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PMI Project Quality

Management
JP, Hemant, Vipin, Madhav, Mansi,
Madhurima

People. Processes. Technology. Results.

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Before we begin

Ground Rules

Please switch off your mobile.


We are NOT the experts and we shall LEARN TOGETHER.
Please treat PMBOK as Bible or Gita during this session.
We shall NOT be able to answer ALL your questions, we shall try to get the answers
for you
Please do NOT compare PMBOK suggested processes with PS processes

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Project Quality Management


Project Quality Management

Quality management includes creating and following


policies and procedures to ensure that a project meets
the defined needs that it was intended to meet.
This can also mean the same thing as completing the
project with no deviations from the project
requirements.

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Project Quality Management


Definition of Quality
The degree to which the project fulfills
requirements. It means that the project must
produce what it said it would produce.
The Philosophy is that quality is doing what you said
you were going to do and prevention over
inspection.

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Project Quality Management


Definitions
Gold Plating: refers to giving the customer extras (e.g.
extra functionality, higher quality components, extra
scope, or better performance).
This practice is not recommended, as gold plating adds
no value to the project.
Grade: Quality and Grade are not the same thing. Grade is
a category assigned to products or services that have
same functional use but different technical
characteristics.
Low quality is always a problem, low grade may not be.

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Project Quality Management


Project Quality Management Recognizes
the importance of the following:
Customer Satisfaction
Prevention over Inspection
Management Responsibility
Continuous Improvement

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Project Quality Management Overview

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Project Quality Management Overview

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Quality Planning

People. Processes. Technology. Results.

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Quality Planning

Quality Planning involves which quality


standards are relevant to the project and
determine how to satisfy them.
It is one of the key processes in the
Planning Process Group and during
development of the Project Management
Plan.
Quality Planning should be performed in
parallel with other project planning
processes.

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Quality Planning

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Quality Planning- Inputs


Enterprise Environmental Factors
Governmental agency regulations, rules, standards, and
guidelines specific to the application area may affect the
project.
Organizational Process Assets
Organizational quality policies
Procedures and guidelines
Historical databases
Lessons-learned knowledge base
Project Scope Statement (key input) contains
Project Deliverables
Project objectives (that are used to define requirements)
Acceptance criteria
Thresholds cost, time or resources
Project Management Plan

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Quality Planning - Tools &


Techniques

Cost-Benefit Analysis
Consider Cost-Benefit tradeoffs.
Primary Benefits to consider less rework, higher productivity,
lower costs, increased customer satisfaction.
Primary Costs to consider expense associated with Project Quality
Management Activities.

Benchmarking
Comparing with other projects to
Generate ideas of improvement
Provides basis to measure performance

Design of Experiments
Statistical method (e.g., try various combinations of suspension and
tires to determine which combination provides most desirable ride)
Helps in optimization of product and processes

Cost of Quality is the cost incurred in


Defect prevention
Audits
Rework

Additional Quality Planning Tools


Like brainstorming, flow charts

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Quality Planning - Outputs


Quality Management Plan is a subsidiary plan of the project
management plan.
Formal or informal. Highly detailed or broadly framed
Describes how the project management team will implement
the performing organizations quality processes.
Must address
Quality control QC
Quality Assurance QA
Continuous process improvement
Quality metrics includes
Defect density
Failure rate
Availability
Reliability
Test coverage
Quality Checklists
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Quality Planning - Outputs


Process Improvement Plan
Is a subsidiary of the project management plan.
Facilitates identification of waste and non-value added activities
thus increasing customer value.
Quality Baseline
Records the quality objectives of the project.
Is the basis for measuring and reporting quality performance as
part of the performance measurement baseline.
Project Management Plan (updates)
Subsidiary quality management plan
Process improvement plan
Requested changes to project management plan

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Project Quality Assurance

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Definition

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Project Quality Assurance

Project Quality Assurance :


An Umbrella for Continuous Process Improvement.

Provides intensive means

to improve the Quality of all the Processes.

Reduces waste and non value added activities allowing the processes to
operate at increased level of efficiency
Involves identification and review of organizational business processes

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Inputs to Project Quality Assurance

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Inputs to Project Quality Assurance

Quality Management Plan


The quality management plan describes how QA will be performed
within the project.
Quality Metrics
A metric is an operational definition that describes, in very specific
terms, what something is and how the quality control process
measures it.
Quality metrics are used in the QA and QC processes. Some
examples of quality metrics include defect density, review
effectiveness, productivity and test coverage etc.
Process Improvement Plan
The process improvement plan is a subsidiary of the project
management plan. The process improvement plan details the steps
for analyzing processes that will facilitate the identification of waste
and non-value added activity.
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Inputs to Project Quality Assurance

Work Performance Information

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Inputs to Project Quality Assurance

Approved Change Requests


Approved change requests can include modifications to work
methods, product requirements, quality requirements, scope and
schedule. Approved changes need to be analyzed for any effects
upon the quality management plan, quality metrics or quality check
lists. All changes should be formally documented in writing and any
verbally discussed, but undocumented, changes should not be
processed or implemented.
Quality Control Measurements
Quality control measurements are the results of quality control
activities that are fed back to the QA process for use in reevaluating and analyzing the quality standards and process of the
performing organization.
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Inputs to Project Quality Assurance

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Tool & Techniques for Project Quality


Assurance

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Tool & Techniques for Project Quality


Assurance

Quality Planning Tools and Techniques


Quality planning tools are often used to help better define the
situation and help plan effective quality management activities.
These includes cost-benefit analysis, benchmarking, cost of quality,
brainstorming, flowcharts etc.

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Tool & Techniques for Project Quality


Assurance

Objective of Quality Audit


Identify inefficient and ineffective policies, processes and procedures
used within a project
Reduce Cost of Quality
Increased Customer Acceptance & Satisfaction
Confirm the implementation of approved change request, correct
actions,
defect repairs and preventive actions.
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Tool & Techniques for Project Quality


Assurance

Process Analysis
Process analysis follows the steps outlined in the process
improvement plan to identify needed improvements from an
organizational and technical standpoint.
Quality Control Tools and Techniques
There are seven basic tools for quality control:
1. Cause and effect diagrams, also called Ishikawa diagram or
fishbone diagrams, illustrate how various factors might be
linked to potential problems or effect.
2. Control Charts, A control charts purpose is to determine
whether or not a process is stable or has predictable
performance.
3. Flowcharting, Flowcharting helps to analyze how problems
occur.
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Tool & Techniques for Project Quality


Assurance

4. Histogram is bar chart showing a distribution of the variables.


5. Pareto Chart is a specific type of histogram, ordered by
frequency of occurrence, which shows how many defects were
generated by type or category of identified cause.
6. Run Chart shows the history and pattern of variations.
7. Scatter Diagram shows the pattern of relationship between two
variables.

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Outputs to Project Quality Assurance

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Outputs to Project Quality


Assurance
Requested Changes
If the recommended corrective or preventive action require a change
to the project, a change request should be initiated in accordance with
the defined integrated change control process.
Recommendation of Corrective Actions
Corrective action involves actions taken as a result of a QC
measurement that indicates that the manufacturing or development
process exceeds established parameters

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Outputs to Project Quality


Assurance

Organizational Process Assets (Updates)

Completed checklists: When check lists are used, the completed


checklist should become part of the projects records.
Lessons learned documentations: The cause of variances, the
reasoning behind the corrective action chosen, and other types of
lesson learned from quality control should be documented so that they
become part of historical database for both this project and performing
organization.
Project management Plan (Updates)
The project management plan is updated to reflect changes to the
quality management plan that results from changes in performing the
QC process. Requested changes (addition, modification or deletions)
to the project management plan or to its subsidiary plans are
processed by review and disposition through the integrated change
control process.
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Quality Control

People. Processes. Technology. Results.

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Quality Control

Objectives
Monitoring specific project results to
determine compliance with relevant quality
standards
Identifying the ways to eliminate the causes
of unsatisfactory results

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Quality Control

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Quality Control - Inputs


Quality Management Plan
Discussed under Quality Planning output
Organizational Process Assets
Formal and Informal planning related
Policies
Procedures
Guidelines
Lessons-learned knowledge base
Quality Metrics
Discussed under Quality Planning Output
Quality Checklists
Discussed under Quality Planning Output
Work Performance Information
Information on the status of the project activities is
routinely collected as part of the project management
plan execution (discussed earlier in QA Inputs).
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Quality Control - Inputs


Approved Change Requests
Approved change requests can include modifications to
scope, requirement, schedule.
Approved changes need to be analyzed for any effect
upon quality management plan, metrics.
Deliverables
Unique and verifiable product, result or capability to
perform a service.
Identified in a project management planning
documentation and must be produced and provided to
complete the project.

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Quality Control - Tools &


Techniques
Cause and Effect Diagram
Cause and Effect diagrams, also called as Ishikawa
diagrams or Fishbone diagrams.
Illustrate the relation of variables to the quality problem or
defect.
Control Charts
Helps in determining whether or not a process is stable or
has a predictable performance.
Control chart also illustrates how a process behaves over
time.
Flowcharting
Flowcharting is a graphical representation of a process.
Helps to analyze how problems occur.

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Quality Control - Tools &


Techniques
Pareto Chart
A Pareto chart is a bar chart, ordered by frequency of
occurrence, which shows how many defects were
generated by type or category of identified cause.
Based on Paretos law (commonly known as 80/20 rule) :
80 percent of the problems come from 20 percent of the
issues.
Scatter Diagram
This tool allows the team to study and identify the
possible relationship between changes observed in two
variables.

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Quality Control - Tools &


Techniques
Defect Repair Review
Action taken to ensure that the product defects are
repaired and brought into compliance with the
requirements.
Statistical Sampling
Process of choosing a percentage of results at random
for inspection.
Appropriate sampling can reduce the cost of quality
control.
Inspection
Examination of a work product to determine whether it
conforms to standards.
Reviews, peer reviews, audits and walkthroughs.

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Quality Control - Tools &


Techniques
Trend Analysis using Run Chart
A run chart shows the history and pattern of variation.
Run chart shows trends in a process over time declines
or improvements in a process over time.
Trend analysis is performed using run chart to monitor:
Technical performance
Cost and schedule performance
Histogram
Histogram is a bar chart showing the distribution of
variables.
Helps to identify the cause of problems in process by
shape and width of distribution.

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Quality Control - Outputs


Quality Control Measurement
Represents the results of QC activities that are fed back to QA
to reevaluate and analyze the quality standards and processes.
Validated Defect Repair
The repaired defects are re-inspected and will be either
accepted or rejected.
Rejected items may require further defect repair.
Quality Baseline (Updates)
Quality objective of the project.
Quality baseline is the basis for measuring the quality
performance.
Recommended corrective actions
Recommended corrective actions to bring expected future
project performance.

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Quality Control - Outputs


Recommended prevented actions
Recommended preventive actions that reduce the probability of
negative consequences.
Requested changes
Changes required by recommended corrective/preventive
actions to the project.
Recommended defect repair
Defects are identified and recommended for repair.
A defect log can be used to collect the set of recommended
repairs.
Organization process assets (Updates)
Completed checklists
Lessons learned documentation

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Quality Control - Outputs


Validated Deliverables
The results of the execution of quality control processes are
validated deliverables.
Project Management Plan (Updates)
Updated Project management plan to reflect the changes made
to quality management plan as a result of QC process.
Requested changes to the project management plan and its
subsidiary plans are processed through the Integrated Control
process.

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Thank you

People. Processes. Technology. Results.

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