Phonics/Phonemic Awareness

By the K-3 grade span

Phonics vs. Phonemic Awareness

Involves teaching students how to connect the sounds of spoken English with letters or groups of letters. (c, k, ck spellings)

Phonemic Awareness
Is the skill that is needed to recognize that a spoken word consist of a sequence of individual sounds (bun, run, sun, fun)


Both phonics and phonemic awareness sets the foundation for reading and writing.


Research indicates that a child who is taught systematic phonemic awareness will learn how to notice, think about and manipulate sounds in spoken language. The following activities are ways to build phonemic awareness: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Phoneme Phoneme Phoneme Phoneme Phoneme Phoneme Phoneme Phoneme isolation identity categorization blending segmentation deletion addition substitution

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Phoneme isolation
Children recognize individual sounds in a word  In kindergarten children are taught to isolate the beginning and end sound of words.

/b/ in the word bus /t/ in the word cat
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Children listen to a sequence of separately spoken phonemes and then combine the phonemes to form a word.

m  m a  m a n

Deletion/Addition/Subtracti on
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Phoneme deletion- children recognize the word that remains when a phoneme is removed from another word. Ex. – treason without the /t/ is reason. Phoneme addition- Children make a new word by adding a phoneme to an existing word. Ex.- if you add /b/ to the beginning of rake what is the new word? brake. Phoneme substitution- Children substitute one phoneme for another to make a new word. Ex.- the word is run. Change the /n/ to /g/. What’s the new word? rug

Examples of games to enhance phonemic awareness instruction.

Phonics Instruction

According to research-Systematic and explicit phonics instruction makes a bigger contribution to children’s growth in reading than non-systematic instruction. Examples of phonics instruction:  Embedded phonics  Sight word recognition  Analytic based phonics (use part of the word to decode and read words they don’t know)

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Embedded Phonics/Decodables

Children are taught letter-sound relationships during the reading of connected text. Example: Open Court Decodables

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Sight Words

Words recognized immediately by the reader without he or she having to go through the process of decoding them. Another name for sight words is High Frequency Words.

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Analogy-based phonics

Children are taught to use parts of words they have already learned to read and decode words they don’t know. Example:

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