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Host Defenses Againts Viral

Infection

erly
Objectives
Describe three mechanisms of
immune responses to viral infection.

Human are protected from viral infection by:


1. Natural barriers
2. Non spesific immune defenses
3. Antigen-spesific immune responses

The ultimate goal of the immune response


to eliminate . The virus
. The cells harboring
. Replicating the virus
The immune response the best of
controlling a virus infection
Humoral and cellular immune responses are
important for antiviral immunity

Non spesific Immune Defenses


Fever and body temp
Infected cells and macrophages
- IFN
- other cytokine
MN Phagocyte system
NK cellls
Local rapid response to viral infection
Activated the spesific immune responses

IFNtrigger local and systemic responses


Fever can limit the replication viruses
MN Phagocyte phagocytize virus and cell
debris
Kuppfers cells and spleen rapidly clear
many viruses from the blood

Antibody and Complemen opsonization


Macrophages present antigen to T cellIL1&
IFNinitiate the antigen spesific immune
response
NK cells to kill viral-infected cells

Biological Effects of IFN

Inhibition of multiplication of viruses


Inhibition of cell division
Immunomodulation
Increased MHC antigens & Fc receptors
NK cell Activation and maturation
T cell Proliferation ,suppressed lymphokine
release

DTH(CD4) modulation of DTH


CTL(CD8) cytotoxicity
Macrophage activation

Antigen-Spesific Immunity
Humoral and CMI play different roles in
resolving viral infection
Antibody act mainly on extracellular virions
CMI directed at the virus-producing cells

Humoral Immunity
Viral proteins immunogenic(eliciting an
antibody response),but not all
Protective humoral immunity antigen at the
surface of the virus(protein
capsid,glycoproteins)

Antibody block the progression of disease


by: netralization&opsonization of cell-free
virus
- binding viral attachment proteins
- preventing interaction with target cells
- destabilizing the virus
- degradation

Antiviral role of antibody preventing a viremia


Antibody most effective at resolving cytolytic
infections.
Resolution occure because:
- The virus kills the cell factory and
- Antibody eliminate the extracellular virus
Antibody is the primary defense initiated by
vaccination

T-cell Immunity
Promote Antibody ,inflamatory responses
and kills infected cells
CMI.
- especially important for resolving infections
by: . Syncytia-forming viruses
. Non cytolytic viruses
. Controlling latent viruses

Immune response to viral challenge


Natural immune response to infection is
determined by :
Host,viral and other factors
Host: - genetic
- immunity
- age
- general health

Viral: - strain
- infectious dose
- route of entry

Viral Escaping the Immune response

Evading detection
Preventing activation
Blocking immune response
Suppress the immune response

Viral Immunopathogenesis

Flu-like symptoms (IFN)


DTH and inflamation(T cell)
Immune-complex disease
Hemorrhagic disease
Post infection cytolysis
Immunosuppression

1.Medical Mcrobiology
2. Medical Microbiology and Immunology