron micrographs

20
- Copyright Bureau Veritas

Bureau Veritas Presentation _ Date

20

7 Major Structures of a Bacteria Cell


Nucleoid
a ring made up
of DNA

21
- Copyright Bureau Veritas

Bureau Veritas Presentation _ Date

21

7 Major Structures of a Bacteria Cell


Flagella
a whip-like
tail that some
bacteria have
for locomotion

22
- Copyright Bureau Veritas

Bureau Veritas Presentation _ Date

22

7 Major Structures of a Bacteria Cell

Pilli
hollow hair-like
structures made
of protein
allows bacteria
to attach to
other cells.

23
- Copyright Bureau Veritas

Bureau Veritas Presentation _ Date

23

7 Major Structures of a Bacteria Cell


Cytoplasm
clear jelly-like
material that
makes up most
of the cell

24
- Copyright Bureau Veritas

Bureau Veritas Presentation _ Date

24

Shapes of Bacteria
Coccus

Chain = Streptoccus

Cluster = Staphylococcus

Bacillus

Chain = Streptobacillus

Coccobacillus
Vibrio = curved
Spirillum
Spirochete

- Copyright Bureau Veritas

Bureau Veritas Presentation _ Date

25

1. Coccus

Plural is cocci.
Spherical bacterium
Single cells -

monococci
Pairs - diplococci

Chains - streptococci

- Copyright Bureau Veritas

Bureau Veritas Presentation _ Date

26

2.Bacillus
Plural is bacilli.
A rod - shaped bacterium.
Exists as single cells, in

pairs (diplobacilli), and in


chains (streptobacilli).

- Copyright Bureau Veritas

Bureau Veritas Presentation _ Date

27

3. Spirillum

Plural is spirilli.
A spiral - shaped

bacterium.
Exist only as single

cells.

- Copyright Bureau Veritas

Bureau Veritas Presentation _ Date

28

Most Species of bacteria may be Grouped


Based on Staining
Gram-Positive

Gram-Negative

thin layer of peptidoglycan

Thicker layer of peptidogycan

Stain pink

Stain purple

Endotoxins

- Copyright Bureau Veritas

Exotoxins (released when


bacteria die)

Bureau Veritas Presentation _ Date

29

Gram +

Gram -

- Copyright Bureau Veritas

Bureau Veritas Presentation _ Date

30

Bacterial contamination
As soon as food is harvested, slaughtered or
manufactured into a product it starts to change. This
is caused by two main processes:
autolysis self destruction, caused by enzymes
present in the food;
microbial spoilage caused by the growth of
bacteria, yeasts and moulds.

- Copyright Bureau Veritas

Bureau Veritas Presentation _ Date

31

How does bacteria enter a food premises

Food poisoning bacteria come from five main sources:

Food handlers (especially their hands)


Raw foods, such as meat, poultry, shellfish and vegetables
Pests and animals
Air and dust
Dirt and food waste

- Copyright Bureau Veritas

Bureau Veritas Presentation _ Date

32

Microbial spoilage - bacteria


.
There are many different kinds, some are useful, e.g. in
the production of yogurt, and some harmful.
The presence of bacteria in food can lead to digestive
upset.
Some bacteria produce toxins which can lead to this
also.
Spores can also be produced by some bacteria leading
to toxins being produced.

- Copyright Bureau Veritas

Bureau Veritas Presentation _ Date

33

Microbial spoilage - yeast


Yeasts are single celled fungi which can reproduce
by budding. This means that a small offshoot or
bud separates from the parent yeast cell. Yeasts
can also form spores which can travel through the
air. These are easily killed by heating to 100C.
In warm, moist conditions in the presence of sugar,
yeasts will cause foods like fruit to ferment
producing alcohol and carbon dioxide gas.
Yeast is used in the production of bread and wine.

- Copyright Bureau Veritas

Bureau Veritas Presentation _ Date

34

Microbial spoilage - mould


Moulds are fungi which grow as filaments in food.
They reproduce by producing spores in fruiting bodies
which can be seen on the surface of foods.
These fruiting bodies sometimes look like round furry
blue-coloured growths, e.g. mould on bread.
Some moulds can be seen by the naked eye, e.g. on
bread.

- Copyright Bureau Veritas

Bureau Veritas Presentation _ Date

35

Conditions for bacterial growth


Micro-organisms need conditions to survive and
reproduce these can include:
temperature;

moisture;
food;
time;

oxygen;
pH level.

- Copyright Bureau Veritas

Bureau Veritas Presentation _ Date

36

Conditions for bacterial growth


Temperature
Bacteria need warm conditions to grown and multiply.

The ideal temperature for bacterial growth is 30C 37C.


Some bacteria can still grow at 10C and 60C. Most
bacteria are destroyed at temperatures above 63 C.
Bacterial growth danger zone in 5C - 63C.

At very cold temperatures, bacteria become dormant they


do not die, but they cannot grow or multiply.

- Copyright Bureau Veritas

Bureau Veritas Presentation _ Date

37

Bacteria grow
best in
temperatures
ranging from
40-140 F
The Danger Zone

- Copyright Bureau Veritas

Bureau Veritas Presentation _ Date

38

Recommended Safe Temperatures (Fahrenheit)

Bacteria multiply
rapidly at temperatures
between 40 and 140 F.

180

Whole poultry

170

Poultry breast, well-done meats

165

Stuffing, ground poultry, reheat leftovers

160

Medium-done meats, raw eggs, egg dishes,


pork, ground meats

145

Medium-rare beef steaks, roasts, veal, lamb

140

Hold hot foods

DANGER ZONE: Do not keep foods between


40 F and 140 F for more than 2 hours.
40

- Copyright Bureau Veritas

Refrigerator temperatures
Freezer temperatures

Bureau Veritas Presentation _ Date

39

Food can be kept in


the temperature
danger zone for
only 2 hours. At this
time, the Bacteria is
in the Lag phase.
By 4 hours, the
bacteria will be well
into the Logarithmic
phase and the food
should be
considered unsafe
to eat.

- Copyright Bureau Veritas

Bureau Veritas Presentation _ Date

40

Conditions for bacterial growth


100C Water boils

82C Core temperature of hot food

5C - 63C danger zone for


rapid growth of micro-organisms

1C - 4C temperature of fridge
0C Freezing point of water
- Copyright Bureau Veritas

Bureau Veritas Presentation _ Date

41

Conditions for bacterial growth


Moisture
Where there is no moisture bacteria cannot grow. However,
bacteria and moulds can both produce spores which can
survive until water is added to the food.

Food
Bacteria need a source of food to grow and multiple, these
food usually contain large amounts of water and nutrients.

Time
One bacterium can divide into two every 20 minutes. Food
where bacteria rapidly multiple in are called perishable
foods.
- Copyright Bureau Veritas

Bureau Veritas Presentation _ Date

42

Conditions for bacterial growth


Oxygen
Some bacteria need oxygen to grow and multiply.
These are called aerobic bacteria. Other bacteria
grow well when there is no oxygen present, these are
known as anaerobic bacteria.
pH level
An acidic or alkaline environment can promote of
inhibit microbial growth. Most bacteria prefer a neutral
pH (6.6 7.5). Moulds and yeasts can survive at pH
levels of 1-1/5 (very acidic), food spoilage usually
occurs by yeast and moulds.
- Copyright Bureau Veritas

Bureau Veritas Presentation _ Date

43

Bacteria need
water to live.

Foods with a high


water content are
most likely to
become
contaminated.
Meat
Cheese
Salads
Fruit
- Copyright Bureau Veritas

Bureau Veritas Presentation _ Date

44

PRESERVATION

Salt and Sugar


bind to water,
making food less
likely to be
contaminated by
bacteria.

- Copyright Bureau Veritas

Bureau Veritas Presentation _ Date

45

Bacteria prefer a neutral environment.

A pH between 6.6 7.5 is ideal.


Strong acids and bases will kill
bacteria.
Bacteria also need an appropriate
atmosphere in which to breed.
Aerobic bacteria need oxygen
Anaerobic bacteria cannot survive in
oxygen
Facultative Bacteria can adapt to their
environment. Most bacteria are
facultative.

- Copyright Bureau Veritas

Bureau Veritas Presentation _ Date

46

Causes of food poisoning

Cross-contamination

Cross-contamination occurs when food becomes contaminated with

bacteria from another source.


Bacteria can be transported by hands, utensils, surfaces, equipment,

tea towels, raw food and pests.


Common examples of cross contamination include unclean hands; dirty

knives; utensils; equipment and food contact surfaces (eg chopping


boards); blood dripping from raw foods; storing raw food with cooked
foods; storing food uncovered; and using dirty cleaning cloths and tea
towels.

- Copyright Bureau Veritas

Bureau Veritas Presentation _ Date

47

Causes of food poisoning


Unclean food premises

Dirty kitchens increase the risk of cross-contamination from pests and


particles of food, grease and dirt.

Poor pest control

Common pests found in food premises include:


rats and mice

flies
cockroaches

These pests can carry food poisoning bacteria and may also cause
physical contamination of food with their droppings, eggs, fur and dead
bodies.
- Copyright Bureau Veritas

Bureau Veritas Presentation _ Date

48

Where is this?

No Prize for guessing!


- Copyright Bureau Veritas

Bureau Veritas Presentation _ Date

49

What are the risks of cross-contamination?

- Copyright Bureau Veritas

Bureau Veritas Presentation _ Date

50

How can this result in food poisoning?

- Copyright Bureau Veritas

Bureau Veritas Presentation _ Date

51

How can this result in food poisoning?

- Copyright Bureau Veritas

Bureau Veritas Presentation _ Date

52

What are the risks of poor pest control?

- Copyright Bureau Veritas

Bureau Veritas Presentation _ Date

53

Causes of food poisoning

Poor pest control

Common pests found in food premises include:


rats and mice
flies
cockroaches

These pests can carry food poisoning bacteria and may also cause
physical contamination of food with their droppings, eggs, fur and dead
bodies.

- Copyright Bureau Veritas

Bureau Veritas Presentation _ Date

54

Causes of food poisoning

Poor personal hygiene

Examples of poor personal hygiene include:


Dirty hands and clothing
Uncovered cuts and wounds
Long dirty fingernails
Excess jewellery on hands and wrists
Coughing and sneezing over food
Handling food while ill
Not washing hands after going to the toilet
- Copyright Bureau Veritas

Bureau Veritas Presentation _ Date

55

Good Personal Hygiene

keeping yourself clean

- Copyright Bureau Veritas

Bureau Veritas Presentation _ Date

56

Importance of good personal hygiene


Hygiene

describes a system of sanitary principles to preserve health

Personal hygiene

Refers to cleanliness of a persons body

Communicable disease

Pathogens transmitted by one person to another may be by touch / through


food / by aerosols

22 Dec 07
- Copyright Bureau Veritas

Good Hygiene
Bureau Veritas Presentation _ Date

57
57

Communicable diseases

May be:

Diseases of respiratory tract

Intestinal disorders

Infectious hepatitis, dysentery, typhoid fever

Staphylococci (boils, acne, infected cuts)

A person may be a carrier (no symptoms)

Convalescent (< 10 wks after acquiring disease)

Chronic (carries it indefinitely)

Contact (carries but doesnt get sick)


22 Dec 07

- Copyright Bureau Veritas

Good Hygiene
Bureau Veritas Presentation _ Date

58
58

Wearing clean clothing


Clean outer garments
Hair nets / head coverings
Employee uniforms

No uncovered street clothes in production area

Worn to protect product and equipment from employees clothes

Clean footwear / overshoes


Use locker facilities provided

22 Dec 07
- Copyright Bureau Veritas

Good Hygiene
Bureau Veritas Presentation _ Date

59
59

1. Before you get to work


Take a shower

Wash off dead skin and bacteria

Put on clean clothes and footwear

Clothes and footwear can carry bacteria into the plant

Your skin sheds and


carries bacteria

Keep fingernails clean, trimmed and without polish / no artificial nails

Polish or artificial nails can fall off

22 Dec 07
- Copyright Bureau Veritas

Good Hygiene
Bureau Veritas Presentation _ Date

60
60

2. When you get to work

Place outside

clothes/footwear
in locker
Put lunches

(food) in
designated places

22 Dec 07
- Copyright Bureau Veritas

Good Hygiene
Bureau Veritas Presentation _ Date

61
61

When you get to work


Put on clean uniforms/smocks and footwear for use in plant only
Smocks are to keep your clothes from contaminating the product!
Wash hands before

22 Dec 07
- Copyright Bureau Veritas

touching food product

Good Hygiene
Bureau Veritas Presentation _ Date

62
62

When you get to work


Dont wear watches

or jewelry

They carry soil and


bacteria

Use clean footwear

Footwear can bring in


contamination from the
outside

22 Dec 07
- Copyright Bureau Veritas

Good Hygiene
Bureau Veritas Presentation _ Date

63
63

Empty pockets above waist


Sew pockets shut if possible
Pens and other objects can fall out when you bend over

These items are often physical hazards

They also carry bacteria

22 Dec 07
- Copyright Bureau Veritas

Good Hygiene
Bureau Veritas Presentation _ Date

64
64

3. When you are at work

You should wash


After using the toilet
After touching bare body parts (skin)

Have you washed


your hands?

After coughing, sneezing, using a handkerchief or

tissue
After eating, drinking, smoking tobacco
Before returning to your workplace
Before entering finished product packaging area to

package product
22 Dec 07
- Copyright Bureau Veritas

Good Hygiene
Bureau Veritas Presentation _ Date

65
65

Hand sanitizer stations


Convenient location & visible

For employees entering process area

For employees moving between jobs

Hand dip stations

Hands must be washed before sanitizing

Gloves should be put on before dipping

Keep concentration at correct level

22 Dec 07
- Copyright Bureau Veritas

Good Hygiene
Bureau Veritas Presentation _ Date

66
66

How to wash

Use adequate amount of

soap with warm water


Scrub vigorously between

fingers (include wrists)


Use brush to remove dirt

from under fingernails


Rinse thoroughly and

dry with paper towel


Use hand sanitizer when
22 Dec 07
- Copyright Bureau Veritas

Good Hygiene

leaving washroom

Bureau Veritas Presentation _ Date

67

67

Why wear hair nets?

Hair gets washed less frequently than other parts of


the body
Hair follicles produce oil

The oil attracts dust containing bacteria


Hair falls out periodically
If the hair drops into food or onto food contact

surfaces, it will contaminate the food

22 Dec 07
- Copyright Bureau Veritas

Good Hygiene
Bureau Veritas Presentation _ Date

68
68

Wear hair nets / beard nets

Hair nets and beard


nets protect food
products from
contamination
Baseball caps or

bump caps are not


sufficient!
All hair must be

tucked in nets
22 Dec 07
- Copyright Bureau Veritas

Good Hygiene
Bureau Veritas Presentation _ Date

69
69

Use of gloves
Gloves are used to protect food product from your

hands

Cuts, etc. should be covered with an approved bandage


first

Hands should be washed thoroughly before putting on


gloves

Dip gloved hands into sanitizer to keep the gloves

sanitized
Inspect gloves at least daily for pinhole leaks or

cuts
Good Hygiene
- Copyright Bureau Veritas

Bureau Veritas Presentation _ Date

70
70

Employee responsibilities
No food or drink in storage, processing & packaging areas
No use of gum or tobacco in food handling areas
Injuries, infections, disease must be reported to employer
Wash hands thoroughly

22 Dec 07
- Copyright Bureau Veritas

Good Hygiene
Bureau Veritas Presentation _ Date

71
71

Workplace habits
Dont use smock or uniform to clean hands
Dont stick hand into food product to test it
Dont chew gum
Never sneeze into air

22 Dec 07
- Copyright Bureau Veritas

Good Hygiene
Bureau Veritas Presentation _ Date

72
72

Plant production personnel policies


Policies

To prevent contamination of product

Minimize potential routes of entry

Control visitors

Restrict access

Post signs

Control drivers

Authorized visitors only / wear clean gear

Use footbaths where necessary

22 Dec 07
- Copyright Bureau Veritas

Good Hygiene
Bureau Veritas Presentation _ Date

73
73

Use of Lunchroom
Eat only in the lunchroom

Not in the processing area

Store your lunch in designated area

Not in lockers

Dont leave garbage lying around

Food attracts rodents and insects

22 Dec 07
- Copyright Bureau Veritas

Good Hygiene
Bureau Veritas Presentation _ Date

74
74

Allergens
Allergens are usually proteins that cause a severe anti-body reaction
Allergens include: eggs, soy, milk, nuts, seafood, and sulfites
Employees bring lunches that have allergens
Wash hands and dont bring food into plant

22 Dec 07
- Copyright Bureau Veritas

Good Hygiene
Bureau Veritas Presentation _ Date

75
75

Prevention of food poisoning

- Copyright Bureau Veritas

Bureau Veritas Presentation _ Date

76

Prevention of food poisoning


Temperature control

Minimise the time that potentially hazardous foods spend in the danger
zone.
Always remember to keep:
cold food cold at 5C or colder
hot food hot at 60C or hotter

All food businesses are required to obtain and use a probe thermometer,
accurate to +/-1C to monitor the temperature of potentially hazardous
foods.

- Copyright Bureau Veritas

Bureau Veritas Presentation _ Date

77

Prevention of food poisoning

Avoid cross-contamination
Keep food covered until use.
Practise correct personal hygiene.
Separate raw and cooked, and old and new food at all times.
Use separate equipment and utensils when preparing raw meats,

poultry and seafood.


Clean and sanitise all equipment, utensils and food contact surfaces.
Store chemicals separate to food.

- Copyright Bureau Veritas

Bureau Veritas Presentation _ Date

78

Prevention of food poisoning


Personal hygiene
Clean hands and clothing.
Minimise jewellery on hands and wrists.

Tie-back or cover hair.


Clean and short fingernails.
Avoid unnecessary contact with food.
Cover all cuts and sores with a brightly coloured waterproof dressing.
Do not eat over food or food surfaces.
Do not prepare food when you are ill.
Avoid touching your face and hair.
Do not cough or sneeze over food.
Do not taste food with your fingers or double dip with a spoon.
If wearing gloves, change frequently.

- Copyright Bureau Veritas

Bureau Veritas Presentation _ Date

79

Prevention of food poisoning

When should you wash your hands?

Before commencing or resuming work


After using the toilet
After smoking
After handling rubbish
After using a handkerchief or tissue
After touching your hair or face

Before and after handling raw food


Before handling cooked food
After any cleaning task

- Copyright Bureau Veritas

Bureau Veritas Presentation _ Date

80

Prevention of food poisoning

Hand washing facilities

Must be accessible to all food handlers.


To be used only for the washing of hands.
Provide soap and warm potable water.
Provide disposable towels for drying hands.
Provide a bin for the disposable towels.

- Copyright Bureau Veritas

Bureau Veritas Presentation _ Date

81

What is wrong with this hand wash area?

- Copyright Bureau Veritas

Bureau Veritas Presentation _ Date

82

Prevention of food poisoning

Cleaning

Essential for the safe operation of any food business.


Must be continuous and ongoing.
Thoroughly clean and sanitise all food surfaces, equipment and utensils

with hot water and detergent and chemicals (sanitisers). Remember that
most detergents do not kill bacteria, but hot water and sanitisers do!
Implement a cleaning schedule to ensure that cleaning is conducted on

a regular basis (including hard to reach places).

- Copyright Bureau Veritas

Bureau Veritas Presentation _ Date

83

Potentially hazardous foods

Potentially hazardous foods support the growth of bacteria. They need

to be kept at temperatures either below 5C or above 60C to prevent


the growth of any food poisoning bacteria that may be present in the
food.

Examples of potentially hazardous foods include meat, poultry, seafood,

eggs, dairy foods, gravies and cooked rice.

- Copyright Bureau Veritas

Bureau Veritas Presentation _ Date

84

Prevention of food poisoning

Cleaning and sanitising without a dishwasher

Wear rubber gloves to protect your hands from the hot water and
chemicals.

Remove food particles by scraping or soaking.

Wash using hot water and detergent change the water if it


becomes cool or greasy.

Rinse in hot water with chemical sanitiser or in very hot water (above
80C - only if sink has heating element and rinsing baskets) and
leave to soak for 30 seconds.

Either drip-dry or use a clean tea towel to reduce the risk of crosscontamination.

- Copyright Bureau Veritas

Bureau Veritas Presentation _ Date

85

Prevention of food poisoning

Pest Control

Keep them out seal the food premises.


Starve them out keep food premises clean.
Throw them out conduct regular pest inspections or services.
Dont give them a home - remove all unnecessary equipment and items.
Report all pest sightings or evidence of pest activity to your supervisor.

- Copyright Bureau Veritas

Bureau Veritas Presentation _ Date

86

Prevention of food poisoning

Waste management

Place waste in plastic lined bins.


Remove all waste from the premises as required.
Empty and clean waste bins regularly.
Ensure all external bins are covered.
Protect external waste bin area from pests and birds.

- Copyright Bureau Veritas

Bureau Veritas Presentation _ Date

87

Food handling controls


Supply use food suppliers that have a good reputation

Receival check temperatures of potentially hazardous foods on delivery and store at


the correct temperature as soon as possible. Do not accept potentially hazardous food
unless it is delivered under temperature control.

Storage
0 to 5C for fresh; -18C to -24C for frozen; and 60C or above for hot food
Keep food covered and up off the floor.
Separate food types (meat, poultry, seafood, dairy, fruit & veg).
Separate raw food from cooked and new food from old.
Store raw foods such as meat, poultry and seafood in containers on the bottom shelf

of the coolroom or fridge.


Rotate stock (first in, first out).

- Copyright Bureau Veritas

Bureau Veritas Presentation _ Date

88

Food handling controls


Preparation
Personal hygiene
Ensure that equipment, utensils and surfaces are clean
Temperature control
Avoid cross contamination
Dont prepare food too far in advance

Cooking ensure correct internal temperatures are achieved, using your probe
thermometer

Cooling
Cool to 5C within 6 hours
Cool in shallow containers in a well-ventilated area
Cover only when cooled thoroughly

- Copyright Bureau Veritas

Bureau Veritas Presentation _ Date

89

What are the risks of cooling and


storing food like this?

- Copyright Bureau Veritas

Bureau Veritas Presentation _ Date

90

Food handling controls


Reheating
Reheat food rapidly to 60C or above.
Ensure correct internal temperatures are achieved, using your probe

thermometer.
Never reheat food in a bain marie or hot box.

Thawing
Thaw foods in the coolroom or fridge on a drip tray.

Thaw only small food items in the microwave, then cook immediately.
Always ensure thorough defrosting before cooking.
Never thaw foods at room temperature.

Never thaw food in water.


Never re-freeze thawed food.
- Copyright Bureau Veritas

Bureau Veritas Presentation _ Date

91

What are the risks of thawing food like this?

- Copyright Bureau Veritas

Bureau Veritas Presentation _ Date

92

Food handling controls


Displaying protect food from contamination and keep potentially hazardous
foods under temperature control

Hot holding (bain maries, pie warmers and hot boxes)


Pre-heat hot holding equipment before adding food.
Heat food to above 60C before hot holding.
Maintain temperature of food above 60C.
Conduct regular temperature checks using your probe thermometer.

Packaging protect food from contamination and use suitable packaging


materials.
Transporting protect food from contamination and keep potentially
hazardous foods under temperature control.

- Copyright Bureau Veritas

Bureau Veritas Presentation _ Date

93

Food handling controls

Food disposal
Label food and keep separate.
Destroy food or return to supplier.

Food recall a food business involved in wholesale supply,


manufacture or importation of food must have a documented system in
place to ensure the recall of any unsafe food.

- Copyright Bureau Veritas

Bureau Veritas Presentation _ Date

94

Be a pro-active food handler

Report or prevent all suspected breaches of food safety.


Report all evidence of pest activity.
Conduct

regular temperature checks of food with your probe


thermometer.

Implement a cleaning schedule.


Obtain and read a copy of the Food Safety Standards.

Encourage other food handlers to attend food safety training programs

like this one.


Be aware food hazards are everywhere! Dont give them any

opportunity to contaminate food.


Always remember - prevention is better than cure.

- Copyright Bureau Veritas

Bureau Veritas Presentation _ Date

95

Conclusion

It is essential that food handlers have the required skills and knowledge of
food safety and food handling controls to minimise the risk of food
poisoning.

As a food handler, it is your responsibility to ensure that food for your


customers is safe and suitable to eat.

Happy and safe cooking!

- Copyright Bureau Veritas

Bureau Veritas Presentation _ Date

96

Safe Food Starts


with Good
Sanitary Habits
- Copyright Bureau Veritas

Bureau Veritas Presentation _ Date

97

THANK YOU

- Copyright Bureau Veritas

Bureau Veritas Presentation _ Date

98

- Copyright Bureau Veritas

Bureau Veritas Presentation _ Date

99

- Copyright Bureau Veritas

Bureau Veritas Presentation _ Date

100

Legionella control in the


University of Sheffield

Water Quality

Legionella Awareness for


Departmental
representatives
- Copyright Bureau Veritas

Bureau Veritas Presentation _ Date

101

Water Quality

Water quality is the physical, chemical and


biological characteristics of water
The vast majority of surface water on the
planet is neither potable (fit for drinking) nor toxic
Approximately 25% of the worlds population
has no access to potable water

- Copyright Bureau Veritas

Bureau Veritas Presentation _ Date

102

Water Quality

No simple property can tell whether water is polluted or not.

Industrial pollution is a major cause of water pollution


Water quality depends on the local geology and ecosystem,
as well as human uses (sewage dispersion, industrial pollution,
use of water bodies as a heat sink)

- Copyright Bureau Veritas

Bureau Veritas Presentation _ Date

103

Water Quality

POTABLE WATER
The word potable came into English from the Late
Latin potabilis meaning drinkable

Potable - (clean) water free of all objectionable


material, including pathogens, tastes, odors,
colors, toxins, radioactive material, organisms, oils,
gases, etc.

- Copyright Bureau Veritas

Bureau Veritas Presentation _ Date

104

POTABLE WATER
Over large parts of the world, humans have inadequate
access to potable water and use sources contaminated
with disease vectors, pathogens or unacceptable levels of
toxins or suspended solids.
Drinking or using such water in food preparation leads to
widespread acute and chronic illnesses and is a major
cause of death and misery in many countries.
Reduction of waterborne diseases is a major public
health goal in developing countries

- Copyright Bureau Veritas

Bureau Veritas Presentation _ Date

105

Water Quality

Why Do We Do Water Quality Testing?

- Copyright Bureau Veritas

Bureau Veritas Presentation _ Date

106

Why Do We Do Water Quality Testing?

Ensure safe drinking water

Identify problems

Adopt precautionary measures

Raise awareness

Determine the effectiveness of water treatment technologies

Select an appropriate water source

Influence policies to supply safe water

- Copyright Bureau Veritas

Bureau Veritas Presentation _ Date

107

Water Quality

Water quality is the physical, chemical and


biological characteristics of water
The vast majority of surface water on the
planet is neither potable (fit for drinking) nor toxic
Approximately 25% of the worlds population
has no access to potable water

- Copyright Bureau Veritas

Bureau Veritas Presentation _ Date

108

Categories of Contaminants

Chemicals
Microbiological

Physical

- Copyright Bureau Veritas

Bureau Veritas Presentation _ Date

109

Categories of Contaminants

Chemicals
Microbiological

Organic

Bacteria

Inorganic

Virus

pH

Protozoa
Helminths

Physical
Colour
Odor
Taste
Turbidity

- Copyright Bureau Veritas

Bureau Veritas Presentation _ Date

110

MICROBIOLOGY OF WATER

- Copyright Bureau Veritas

Bureau Veritas Presentation _ Date

111

MICROBIOLOGICAL CONTAMINANTS OF WATER

- Copyright Bureau Veritas

Bureau Veritas Presentation _ Date

112

Fecal pollution:

Introduces varieties of pathogens.

Bacterial:

Cholera

Typhoid fever

Shigellosis

Diarrhoea

E.coli

Y.enterocolitica

C.fetus

Leptospirosis

Viral:

Hepatitis A , E

Rota viral diarrhoea

Poliomyelitis

- Copyright Bureau Veritas

Helminthes:

Round worm

Thread worm

Whip worm

Hydatid disease

Guinea worm disease

Fish tape worm

Schistosomiasis

Protozoal:

Amoebiasis

Giardiaisis

Balantidiasis

Bureau Veritas Presentation _ Date

113

Microbiological Testing

- Copyright Bureau Veritas

Bureau Veritas Presentation _ Date

114

Heterotrophic plate count

- Copyright Bureau Veritas

Bureau Veritas Presentation _ Date

115

Heterotrophic plate count

Heterotrophs are broadly defined as microorganisms that require


organic carbon for growth.
They include
Bacteria,
Yeasts
Moulds

A variety of simple culture-based tests that are intended to


recover a wide range of microorganisms from water are
collectively referred to as heterotrophic plate count or HPC
test procedures.

- Copyright Bureau Veritas

Bureau Veritas Presentation _ Date

116

Heterotrophic plate count

- Copyright Bureau Veritas

Bureau Veritas Presentation _ Date

117

Heterotrophic plate count

Only a small proportion of the metabolically active

microorganisms present in a water sample may


grow and be detected under any given set of HPC
test conditions, and the population recovered will
differ significantly according to the method used.
The actual organisms recovered in HPC testing
can also vary widely between locations, between
seasons and between consecutive samples at a
single location

- Copyright Bureau Veritas

Bureau Veritas Presentation _ Date

118

Heterotrophic plate count

Microorganisms recovered through HPC tests

generally include those that are part of the natural


(typically non-hazardous) microbiota of water; in
some instances, they may also include organisms
derived from diverse pollutant sources.

- Copyright Bureau Veritas

Bureau Veritas Presentation _ Date

119

Use of HPC in water management


to indicate the effectiveness of water treatment

processes, thus as an indirect indication of


pathogen removal;
as a measure of numbers of regrowth organisms

that may or may not have sanitary significance

- Copyright Bureau Veritas

Bureau Veritas Presentation _ Date

120

Correlation of waterborne pathogens

There is no evidence, either from


epidemiological
studies
or
from
correlation
with
occurrence
of
waterborne pathogens, that HPC values
alone directly relate to health risk.

- Copyright Bureau Veritas

Bureau Veritas Presentation _ Date

121

Correlation of waterborne pathogens


The HPC monitoring can be used in drinking-water supplies
along with other information for validation and verification of
treatment process performance and other applications.
This may include the following things.
to monitor the performance of filtration
To monitor the performance of filtration or disinfection

processes.
For verification (and by some authorities also for validation)

of efficacy of cleaning
- Copyright Bureau Veritas

Bureau Veritas Presentation _ Date

122

DUBAI MUNICIPALITY LIMITS /GUIDELINES

SWIMMING POOL

<1000 CFU/mL

Potable water

<500 CFU/mL

Cooling tower

<10000 CFU/mL

- Copyright Bureau Veritas

Bureau Veritas Presentation _ Date

123

.
INDICATOR MICROORGANISMS

- Copyright Bureau Veritas

Bureau Veritas Presentation _ Date

124

Indicator Microorganisms

There are dozens of types of waterborne pathogens


which can be spread in water. The goal of the
water treatment plant operator is to ensure that
none of these pathogens are present in the
finished water to infect the customers.

- Copyright Bureau Veritas

Bureau Veritas Presentation _ Date

125

Bacterial Indicator Organisms

Testing the water for the presence of each type of waterborne


pathogen is too time consuming and expensive to be
feasible
Test for the presence of one or a few indicator

microorganisms which are usually present when pathogens


are present insted:

Cheaper

Easier to perform

Faster results

- Copyright Bureau Veritas

Bureau Veritas Presentation _ Date

126

Characteristics of a Useful Indicator


Useful for all water types

Always present when pathogens

are present
Not present in the absence of the

pathogen
Correlated with degree of pollution
More easily detectable than a

pathogen
Survive longer than the pathogen
Not dangerous to work with
- Copyright Bureau Veritas

Bureau Veritas Presentation _ Date

127

Indicator organisms:
Coliforms
Esch.coli.
Faecal coliforms
Faecal streptococci.
Clostridium perfringens.

Presence of fecal streptococci along with coliforms in


the absence of E.coli is also confirmatory of fecal
pollution.

- Copyright Bureau Veritas

Bureau Veritas Presentation _ Date

128

Total coliform bacteria


The most commonly used indicator

microorganisms are coliform bacteria


which are found in large numbers living
beside pathogenic microorganisms in
the intestinal tracts of warm-blooded
animals

- Copyright Bureau Veritas

Bureau Veritas Presentation _ Date

129

Coliform bacteria

- Copyright Bureau Veritas

Bureau Veritas Presentation _ Date

130

Total coliform bacteria


Masses of coliform bacteria are discharged from the

intestinal tract with these animals' feces.


If sewage enters water, the coliform bacteria in the sewage

will be carried along and will survive in the water for long
periods of time.
Thus, the presence of coliform bacteria provides evidence

that water has been polluted with sewage, and also


indicates the possible presence of pathogenic microbes.

- Copyright Bureau Veritas

Bureau Veritas Presentation _ Date

131

Total coliform bacteria


Masses of coliform bacteria are discharged from the

intestinal tract with these animals' feces.


If sewage enters water, the coliform bacteria in the sewage

will be carried along and will survive in the water for long
periods of time.
Thus, the presence of coliform bacteria provides evidence

that water has been polluted with sewage, and also


indicates the possible presence of pathogenic microbes.

- Copyright Bureau Veritas

Bureau Veritas Presentation _ Date

132

Coliform Group (total coliform)


Enterobacteriaceae

Coliform genera

Facultative anaerobe

Enterobacter

Gram negative

Non-spore forming

Klebsiella

Rod shaped

Citrobacter

Ferment lactose

Escherichia

Produce gas and acid within


48 h @ 35 C
133

- Copyright Bureau Veritas

Bureau Veritas Presentation _ Date

133

Faecal Coliforms/Thermotolarent coliforms

A subgroup of coliform, called fecal coliform bacteria, is


different from the total coliform group because they can
grow at higher temperatures and are found only in the fecal
waste of warm-blooded animals

- Copyright Bureau Veritas

Bureau Veritas Presentation _ Date

134

Escherichia coli (E. coli)


Found mainly in faeces of warm-blooded animals
Majority of E. coli is harmless (non-pathogenic)
Meets criteria for a good indicator and is the

most important

- Copyright Bureau Veritas

Bureau Veritas Presentation _ Date

135

Pseudomonas aeroginosa:

P. aeruginosa is ubiquitous in water, vegetation and soil.


Although shedding from infected humans is the

predominant source of P. aeruginosa in pools and hot tubs ,


the surrounding environment can be a source of
contamination. The warm, moist environment on decks,
drains, benches and floors provided by pools and similar
environments is ideal for the growth of Pseudomonas, and it
can grow well up to temperatures of 41 C

- Copyright Bureau Veritas

Bureau Veritas Presentation _ Date

136

Pseudomonas aeroginosa:

Pseudomonas tends to accumulate in biofilms in filters that

are poorly maintained and in areas where pool hydraulics


are poor.
It is also likely that bathers pick up the organisms on their

feet and hands and transfer them to the water. In swimming


pools, the primary health effect associated with
P. aeruginosa is otitis externa or swimmers ear, although
folliculitis has also been reported

- Copyright Bureau Veritas

Bureau Veritas Presentation _ Date

137

Bacteria
Heterotrophic Bacteria: Most
bacteria in nature, includes all
pathogens

Total Coliforms:
Presence in water may
indicate contamination
Thermotolerant Coliforms:
Found in intestines of warmblooded animals
E. coli: Indicator of fecal
contamination

- Copyright Bureau Veritas

Bureau Veritas Presentation _ Date

138

Legionella sp
- Copyright Bureau Veritas

Bureau Veritas Presentation _ Date

139

Legionella sp.
Legionnaires Disease

Pontiac Fever

- Copyright Bureau Veritas

Bureau Veritas Presentation _ Date

140

Genus Legionella

Best-studied species is L. pneumophila


accounts for ~ 85% of infections
motile, Gram-negative, aerobic rod
complex nutritional requirements

~ 50 species in genus, > half implicated in human


disease
o L. micdadei: mild, febrile, flu-like illness called Pontiac
fever
self-limiting, little or no tissue damage

- Copyright Bureau Veritas

Bureau Veritas Presentation _ Date

141

Ecology
There are 40 species in the family
of legionella bacteria in the world.
Of these species, 12 have been
implicated in human disease. 90%
of these disease cases are caused
by Legionella Pneumophila.

There are 15 serogroups of L.

Pneumophila and most cases are


associated with serogroup 1. There
are 5 subgroups in this serogroup
which have different degrees of
virulence.
- Copyright Bureau Veritas

Bureau Veritas Presentation _ Date

142

Ecology
Legionella are usually found in the freshwater of
streams, lakes, warm springs, rivers, and riverbanks.

In their natural aquatic environment, legionella feed on


various nutrients from the water, but are most adept in
the role of an intracellular parasite on other bacteria.

Once it is uptaken by a larger bacterium, it resists


bacterial defenses and then multiplies.

- Copyright Bureau Veritas

Bureau Veritas Presentation _ Date

143

Ecology
Environmental conditions which promote the growth
of legionella are:
Water temperature between 20 50 C.
Stagnant water.
pH range of 2.0 8.5
Sediment in water which supports the growth of supporting
microbiota.
Presence microbiota including algae, protozoa, and others.
L-Cysteine-HCL and Iron salts to promote growth.

- Copyright Bureau Veritas

Bureau Veritas Presentation _ Date

144

Ecology

The range of temperatures within which legionella


survives and thrives:

- Copyright Bureau Veritas

Bureau Veritas Presentation _ Date

145

Pathogenesis

In their usual aquatic environment, legionella do not cause


infections. But, when transferred to water supplies and air
conditioning units, they are able to cause large outbreaks of
disease.

Legionnaires Disease is caused by inhaling L. pneumophila


bacteria dispersed in aerosols of contaminated water from the
environment.

These aerosols are provided by devices in which warm water


can stagnate, such as A/C cooling towers, humidifiers, shower
heads, decorative fountains, and water misters in grocery
stores.

- Copyright Bureau Veritas

Bureau Veritas Presentation _ Date

146

RISK AREAS

Hot & cold water systems


Cooling Towers & Air Conditioning
Storage Cisterns
Calorifiers
Deadlegs
Showers
Spa pools
- Copyright Bureau Veritas

Bureau Veritas Presentation _ Date

Nemco
UTILITIES

147

Legionellae have been isolated from hot-water systems up to


66 C; however, at temperatures above 70 C they are
destroyed almost instantly (Dennis, Green & Jones, 1984;
Dennis, 1988b).
Kusnetsov et al. (1996) found that growth of all strains tested
decreased at temperatures above 4445 C, with the growthlimiting temperature being between 48.4 C and 50.0

- Copyright Bureau Veritas

Bureau Veritas Presentation _ Date

148

- Copyright Bureau Veritas

Bureau Veritas Presentation _ Date

149

Host
Aerosolized
Droplets

Source
- Copyright Bureau Veritas

Bureau Veritas Presentation _ Date

150

Route of Infection?
Primarily through inhalation of

aerosols, fine droplets & mists


Can be contracted by choking on

contaminated water
Statistically most susceptible

- 50 to 70 year olds
- Males

- Smokers

- Copyright Bureau Veritas

Bureau Veritas Presentation _ Date

151

Conditions Favorable for Legionella

Water Temperature 20-40C)


Area where water can become stagnant and formation of a bio-film can

occur.
Total Chlorine Residual below .5ppm
Lack of routine maintenance and cleaning of cooling towers, decorative

fountains and recreational water facilities.

- Copyright Bureau Veritas

Bureau Veritas Presentation _ Date

152

SHOWERS
Operate at desired temps
Poor hygiene
Infrequently used
Prone to scaling
Create aerosol

Nemco
UTILITIES

- Copyright Bureau Veritas

Bureau Veritas Presentation _ Date

153

DEAD LEGS
Stagnant water

Ambient temps
Breeding ground

Nemco
UTILITIES

- Copyright Bureau Veritas

Bureau Veritas Presentation _ Date

154

STORAGE TANKS
Over capacity
Stagnation
Out of site
Poor flow
Ambient temps

Nemco
UTILITIES

- Copyright Bureau Veritas

Bureau Veritas Presentation _ Date

155

CALORIFIERS
Can run at
critical temps
Thermal
stratification

Sludge build up

Nemco
UTILITIES

- Copyright Bureau Veritas

Bureau Veritas Presentation _ Date

156

COOLING TOWERS
Run at ideal temps
Open to elements
Contamination via
water supply
Intermittent use

Drift affects wide


area

Nemco
UTILITIES

- Copyright Bureau Veritas

Bureau Veritas Presentation _ Date

157

Virulence Factors

Environmental survival
o free living

o intracellular parasites of amoebae (Acanthamoeba


sp, Naegleria sp), ciliated protozoa, slime molds
more resistant than free-living bacteria to
biocides

Biofilms

omore resistant to disinfectants (very slow


growth rate in the biofilm)
- Copyright Bureau Veritas

Bureau Veritas Presentation _ Date

158

Virulence Factors

Phospholipase C
ohydrolyzes phosphatidylcholine
omay injure phagocytes and lung tissue
ocould allow escape from phagosome

Protein kinases

ophosphorylate tyrosine, serine, threonine


residues in eucaryotic signaling proteins
- Copyright Bureau Veritas

Bureau Veritas Presentation _ Date

159

Pathogenesis
L. Pneumophila enters a human host by penetrating into the alveolar region
of the lungs; the size of the bacterium allows its entrance in the human
respiratory tract.

Alveolar macrophages attempt to ingest the invader. Instead of being


destroyed within the macrophage, they grow and replicate , eventually killing
the macrophage. Many new legionella are released into the lungs and
worsen the infection.

Legionnaires Disease develops 2 10 days after exposure to the bacteria.


Exposure doesnt necessarily lead to infection. About 5 10% of the
American population show serologic evidence of exposure, but never
develop symptoms of an infection.
- Copyright Bureau Veritas

Bureau Veritas Presentation _ Date

160

Legionnaires Disease

Susceptibility
ohealthy are relatively resistant
oimpairment of respiratory defenses (heavy
alcohol use, smoking, old age) increases
susceptibility
ohospital patients with underlying immune
defects also susceptible
- Copyright Bureau Veritas

Bureau Veritas Presentation _ Date

161

Damage to the Lung

Phagocytes, T cells
o attracted to lung, do not kill bacteria
o release cytokines, other toxic products

Zinc metalloprotease

o intranasal, intratracheal challenge of guinea pigs


produces compatible lesions
o similar to Pseudomonas aeruginosa elastase
enzymatically inactivates IL-2, CD4 receptors on T cells:
could inhibit T cell activation
antibodies are protective
- Copyright Bureau Veritas

Bureau Veritas Presentation _ Date

162

Symptoms
Early symptoms include lethargy, headaches,
high fever, chills, muscle aches, and anorexia.

As the disease progresses, a dry, hacking


cough develops. Half of the people who
develop Legionnaires Disease suffer
shortness of breath and a third complain of
chest pain.

Although the pneumonia affects the lungs, the


disease is accompanied by symptoms that affect
other areas of the body such as diarrhea, nausea,
and vomiting.

- Copyright Bureau Veritas

Bureau Veritas Presentation _ Date

163

Diagnosis
Clinically, the early stages of Legionnaires Disease resemble
influenza. The advanced symptoms are common to many types
of pneumonia. Routine laboratory tests will not detect the
presence of legionella bacteria. Patients who have been
misdiagnosed as having pneumococcal pneumonia will fail to
respond to the usual penicillin therapy given.

If a pneumonia case involves multi-system symptoms, such as


diarrhea and vomiting, Legionnaires Disease can be
suspected. The diagnosis depends on very specialized lab tests
involving culture of the patients sputum, detection of specific
antibodies in the patients sera, or detecting the organism in
urine.
- Copyright Bureau Veritas

Bureau Veritas Presentation _ Date

164

Who Gets Legionnaires Disease?


Factors influencing susceptibility include the elderly, those with
suppressed immune systems, heavy smokers & alcoholics, and
others with weak lungs. Males are over twice as susceptible as
females.

Estimates of the number of cases vary from 25,000 to 50,000 a


year in the U.S., mostly in the summer. Between 5 15% of
those who contract the disease die from it. There have been
over 50 separate outbreaks.

- Copyright Bureau Veritas

Bureau Veritas Presentation _ Date

165

Indicator organisms:
Esch.coli.
Faecal coliforms

Faecal streptococci.
Clostridium perfringens.

Presence of fecal streptococci along with coliforms in the


absence of E.coli is also confirmatory of fecal pollution.
- Copyright Bureau Veritas

Bureau Veritas Presentation _ Date

166

Sampling of Water:
Three basic types :
1.From tap or fixed hand pump
2.From reservoir (River, Lake, Tank)

3.Water from dug well.

- Copyright Bureau Veritas

Bureau Veritas Presentation _ Date

167

Sampling from Tap Water:


Attachments of tap should be removed.
Dirt has to be removed by using a sterile cloth.
Water is allowed to flow for 2 minutes with maximum flow.
Tap is sterilized with flame ( gas burner, lighter, cotton
soaked in spirit).
Open the tap for outflow.
Fill the sterile bottle with water by leaving an air space.

- Copyright Bureau Veritas

Bureau Veritas Presentation _ Date

168

- Copyright Bureau Veritas

Bureau Veritas Presentation _ Date

169

- Copyright Bureau Veritas

Bureau Veritas Presentation _ Date

170

- Copyright Bureau Veritas

Bureau Veritas Presentation _ Date

171

- Copyright Bureau Veritas

Bureau Veritas Presentation _ Date

172

- Copyright Bureau Veritas

Bureau Veritas Presentation _ Date

173

- Copyright Bureau Veritas

Bureau Veritas Presentation _ Date

174

Slide Title

xoxoxoxoxoxox
xoxoxoxoxoxox
xoxoxoxoxoxox

xoxoxoxoxoxox

xoxoxoxoxoxox

xoxoxoxoxoxox

- Copyright Bureau Veritas

Bureau Veritas Presentation _ Date

175

Slide Title
Chart Title
xoxoxoxoxox

xoxox 5%
xoxox

xoxoxoxox

xoxoxoxox

xoxoxoxox

18%

xoxox

22%

xoxox

xoxoxoxoxox

xoxoxoxox

xoxoxoxox

33%

xoxox

22%

Chart Title
xoxox

xoxoxoxoxox

8%

xoxox 11%

xoxox

xoxox

14%

13%

xoxox

xoxox

11%

13%
xoxox

20%

- Copyright Bureau Veritas

Bureau Veritas Presentation _ Date

xoxox

10%
176

Slide Title
xoxoxoxox

xoxoxoxox

xoxoxoxox
xoxoxoxox
xoxoxoxox

xoxoxoxox

xoxoxoxox

xoxoxoxox
xoxoxoxox

xoxoxoxoxoxoxoxox
oxoxoxoxoxo

xoxoxoxox
xoxoxoxox
xoxoxoxox
xoxoxoxox

xoxoxoxox

xoxoxoxox
xoxoxoxox
xoxoxoxox

xoxoxoxoxoxoxoxox

- Copyright Bureau Veritas

Bureau Veritas Presentation _ Date

177

Slide Title
Text Title

Chart Title
m

145

161
20

166
29

145

141

138

2004

2005

2006

xoxoxoxoxox
xoxoxoxoxox

xoxoxoxox

xoxoxoxox

xoxoxoxox

xoxoxoxox

Chart Title
m

xoxoxoxoxox

42

44

34
2,6%

2,4%

2005

2006

2,4%

2004

xoxoxoxox

- Copyright Bureau Veritas

Bureau Veritas Presentation _ Date

178

Color Palette

Priority Colors

Additional Colors

R= 79
G= 116
B= 170

R= 153
G= 204
B= 255

R= 70
G= 137
B= 102

R= 104
G= 102
B= 92

R= 187
G= 186
B= 177

R= 219
G= 172
B= 19

R= 176
G= 0
B= 45

R= 236
G= 155
B= 162

R= 193
G= 91
B= 31

Conclusion

R= 43
G= 82
B= 112

- Copyright Bureau Veritas

Bureau Veritas Presentation _ Date

179

Water Quality

- Copyright Bureau Veritas

Bureau Veritas Presentation _ Date

180

Water Quality

- Copyright Bureau Veritas

Bureau Veritas Presentation _ Date

181

Water Quality

- Copyright Bureau Veritas

Bureau Veritas Presentation _ Date

182

- Copyright Bureau Veritas