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SEMINAR PRESENTATION 2

CONCEPTUAL METAPHOR:

REVIEW AND CRITICAL ANALYSIS OF TWO


BY
ARTICLES
DAYANA BINTI NAYAN
TGB 130048
NORAFIFAH BINTI MOHD, TAMRIN
TGC 140027

OVERVIEW
INTRODUCTION
SUMMARY AND COMPARISON OF ARTICLES
CRITIQUES OF ARTICLES
HOW THIS TASK BENEFITS US AS A STUDENT OF
LINGUISTIC THEORY
CONCLUSION
REFERENCES

INTRODUCTION

Cognitive linguistics is an approach to the analysis of natural language. It is originated in


the late seventies and early eighties evident in the work of George Lakoff, Ron Langacker
and Lan Talmy. Cognitive linguistics particularly focuses on language as an instrument for
organizing, processing and conveying information. Thus, the analysis of the conceptual
and experiential basis of linguistic categories constitutes the primary objective of Cognitive
Linguistics. More specifically, the formal structures of language are studies not as if they
were autonomous, but as reflections of general conceptual organization, categorization
principles, processing mechanisms, and experiential and environmental influences
(Geeraerts & Cuyckens, 2007).
Conceptual metaphor theory was one of the earliest and most important theories to take
a cognitive semantic approach in the Cognitive Linguistics. Throughout the development of
the larger Cognitive Linguistics enterprise, conceptual metaphor was one of the main
theories. Despite its limitations, it still remains an important perspective in Cognitive
Linguistics (Evan, Bergen, Zinken, 2007).
In accomplishing this task, we decided to explore the field of cognitive linguistics by
zooming into the concept of conceptual metaphor. The more we delve into the concept of
conceptual metaphor, the more we find it interesting as it goes way beyond the function of
stylistic and figure of speech. Thus, for this task, we looked into the concept of conceptual
linguistics from critical discourse analysis point of view. Hence, both articles chosen for the
purpose of this assignment generally study the use of metaphor as rhetorical strategies in
discourse but of course with some distinctions which will be addressed throughout this

METHODS

Identifying the
aim, research
questions,
theoretical
frameworks
and the
findings of
both articles.

Compare and
contrast both
articles in terms
of positive
aspects and
limitations in
order to provide
in-depth critique.

Conclude our
findings based on
the comparison
with extra
attention is given
to how the
metaphor-based
analysis is
conducted in
both articles.

SUMMARY AND COMPARISON OF ARTICLES

ARTICLE 1
BACKGROUN Title:
D INFO
Metaphor at work in the analysis of political
discourse: investigating a preventive war
persuasion strategy
Author:
Federica Ferrari

Journal:
Discourse & Society, Volume 18 (5)
Year published:
2007
Pages:
603-625

ARTICLE 2
Title:
Britain as a container: Immigration metaphors
in the 2005 election campaign
Author:
Jonathan Charteris-Black
Journal:
Discourse & Society, Volume 17 (5)
Year published:
2007

Pages:
563-581

ARTICLE 1 AND ARTICLE 2


SIGNIFICANCE OF THE 1. The main purpose of political discourse is to persuade people to
legitimize/delegitimize a particular political action.
RESEARCH
2. Language becomes a crucial ideological tool in political discourse (Linguistic
manipulation= the conscious use of language in a devious way to control the others)
3. To convince the potential electorate in present time societies, politics basically
dominates in the
media, which leads to creating new forms of
linguistic manipulation (Sarfo & Krampa, 2013)
4. Considering the powerful role of mass media in our daily life, we are bombarded with
political discourses from every direction (Young & Fitzgerald, 2006).

5. It is crucial for us to be aware of the rhetorical strategies used in political discourse


in order to deconstruct the underlying ideology as to make more informed judgment
on political decisions.

ARTICLE 1

ARTICLE 2

CONTEXTU
AL
INFORMATI
ON

1. America hardens its international policy


following the 9/11 incident.
2. War in Iraq is positioned as one of the
preventive strategies to fight terrorism.
3. George W. Bush in his speeches uses his
rhetoric to promote and legitimize the
preventive war in Iraq.

Immigration = a topic of marginal interest


CENTRAL ISSUE FOR RIGHT AND CENTRERIGHT PARTIES IN BRITISH POLITICAL COMM.
Why? (a) Electoral failure, (b) the absence of a
political agenda & (c) the topicality of immigration in
the media.
Immigration + metaphors
1. Symbolism of native people threatened by
outsiders political myth evoking cultural-historical
fears of invasion by aliens.
2. In the US : reinforced conscious and subliminal
fears in American public opinion.

RESEARCH
AIM

To investigate the use of conceptual


metaphor as an appeal to emotion within a
persuasion strategy

To study the rhetorical purpose of metaphor in


persuading the text receiver to approve of the stance
taken by the writer/speaker in relation to
immigration.

RESEARCH 1. What are the metaphor found in the


QUESTIONS
speeches?
2. What are the conceptual implications of
the metaphor used?
3. How do the metaphor use as a rhetorical
tool to appeal to readers emotion?

1. How do metaphors contribute to the formation of


legitimacy in right-wing political communication
on immigration?
2. Is there any difference in how metaphors are
employed when discussing the topic of
immigration in centre and far-right political

ARTICLE 1

ARTICLE 2

THEORETICAL
FRAMEWORKS

1. Conceptual metaphor
2. Pathos as a persuasion tool
3. Critical Discourse Analysis

1. Conceptual metaphor
2. Critical discourse analysis

RESEARCH
METHODS

Dataset
George W. Bush public speeches
Analysis framework of the dataset
Micro-macro analysis

Dataset
The British right-wing corpus (13
speeches by members of the
Conservative Party, the party political
manifestos, 18 press articles from the
Migrationwatch UK website)
Analysis Framework of the Dataset
1. Lexical analysis : the words immigrant
and immigration
2. Application of types of metaphors
3. Classification of metaphors according to
their source domains
4. General rhetorical analysis
To identify how metaphors contribute
to legitimacy formation
By identifying an interaction between
the two major conceptual groupings
identified: disasters and containers

Micro textual analysis:


Analyzing the metaphors used, developing
their conceptual implications and inferring
their appeals to emotion

Macro textual analysis:


1. Identifying the persuasive role of micro
textual features
2. Proposing the ideological implications of
metaphors and emotion conveyed.

ARTICLE 1
FINDINGS

Macro analysis
IDEOLOGICAL
BASIS:

PERSUASIVE
STRATEGY:

CONFLICT
FRAME
(good vs. evil, us vs.
them)

STRATEGY OF
FEAR (construction
of external vs.
internal space,
confidence vs. fear)

ARTICLE 1
FINDING
S

Micro analysis

Metaphor
State as a
person
Conflict as a
fight
Spatial
(container)
metaphor
Security as a
belt
Struggle as a
path

Emotive
appeals
Anger
Rage
Fear
Pride
Contempt

ARTICLE 1
FINDING
S

Metaphor 1: State as person


Our country is wounded

Conceptual implications:
-Characteristics of a person are mapped onto the state. E.g: having feelings/being a
subject to actions/able to react to actions
We must find who inflicted the wound (find the enemy)- us vs. them we are the
victim (good), they are evil because the cause us pain
-We are enduring a physical pain
Emotive appeal:
Anger (of being hurt)
Metaphor 2. Conflict as a fight

I will not relent in waging this struggle for freedom and security
Conceptual implications
-Characteristics of a fight are mapped onto the conflict.
- E.g: involves two sides (us vs. them), high level of energy
Emotive appeal:
Rage (having to fight with them)

ARTICLE 1
FINDINGS

Metaphor 2. Conflict as a fight


I will not relent in waging this struggle for freedom and security
Conceptual implications
-Characteristics of a fight are mapped onto the conflict.
- E.g: involves two sides (us vs. them), high level of energy
Emotive appeal:
Rage (having to fight with them)

ARTICLE 1
FINDING
S

Metaphor 3: Spatial metaphor


America as a container that can be sealed or penetrated.
Conceptual implications:
- Anything coming from outside the container is an external threat.
- External threat could invade the internal space which is in peace and tranquility.

Emotive appeal:
Fear
Fear strategy:
the construction of two contrasted space (container)- provide mental image of a
possibility of a break-in
An outside (locus of fear) represented as peril and threat.
An inside (locus of confidence) represented as a space of tranquility and an ideal of
perfection.

ARTICLE 1

FINDING
S

Metaphor 5: Security as a belt


I ask for your patience, with the delays and inconveniences that may accompany tighter
security
Conceptual implications:
-Security is something that can be loosened or tightened (image schema of a belt)
-Belt metaphor: if it (security) is loose, we have to tighten it.
-protection connotation
Emotive appeal:
Confidence (promising that what is loose would be fixed or tightened)

ARTICLE 1
FINDING
S

Metaphor 6: Struggle as a path


and for your patience in what will be a long struggle
Conceptual implications:
-connote a schema of the duration of the struggle in order to persevere freedom and
security (justify the request for the patience)
i.e not just difficult to hold but also long to be fulfilled
Emotive appeal:
Fear
Struggle indirectly make reference to the threat that exist outside the container
Trigger a state of anxiety/fear

FINDINGS OF ARTICLE 2
2 Conceptual
Groupings
A.

B.

Britain is
a container

Immigration
is a disaster
I. Natural
disaster

II. Social
disaster

1. NATION

2. OPENING

is a
container

the
container

3.

1. FLOW

and WAVE

2. FLOOD

3. The

immigration
system

4.
Governments
incompetence

PRESSURES
on the
container
from the
INSIDE
5. +
container
metaphor

4. A BUILD
UP OF
PRESSURE

Immigration is a disaster
Natural disaster : Liquid (movement = changes)
FLOW AND WAVE:
1. A BNP government would accept no further immigration from any of the parts of the world which present the
prospect of an almost limitless flow of immigration.
2. Britain also faces a further massive and unnecessary wave of immigration from Eastern Europe
FLOOD-RELATED

1. The myth = Britain is an island that is threatened by


invasion

Hyperbolism
I. So, unless a flood of refugees from a
civil war in France or Denmark

Increase
I. A few years ago there was a growing flood of Roma
asylum seekers

Decrease
I. Legislation in the early 1970s was
intended to reduce this to a trickle.

Reversing the tide


I. We recognize that a reversal of the tide of immigration
can only be secured by ..
II. .., but also to reverse the tide which has transformed
vast areas of our country ..

Immigration is a disaster
Social disaster
THE IMMIGRATION SYSTEM
In many cases, disaster metaphors refer to the immigration system itself (rather than to immigration per se)
Implies a conceptualization that the immigration system is a social disaster.
1. The revelations, in recent weeks, about the meltdown in the immigration system
GOVERNMENTS INCOMPETENCE
Immigration system is failing = immigration itself is a negative social phenomenon
1. Where has the Government been for the past eight years as our border controls were allowed to crumble?
2. The truth is that immigration and asylum are indeed out of control.
Political correctness
1. Its not racist to talk about immigration, and not racist to criticize the system. (to create a relationship of
equivalence, grounds for fear, terrorism). This leads to :
The social phenomenon of immigration is dangerous
1. It is only through a combination of tough anti terror laws and strict border controls that we will defeat the
terrorist threat. (double metonymy: TERRORIST FOR ILLEGAL IMMIGRANT (criminal) and ILLEGAL
IMMIGRANT FOR IMMIGRANT)
2. Firm border controls are essential if we are to:
- Limit immigration;
-Fight crime; and

Britain is a container
1. The NATION IS A CONTAINER
Britain is full up
Britains geographical status as an island encourages this.
Container = a bounded space, could be in 2, 3 or more dimensions, may be mental or physical.
2005 Conservative campaign : Securing Britains Borders
Secure = notions of security from threat, equates immigration with invasion the potential for perception of
container
2. OPENING THE CONTAINER = a conscious choice
Miss Hughes was praised for turning around the asylum problem, but managed immigration ran out of the
control, as Britain prepared to open its gates to a flood of immigrants
3. PRESSURES ON THE CONTAINER FROM THE INSIDE
The majority of immigrants settle in London and the South East, where pressures on housing are most
pronounced.
4. A BUILD UP OF PRESSURE
Europes most densely-populated country was full to bursting point,
5. POSITIVE CONTAINER METAPHOR
Britain is refreshed and renewed by the influx of new people

ARTICLE 1
CONCLUSIO
N

How metaphor is used in George W. Bushs


speeches as a persuasive strategy :
Constructing the conflict frame

Radicalizing the conflict into Manichean


conflict (good vs. evil)

Use strategy of fear (and confidence) to


impose the ideology on people:
legitimizing the war on Iraq
Bipolar structure of conflict frame and strategy of
fear allows for the correlational relationship to
occur.
Conceptual metaphor is a promising tool for
addressing persuasion as macrotextual strategy
as well as textual feature.

ARTICLE 2
Metaphors contribute to the formation of
legitimacy in right-wing political
communication on immigration through
the use of two categories:
1. Those related to disasters
2. Those related to containment
Both categories are related to:
Liquid metaphors : evoke historical
experience related to invasion and control
over the sea.
Bounded area: a space that is protected
from an outside source of danger.
Emotional domain: Arouse emotions like
fear and the desire for protection
Far-right discourse represents
immigration as a natural disaster
Centre-right represents immigration
system as a disaster.

CRITIQUE OF THE ARTICLES

ORGANIZATION OF THE CRITIQUE


ASPECT 1:
LITERATURE
REVIEW

ASPECT 2:
RESEARCH
METHODS

ASPECT 3:
FINDINGS

POSITIVE ASPECTS
LIMITATIONS

ASPECT 4:
CONCLUSION

ASPECT 1: LITERATURE REVIEW


A theoretical framework consists of concepts and, together with
their definitions and reference to relevant scholarly literature,
existing theory that is used for your particular study (Torraco, 1997).

LITERATURE REVIEW OF ARTICLE 1: POSITIVE


ASPECTS

Adequate theoretical and contextual background on metaphor, emotion and political


discourse- not just independently but the connection between them-to make sense of the
analysis framework and findings.
Examples:
Provides explicit
explanation on
political term
Manichean spirit
crucial for readers as
this is one of key
terms used in
addressing the macro
analysis finding.

Explains the nature of


metaphor/cognitive
approach to textual
analysis-enables the
readers to relate why it
is
used as
analytical tool to
identify persuasion.

Justify why emotion


is tied to metaphor
and why those two
are used as analytical
tool in to identify
persuasion strategy.

Explain the
connection between
emotion and
metaphor, emotion
is grounded in
metaphor concept
of bodily
experiences.

Explain what role a


discourse plays with
regards to emotion
and metaphordiscourse as the
sociocultural process
that mediate and
construct our
experiences of
embodiment.

Without all these connections being explained-very challenging to make sense why
metaphor and emotion are tied together as the analytical tools to deconstruct ideology
in a persuasive discourse.
This fulfill the characteristics of good literature review- not just citing relevant research but making connections
between the concepts and theories which results in a rich context for the research (Boote & Beile, 2005)

LITERATURE REVIEW OF ARTICLE 1:


LIMITATIONS
Unclear explanation of the concept of persuasion within the context of the research
EXAMPLES:
Elaborate more on
manipulation as at first the
authors try to characterize
manipulation with respect to
persuasion.

Juxtaposing the concept of


persuasion and manipulationaddress the problem in
distinguishing manipulation
and persuasion.

At the end, definition of


persuasion is not provided in
the context of the researchsimply mentioned that
manipulation concept is not
applied throughout this
research.

Consequences: Makes it hard for the readers to understand how strategy of fear works as persuasion
strategy as it could be manipulation strategy as well because it fits the definition of language
manipulation provided by the author. Failure in defining key terms clearly could jeopardize consumers
confidence in the given research (Hopkins, 1999).

LITERATURE REVIEW OF ARTICLE 2:


POSITIVE ASPECTS
The approach : dividing the literature into themes or categories. This is the most popular
approach where it allows integration of theoretical and empirical literature (Cronin, Ryan & Coughlan,
2008).
The few segments are: (a) functions of metaphors in political discourse, and (b) past studies of
metaphors in political discourse of other cultures.

The author has included vast resources: primary, secondary, and conceptual/theoretical.
This follows the description of effective resources by Colling (2003) (as cited in Cronin, Ryan & Coughlan,
2008).

The central topic of the research has been written in-depth by introducing other types of
metaphors used in real political discourse like security policy, unemployment and racism before
describing immigration. This follows the fact that authentic texts are likely to outline the
speakers beliefs as they are in real life (Neagu, 2011).
Not only that, impacts of metaphors in electoral campaigns from other countries are also
shared to deliver the relevance of the topic to readers. A complete review covers relevant

LITERATURE REVIEW OF ARTICLE 2:


LIMITATIONS
The background knowledge of the study focuses primarily on the introduction of different
political parties in the UK and less emphasis on the introduction of the conceptual
metaphors.
Even though the theory is explained later in literature review, the theoretical background
section should have preliminarily introduced the terms and general definition of the
theories used to make the relevance of both historical background of political discourse
analysis and conceptual metaphors appear more convincingly.

ASPECT 2: RESEARCH METHODS


The methods section should describe what was done to answer
the research question, describe how it was done, justify the
experimental design, and explain how the results were analyzed
(Kallet, 2004).

RESEARCH METHODS ARTICLE 1: POSITIVE


ASPECTS
Systematic analysis framework
EXAMPLES:
Informed the readers
the direction of the
analysis: macro to
micro analysis (topdown concept)

Explains what
constitutes macro
analysis and what
constitutes micro
analysis- what
theoretical frameworks
involved in each level of
analysis

Describing the analysis


using step-by-step
approach

Give information to the


readers on how the
findings would be
organized through the
description of the
analysis framework.

RESEARCH METHODS OF ARTICLE 2:


LIMITATIONS
The analysis framework of this article is not as systematized and clear as it should be
where the analysis is only written in two sentences.
He mentioned that a general rhetorical analysis has been undertaken to analyze the
data. However, no understandable explanation on how the analysis method works
in the research context.

Rhetorical analysis focuses specifically on the nature and character of rhetoric and its
place in political analysis (Glynos, Howarth, Norval & Speed, 2009).

ASPECT 3: FINDINGS
Findings should answer what was found (results) from
the carried out study (Derntl, 2014).

FINDINGS OF ARTICLE 1: POSITIVE ASPECTS


Organized systematically aligned with analysis framework:
(macro
micro analysis = macro
micro findings).
Answer the research questions satisfactorily. Systematic organization of findings enable the
readers to match answers with research questions easily.
EXAMPLES:
Relevance: Enable the readers to
Macrotextual
findings
are
Under each macrotextual
see the relationship between
identified
and
categorized
finding, micro textual
emotion, metaphor and
systematically. Eg: Use of main
findings are appropriately
discourse better micro analysis:
categorization
topics
to
fitted in to support the
emotion/metaphor, macro analysis:
organized ideological basis
given macrotextual finding.
discourse (ideology/persuasive
and persuasive strategy (i.e
strategy)
conflict frame and strategy of
fear).
Researchers ability to describe and develop themes from the data during qualitative research shows the
ability to answer the major research questions and in-depth understanding of the central phenomenon
(Cresswell, 2005).

FINDINGS OF ARTICLE 2: POSITIVE ASPECTS


The findings of the article managed to designate distributions of disaster and
containment metaphors from the discourse analyzed.
The examples written have been explained and interrelated to each other
accordingly to ensure plentiful understanding on the conceptual metaphor of
immigration political discourse.
The findings succeeded to answer (a) contribution of metaphors to the formation of
legitimacy in right-wing political communication on immigration, and (b)
differences of metaphors in immigration topic in centre and far-right political
communication.

ASPECT 4: CONCLUSION

CONCLUSION OF ARTICLE 1: POSITIVE


ASPECTS
1. Able to synthesize what the readers read in the finding section- meet the readers halfway
especially if they are still unable to make the connection between emotion, metaphor and
persuasion in political discourse after reading the finding section.
EXAMPLE:

Synthesize the findings using three thematically description of how emotion, metaphor and
persuasion connect in political discourse (refer to summary part)
2. Not only re-acknowledging/re-emphasize in-context issues (i.e metaphor and emotion are
relevant tools to analyse persuasive strategies in political discourse)

but
makes the readers aware of broader issue (i.e there are other analytical tools that can benefit
critical discourse analysis)

CONCLUSION OF ARTICLE 2: POSITIVE


ASPECTS
The author has concluded the findings appropriately where as suggested by an expert,
he provided a brief summary of the results, whereas the focus lies on discussing
and not recapitulating the results (Derntl, 2014, p. 8).
The author also provided a set of proposed follow-up research prospect with
regards to the exploration of disaster and container metaphors.
He also suggested to compare the existing results of the study with the results of
the future research of thematically-related topic.

HOW THIS TASK BENEFITS US AS A STUDENT


OF LINGUISTIC THEORY

1. Strengthen our
general knowledge of
conceptual
metaphor/cognitive
metaphor

2. Discover/explore the
use of metaphor as
rhetorical strategy in
discourse particularly
political discourse

Akak, sama dengan


tiga2 akak punya

3. See a relationship
between metaphor and
ideology: acknowledge
the fact that metaphor
could have an
ideological implication

I will think about it more


deeply.

CONCLUSION

REFERENCES

Boote, D.N. & Beile, P. (2005). Scholars before researchers: On the centrality of the dissertation literature review in research preparation. Educational
Researcher, 34(6), 3-15.

Cronin, P., Ryan, F., & Coughlan, M. (2008). Undertaking a literature review. British Journal of Nursing, 17(1), 38-43.

Cresswell, J. W. (2009). Research design: Qualitative, quantitative and mixed methods approaches. United States of America: SAGE Publications, Inc.

Derntl, M. (2014). Basics of research paper writing and publishing. International Journal of Technology Enhanced Learning, 1-20.

Evans, V., Bergen, B. K., & Zinken, J. (2007). The Cognitive Linguistics reader. United States: Equinox Publishing.

Geeraerts, D. & Cuyckens, H. (2007). Cognitive Linguistics. London: Oxford University Press.

Glynos, J., Howarth, D., Norval A., & Speed, E. (2009). Discourse analysis: Varieties and methods. ESRC National Centre for Research Methods Review Paper.

Hopkins, W. G. (1999). How to write a research paper. Retrieved December 19, 2014 from http://www.sportsci.org/jour/9901/wghpaper.html

Kallet, R. H. (2004). How to write methods section of a research paper. Respiratory Care, 49(10), 1229-1232.

Neagu, M. I. (2011). Decoding political discourse: An interplay of argument structures, conceptual metaphors and politeness principles (Unpublished
dissertation). University of Babes-Bolyai: Romania.

Sarfo, E. & Krampa, E. A. (2013). Language at war: A Critical Discourse Analysis of speeches of Bush and Obama on terrorism. International J. Soc. Sci. &
Education, 3(2), 378-390.

Torraco, R. J. (1997). Theory building research methods. In Swanson, R. A. & Holton, E. F. (Eds.). Human resource development handbook: Linking research
and practice (114-137). San Francisco, CA: Berrett-Koehler.

Webster, J, & Watson, R. T. (2002). Analyzing the past to prepare for the future: Writing a literature review. MIS Quarterly, 26(2), 13-23.

Young, L., & Fitzgerald, B. (2006). The power of language. London: Equinox Publishing Ltd.